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16 november

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2006 7:57    Onderwerp: 16 november Reageer met quote

1914 : New Fatherland League launched in Germany

On this day in 1914 in Germany, a small group of intellectuals led by the physician Georg Nicolai launch Bund Neues Vaterland, the New Fatherland League.


One of the league’s most active supporters was Nicolai’s friend, the great physicist Albert Einstein. Together, Einstein and Nicolai had written a pacifist answer to the famous pro-war manifesto of October 1914, which had been signed by 93 leading German intellectuals from various fields, including the physicist Max Planck, the painter Max Lieberman and the poet Gerhart Hauptmann. When their counter-manifesto failed to attract much support, Nicolai and Einstein concentrated their efforts into the New Fatherland League.


First and foremost, the league argued, World War I, which had begun the previous August, should end promptly in favor of "a just peace without annexations." Secondly, an international organization should be established in order to prevent future wars. According to Dr. Franziska Baumgartner-Tramer, who attended some of the league’s meetings, Einstein spoke "with great pessimism about the future of human relations….I managed to get to him on one occasion, when I was depressed by the news of one German victory after another and the resultant intolerable arrogance and gloating of the people of Berlin. ‘What will happen, Herr Professor?’ I asked anxiously. Einstein looked at me, raised his right fist, and replied ‘This will govern!’"


In July 1915, the New Fatherland League supported another declaration, signed by 91 prominent German intellectuals, opposing territorial annexations and calling for a compromise peace. This proved too much for German authorities, who raided the league’s offices and prohibited its members from publishing any other documents or from even associating with each other. In the post-war years, however, the league resurfaced, and in 1922 it was renamed the German League for Human Rights, after a similar French organization dedicated to fostering German-French understanding.


Meanwhile, frustrated by the League of Nations’ failure to enforce disarmament and prevent further international conflicts in the decades following World War I, Albert Einstein became one of the world’s most powerful voices in support of pacifism. He was also committed to Zionism, the political movement aimed at creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine. When the state of Israel was created after World War II, its prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, offered Einstein the post of president. The great man declined, but remained deeply involved with Israel and with Jewish affairs until the end of his life.

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Emiel



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1914

28000 russische Gefangene
Großes Hauptquartier, 16. November. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Gestern warfen unsere in Ostpreußen kämpfenden Truppen den Feind in der Gegend südlich von Stallupönen. Die in Westpreußen operierenden Truppen wehrten bei Soldau den Anmarsch russischer Kräfte erfolgreich ab und warfen am rechten Weichselufer den Vormarsch starker russischer Kräfte in einem siegreichen Gefecht bei Lipno auf Plock zurück. In diesen Kämpfen wurden bis gestern 5000 Gefangene gemacht und 10 Maschinengewehre genommen.
In den seit einigen Tagen in Fortsetzung des Erfolges bei Wloclawec stattgehabten Kämpfen fiel die Entscheidung. Mehrere uns entgegengetretene russische Armeekorps wurden bis über Kutno zurückgeworfen. Sie verloren nach den bisherigen Feststellungen 23 000 Mann an Gefangenen, mindestens 70 Maschinengewehre und Geschütze, deren Zahl noch nicht feststeht.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Ein Aufruf von Feldzeugmeister Potiorek

Feldzeugmeister Potiorek

Wien, 16. November. (W. B.)
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
16. November: Feldzeugmeister Potiorek, der Oberstkommandierende unserer Balkanstreitkräfte, hat heute an seine Truppen folgenden Aufruf erlassen:

Nach neuntägigen heftigen Kämpfen gegen einen hartnäckigen, an Zahl überlegenen, in fast unbezwingbaren Befestigungen sich verteidigenden Gegner, nach neuntägigen Märschen durch unwegsames Felsgebirge und grundlose Straßen bei Regen, Schnee und Kälte, haben die tapferen Truppen der 5. und 6. Armee die Kolubara erreicht und den Feind zur Flucht gezwungen. Über 8000 Gefangene wurden in diesen Kämpfen gemacht, 42 Geschütze, 31 Maschinengewehre und reiches Kriegsmaterial erobert. Das Vaterland wird dieser Leistung seine Dankbarkeit und Bewunderung nicht versagen. Meine Pflicht ist es, die hervorragende Haltung aller Truppen voll anzuerkennen und allen Offizieren und Soldaten der 5. und 6. Armee im Namen des allerhöchsten Dienstes wärmsten Dank zu sagen. Trotz der unter schweren Opfern und gewaltigen Leistungen erzielten Erfolge dürfen wir nicht ruhen. Doch der hervorragende Geist der mir unterstellten Truppen bürgt dafür, daß wir die uns gestellten Aufgaben auch siegreich zu Ende führen werden zur Zufriedenheit unseres allerhöchsten Kriegsherrn, zum Ruhme des Heeres und zum Ruhme des Vaterlandes.

Potiorek m. p., Feldzeugmeister.

Dieser Aufruf, der sogleich allgemein zu verlautbaren ist wird gewiß allenthalben begeisterten Widerhall finden. Ich habe die tapfere Balkanarmee und ihren siegreichen Führer zu den weiteren glänzenden Erfolgen, die den völligen Zusammenbruch des zähen Gegners anbahnten, im Namen aller mir unterstehenden Streitkräfte beglückwünscht.

Erzherzog Ferdinand. 1)





Der Krieg im Orient
Konstantinopel, 16. November (W. B.)
Ein amtlicher Bericht des türkischen Hauptquartiers besagt:
Gestern haben wir die Engländer bei Fao (am Persischen Golf) angegriffen. Sie hatten zahlreiche Tote, die wir auf 1000 schätzen.
Abdurrezak Bederkhani, der von der ganzen muselmanischen Welt wegen der revolutionären Umtriebe, denen er sich seit Jahren ergeben hat, verabscheut wird, hat die Grenze mit 300 Mann in der Gegend von Maku überschritten, um den Russen zu helfen, aber er wurde sogleich von unseren Truppen vertrieben. Eine große Anzahl seiner Anhänger wurde getötet. Eine russische Fahne, die in einem Dorfe der Umgebung aufgepflanzt war wurde von uns erbeutet. Abdurrezak ist Kurde und gehört zu der Familie der Bederkhani.

Konstantinopel, 16 November. (Priv.-Tel )
Aus Beirut, Jaffa, Haifa, Jerusalem und besonders aus Damaskus, liegen Drahtmeldungen über begeisterte Kundgebungen der Bevölkerung aus Anlaß der Verkündigung des Heiligen Krieges vor.

Rom, 16. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach den neuesten Nachrichten aus der Cyrenaika berief das Oberhaupt der Senussi aus dem Landesinnern 1000 Beduinen nach Dschar-Abub, wo sich bereits andere Truppen befanden, um von dort in Ägypten einzubrechen.

Rom, 16. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die autonome Provinz Libanon richtete einen Protest an die Großmächte, weil der türkische Einmarsch den Vertrag von 1861 verletze. Der "Temps" stellt an Italien die naive Forderung, es solle dem Protest Nachdruck verschaffen.

Petersburg, 16. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Amtliche Mitteilung des Generalstabes der Kaukasus-Armee:
Wegen beträchtlicher türkischer Verstärkungen, die letzter Tage von Chnyskala, Erzerum und Trapezunt hier eintrafen, zieht sich unsere Vorhut kämpfend in die ihr bezeichneten Gegenden zurück. Die Versuche der Türken, den Hügel von Chanesuk, den wir zuvor genommen hatten, zurückzuerobern, sind gescheitert. Die anderen russischen Detachements hatten keine bedeutenden Gefechte.





Kaiser Wilhelm II. und der Sultan
Konstantinopel, 16. November. (W. B.)
Kaiser Wilhelm hat an den Sultan folgende Depesche gerichtet:

"In dem Augenblick, wo ich das Vergnügen habe, in dem Hauptquartier meiner tapferen Armee drei Prinzen der kaiserlich osmanischen Familie zu empfangen, lege ich Wert darauf, Ew. Majestät zum Ausdruck zu bringen, daß ich volles Vertrauen in den Erfolg unserer Armeen habe, die sich vereinigt haben, mit gleich großen Zielen für Recht, Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit zu kämpfen."

Der Sultan erwiderte mit folgenden Worten:

"Der wohlwollende Empfang, dessen Gegenstand meine Neffen seitens Ew. Majestät bei der Ankunft im Hauptquartier der tapferen kaiserlichen Armee waren, ist ein Zeichen der kostbaren Freundschaft Ew. Majestät mir gegenüber sowie ein neuerlicher Beweis der Vereinigung unserer Armeen in dem großen heiligen Kampf. Ich beeile mich, Ew. Majestät aus diesem Anlaß meinen lebhaftesten Dank auszusprechen, und ich lege Wert darauf, Ew. Majestät meine große Bewunderung für die großartigen Heldentaten der Armee und Flotte zum Ausdruck zu bringen. Es ist mir ein großes Vergnügen, Ew. Majestät zur Kenntnis zu bringen, daß meine tapferen Armeen nach blutigem Kampfe die russische Armee vollständig geschlagen haben und sie siegreich verfolgen. Ich erblicke in diesem ersten Sieg meiner Armee ein gutes Vorzeichen für den endgültigen Erfolg unserer gemeinsamen Ziele und hege die feste Zuversicht, daß mit Hilfe des Allmächtigen diesem Siege bald größere Siege unserer verbündeten Heere auf drei Kontinenten wie auch auf allen Meeren folgen werden." 1)





Das englische Unterhaus bewilligt weitere Mittel für den Krieg

Premierminister Asquith

London, 16 November. (Priv -Tel )
Bei der Erläuterung der Kreditvorlage von 225 Millionen Pfund (4½ Milliarden Mark) im Unterhause erinnerte Asquith daran, daß bereits am 8. August 100 Millionen bewilligt worden waren und daß dieser Betrag zum Teil für die Kriegskosten und zum Teil zur Beschaffung von Nahrungsmitteln und anderen Dingen für die Flüchtlinge verwandt worden sei. Aus den neuen Krediten sollen zinslose Anleihen von 10 Millionen und 800000 Pfund an Belgien und Serbien bis zum Ende des Krieges vorgestreckt werden. Die Kolonien, die unter normalen Verhältnissen in diesem Jahre eine Anleihe auf den Londoner Markt gebracht hätten, werden durch die Reichsregierung von dieser Notwendigkeit enthoben, da ihnen Anleihen bis zu einem Betrage von 30220000 Pfund zugestanden werden. Asquith erklärte weiter, daß bis zu dem jetzigen Augenblick die Extraausgaben für den Krieg 90 Millionen, also etwa 1 Million Pfund pro Tag betragen. Wenn man den Umfang der Kriegsoperationen und die allgemeinen Verhältnisse in Betracht ziehe, so könne nicht gesagt werden, daß diese Summe eine normale Schätzung überschreite, er hoffe aber, daß die gegenwärtig notwendigen Ausgaben sich in Zukunft vermindern werden. Die gegenwärtigen Kreditanträge genügen bis zum 31. März und lassen noch einen wichtigen Überschuß übrig.
Nach einer kurzen Erörterung nahm das Haus mit allen Stimmen die Kreditvorlage von 225 Millionen an und ermächtigte die Regierung, noch eine Million Mannschaften anzuwerben. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2006 7:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Weitere Verfolgung der Serben
Großes Hauptquartier, 16. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Drei Versuche der Franzosen, uns den am 14. November nordöstlich von Ecurie genommenen Graben wieder zu entreißen, scheiterten. Auf der übrigen Front außer Artillerie- und Minenkämpfen an verschiedenen Strecken nichts Wesentliches. Die vielfache Beschießung von Lens durch die feindliche Artillerie hat in dem Zeitraum vom 22. Oktober bis 12. November 33 Tote und 55 Verwundete an Opfern unter den Einwohnern gefordert. Militärischer Schaden ist nicht entstanden.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Lage ist an der ganzen Front unverändert.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Verfolgung ist im rüstigen Fortschreiten. Es sind gestern über 1000 Serben gefangengenommen, 2 Maschinengewehre und 3 Geschütze erbeutet.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die Höhen von Javor von den k. u. k. Truppen genommen
Wien, 16. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Der Nordabschnitt der Hochfläche von Doberdo war auch gestern der Schauplatz hartnäckigsten Ringens. Um die Stellungen beiderseits des Monte San Michele wird Tag und Nacht gekämpft.
Am Nordhange dieses Berges drangen die Italiener wiederholt in unsere Linien ein. In den Abendstunden gelang es jedoch, den Feind fast völlig zu vertreiben. Auch die Nahkämpfe im Raum von San Martino dauern fort. Vor dem Görzer Brückenkopf wurde ein gegnerischer Angriff auf die Podgorahöhe abgewiesen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Gerazda an der montenegrinischen Grenze Geplänkel. Auf dem serbischen Schauplatz schreitet die Verfolgung überall vorwärts. Österreichisch-ungarische Truppen gewannen die Gegend von Uvac, die Gigota Planina und die Cigota Planina und die Höhen von Javor. Eine deutsche Kolonne des Generals v. Koeveß nahm, beiderseits der von Kraljevo nach Novibazar führenden Straße vorrückend, Usce in Besitz.
Die weiter östlich vordringenden österreichisch- ungarischen Kräfte überschritten bei Babica die Straße Raska-Kursumlja und erstürmten die serbischen Verschanzungen auf dem Berge Lucak (östlich von Babica), wobei die Besatzung (3 Offiziere, 110 Mann und ein Maschinengewehr) in unsere Hand fiel.
Deutsche und bulgarische Divisionen nähern sich von Nord und Ost dem Straßenknotenpunkt Kursumlja.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2006 8:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916

Der Ostteil von Saillisel zurückerobert
Fortschritte an der rumänischen Front

Großes Hauptquartier, 16. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Teilvorstöße der Engländer an der Straße Mailli-Serre, sowie östlich und südöstlich von Beaumont scheiterten im Handgranatenkampf, stärkere Angriffe gegen Grandcourt brachen in unserem Feuer zusammen. Den Franzosen entrissen wir den Ostteil von Saillisel in hartem Häuserkampf. Abends stürmte das hannoversche Füsilierregiment Nr. 73 zäh verteidigte französische Gräben am Nordrand des St. Pierre Vaast-Waldes. 8 Offiziere, 324 Mann und 5 Maschinengewehre sind eingebracht. Bei den gestrigen Kämpfen im Abschnitt Ablaincourt-Pressoire ist keine Änderung der beiderseitigen Linien eingetreten.
Einem feindlichen Fliegerangriff fielen in Ostende 39 Belgier zum Opfer.
Als Vergeltung für Abwurf von Bomben auf friedliche lothringische Orte wurde Nancy in den letzten Tagen von der Erde und aus der Luft beschossen und beworfen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Im Südteil der Waldkarpathen lebte die beiderseitige Artillerietätigkeit auf. Am Brückenkopf von Dünhof (südöstlich von Riga) wurde eine angreifende russische Infanterieabteilung zurückgetrieben.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Im Südteil der Waldkarpathen lebte die beiderseitige Artillerietätigkeit auf. An der siebenbürgischen Ostfront scheiterten östlich des Putnatales starke russische Angriffe; nördlich Sulta unternahmen ungarische Truppen eine Erkundung auf dem Mt. Alunis. Bei Soosmezö (am Oitozpaß) blieben rumänische Vorstöße ohne Erfolg. Die Kampftätigkeit nördlich von Campolung hat sich verstärkt; auch an den über den Roten Turm- und Szurdukpaß nach Süden führenden Straßen verteidigt der Rumäne zäh seinen heimatlichen Boden. Wir machten Fortschritte und nahmen gestern 5 Offiziere und über 1200 Mann gefangen.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Dobrudscha kleine Gefechte vorgeschobener Abteilungen. Die rumänische Meldung der Besetzung von Bonascic ist erfunden. An mehreren Punkten der Donaulinie Feuer von Ufer zu Ufer.
Mazedonische Front:
Die vorbereiteten neuen Stellungen im Cernaabschnitt sind bezogen. An der Struma Patrouillengeplänkel.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff.1)





Neues Vordringen in Siebenbürgen
Berlin, 16. November, abends. (Amtlich.)
Auf nördlichem Ancre-Ufer ist Kampf bei Beaucourt im Gange.
An siebenbürgischer Südfront erfolgreiches Vordringen.
Vom Balkan bisher nichts Neues. 1)





Feindlicher Fliegerangriff auf Brügge und Ostende
Berlin, 16. November. (Amtlich.)
Am 15. November morgens warfen feindliche Flugzeuge Bomben auf die Häfen von Brügge und Ostende. An den Fahrzeugen und Anlagen der Marine wurde kein Schaden angerichtet. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Neue Erfolge bei Görz
Wien, 16. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Carl:
Die Kämpfe beiderseits des Schyl und des Olt- (Alt-) Flusses schreiten günstig vorwärts. Es wurden über 1200 Gefangene eingebracht. Nördlich von Campolung und bei Soosmezö wehrten wir starke rumänische Angriffe ab. Nördlich von Sulta unternahmen österreichisch - ungarische Abteilungen eine Erkundung auf dem Monte Aluni. Südöstlich von Tölgyes blieben russische Angriffe erfolglos. Auf den Höhen von Mestekanesti Vorpostengefechte.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Bei den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen keine Kampfhandlungen von Belang.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die gestern gemeldete Unternehmung östlich von Görz fortsetzend, eroberten unsere Truppen wieder einen feindlichen Graben, nahmen 60 Italiener gefangen und erbeuteten 2 Maschinengewehre.
Eines unserer Flugzeuggeschwader belegte die militärischen Anlagen bei der Station Per La Carnia ausgiebig mit Bomben.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2006 8:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917


Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Italienische Höhenstellung an der Brenta genommen
Großes Hauptquartier, 16. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Der Feuerkampf war am frühen Morgen im flandrischen Kampfgebiet, längs der Ailette und auf dem östlichen Maasufer gesteigert.
Französische Abteilungen, die im Morgennebel über die Ailette in unsere Postenlinie eindrangen, wurden im Gegenstoße zurückgeworfen.
Tagsüber war die Gefechtstätigkeit bei allen Armeen gering; am Abend lebte sie bei Dixmuiden und südlich von St. Quentin auf.
Seit dem 9. November verloren unsere Gegner im Luftkampf und durch Abwehrfeuer 24 Flugzeuge. Vizefeldwebel Buckler errang seinen 26., Leutnant Bongartz seinen 23. Luftsieg.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Besonderes.
Mazedonische Front:
Westlich vom Ochridasee haben wir Teile der von den Franzosen geräumten Stellungen besetzt.
Italienische Front:
Im Vordringen nordöstlich von Gallio und zu beiden Seiten des Brentatales nahmen unsere Truppen mehrere Höhenstellungen der Italiener. Cismon ist in unserem Besitz.
An der unteren Piave hat sich das Artilleriefeuer verstärkt. Nahe am Meere auf das westliche Ufer vorstoßende ungarische Honvedabteilungen nahmen 1000 Italiener gefangen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die Ungarn vor den Lagunen von Venedig
Wien, 16. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Im Piavedelta vor den Lagunen von Venedig haben Honvedabteilungen in zäher Säuberungsarbeit dem Feinde Gelände abgewonnen, wobei über 1000 Gefangene eingebracht wurden.
Im Brentatal bemächtigten sich österreichisch-ungarische Truppen des Ortes Cismon und der beiderseits davon aufragenden Höhen. Auch nordöstlich von Asiago verloren die Italiener wieder einige hartnäckig verteidigte Gebirgsstellungen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts zu melden.
Albanien:
Die westlich des Ochridasees von den Franzosen geräumten Linien wurden durch unsere Truppen besetzt.

Der Chef des Generalstabes. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 16. November.
Mazedonische Front:
Westlich des Ochridasees und am Oberlauf des Skumbi folgen die bulgarischen und verbündeten Truppen dem auf dem Rückzuge befindlichen Feind. Auf der übrigen Front schwache Kampftätigkeit.
Im Luftkampf brachten deutsche Flieger zwei feindliche Flugzeuge zum Absturz. Der deutsche Leutnant von Eschwege trug seinen 18. Luftsieg davon, indem er bei Orliak im Strumatal einen feindlichen Fesselballon abschoß.





Clemenceau Ministerpräsident

Clemenceau
Pichon
Pams

Paris, 16. November. (Havas-Meldung.)
Das neue Ministerium setzt sich folgendermaßen zusammen: Ministerpräsident und Kriegsminister Clemenceau; Justizminister Nail; Auswärtiges Pichon; Inneres Pams; Finanzen Klotz; Marine Georges Leygues; Handel Clementel; Öffentliche Arbeiten Claveille; Rüstungen Loucheur; Unterricht Laffers; Kolonien Henry Simon. Die Ministerien für Verpflegung, für Landwirtschaft und für Arbeiterangelegenheiten werden später besetzt. 1)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Army, 11-16 November 1914

http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/914RKAA.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 November 1914 → Commons Sitting

MILITARY CAMPS (BAD CHARACTERS).


HC Deb 16 November 1914 vol 68 cc177-8 177

Lord CLAUD HAMILTON asked the Home Secretary whether His Majesty's Government will introduce and pass a measure empowering magistrates to issue warrants for the summary arrest of women of notorious bad character who are infesting the neighbourhood of the various military camps in the United Kingdom, to the detriment of the morals and health of the troops, and further to empower the magistracy to commit such women for detention in a hospital or reformatory until the close of the War?

The SECRETARY of STATE for the HOME DEPARTMENT (Mr. McKenna) While the Government recognises the serious nature of the evil to which the Noble Lord alludes, I fear it would not be possible to deal with it effectively by such legislation as he recommends. We must rely partly on the organised efforts 178 which are being made by voluntary women workers and partly on the firm enforcement of the existing law by the police and the magistrates.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/nov/16/military-camps-bad-characters
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 16 November 1914, Page 5





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19141116.2.26.7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pope Benedict XV

16 November 1914 – Pope Benedict XV declares World War I “the suicide of Europe” and calls for peace.

http://todays-creators.com/november/16-november
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Absinthe: Prohibition and Afterwards

Because of its high alcoholic strength, and the constant campaigns of the prohibitionist movement, the production and sale of absinthe became increasingly heavily taxed and tightly regulated from the early 1900's. Specific laws concerning absinthe were posted in bars and bistrots.



Letter of 16th November 1914 from Paul Doumer, senator in the Military Government in Paris, enclosing copies of the proclamations banning absinthe and similar liquors.

http://www.oxygenee.com/absintheEPHEMERA5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Woche vom 16. November bis 22. November 1914

Montag, 16. November 1914:

Westfront: Schlachten um Ypern und an der Yser: Durch heftige Regenfälle und ein Hochwasser entlang der Yser und des Yser-Kanals kommen die Kämpfe praktisch zum Erliegen.
Ein deutscher Vorstoß über die Aisne bei Vailly wird zurückgewiesen.

Ostfront: Die Nachhut der russischen Armee in Polen wird bei Vlotslavek und Kutno von den Deutschen zerschlagen.

Krieg zur See: Der deutsche Hilfskreuzer Berlin läßt sich in Trondheim (Norwegen) internieren, um einer Versenkung durch die Royal Navy zu entgehen.

Diplomatie & Politik: Auf deutschen Druck hin ruft Sultan Mehmed V. in Konstantinopel zum Jihad ("Heiligen Krieg") gegen die Briten auf.

Zivilleben: Papst Benedikt V. verkündet seine Friedensenzyklika. Darin bittet er um "Frieden für die Nationen" und "Frieden für die Kirche". Er beschwört die Souveräne und Parlamente, dem "Brudermordenden Streit" ein Ende zu machen.

http://fl18.de/history/227/
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Henry Lawson, "The Sea Caves".



Autograph manuscript of a poem of five stanzas, signed by Henry Lawson but not dated. It was purchased by the Bulletin on 16th November, 1914 but was reserved for publication in the Christmas number of 1915.

http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/libraries/rare/lawson/manuscripts.html
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Theodore Wright



Theodore Wright was born in Brighton on 15th May 1883. Wright was educated at Clifton College and went to the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. In October 1902 he joined the Royal Engineers and after serving in Gibraltar and Cairo he was made Lieutenant in June 1905.

At the start of the First World War Captain Wright was serving in the 56th Field Company of the Royal Engineers. He was immediately sent to France with the British Expeditionary Force and arrived at Mons on 22nd August, 1914. The following day he was detailed to supervise the destruction of eight of the bridges over the canal. Although wounded by shrapnel early in the operation, Wright continued to set charges under the bridges. Working with Lance-Corporal Charles Jarvis, Wright managed to destroy Jemappes Bridge.

Captain Theodore Wright recovered from his wounds but on the 14th September he was killed while helping an injured man across a pontoon bridge at Vailly. The Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously on 16th November 1914.

Lees verder op http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWwright.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:00    Onderwerp: Re: 16 november Reageer met quote

Emiel @ 16 Nov 2006 7:57 schreef:
1914 : New Fatherland League launched in Germany

Nu hier: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/new-fatherland-league-launched-in-germany
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Fingland, Williiam, Letter, 16 November 1915



My dear Etta: Just a line to catch this mail. Your letter reached me today and it was good. We are moving tomorrow about two or three miles from here and are being billeted in private homes in the small town of Hythe. I am sorry to leave the barracks, but that is the game. Will write as soon as get settled and let you know all about it. Spent last weekend in London at "Y" conference, and preached Sunday night. Feeling splendid. From the happy tone of your letter I gather you are too. Yours, dearest, Will

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/fingland-williiam-letter-16-november-1915
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Australian Naval History on 16 November 1915

‘These men’, wrote CMDR L. S. Bracegirdle, RN, commanding the RAN Bridging Train at Gallipoli, ‘took pride in the fact they were the only Australian naval unit serving in the European theatre of war’.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/16-november-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXV, Issue 8297, 16 November 1915, Page 6





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=AG19151116.2.41
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LORD ROBERT CECIL. THE UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SPEECH IN HOUSE OF COMMONS

I think it may be said, without the least fear of exaggeration, that no more horrible crime has been committed in the history of the world…. this is a premeditative crime determined on long ago…. it was a long-considered, deliberate policy to destroy and wipe out of existence the Armenians in turkey. It was systematically carried out. it was ordered from above…

House Of Commons, Hansard (5th Series), Vol. LXXV, 16 November 1915, Cols. 1770-1776, http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/british.php

"The Turkish authorities within the little time of five months proceeded systematically to exterminate a whole race out of their dominions. They did so not in thousands or tens of thousands, but in hundreds of thousands. One estimate states that five hundred thousand persons were killed within the five months, while according to another estimate the number was as many as eight hundred thousand killed. There have been massacres of the Armenians before this last one. Ten years ago thirty thousand were massacred, and ten years before that a hundred thousand. But those massacres, which made the world shudder at the time, shrink into insignificance beside these massacres which we have been unconsciously living through in the last six or seven months."
- Aneurin Williams, MP, 16 November 1915

"I think it may be said, without the least fear of exaggeration, that no more horrible crime has been committed in the history of the world. This is a premeditative crime determined on long ago. It was a long-considered, deliberate policy to destroy and wipe out of existence the Armenians in Turkey. It was systematically carried out. It was ordered from above."
- Robert Cecil, Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 16 November 1915

http://www.abrilbooks.com/books/864.html
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John Caffrey



John Caffrey VC (23 October 1891 – 22 February 1953), born in Birr, Kings County, was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was 24 years old, and a private in the 2nd Battalion, York and Lancaster Regiment, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 16 November 1915 near La Brique, France, a man was badly wounded and lying in the open unable to move, in full view of and about 350 yards from the enemy's trenches. A corporal of the RAMC and Private Caffrey at once started to rescue him, but at the first attempt were driven back by shrapnel fire. They tried again and succeeded in reaching and bandaging the wounded man, but just as they were lifting him up, the RAMC corporal was shot in the head. Private Caffrey bandaged the corporal and helped him back to safety, and then returned and brought in the other wounded man.

He later achieved the rank of lance-corporal. He died Derby, 22 February 1953.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The York & Lancaster Regiment Museum (Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Caffrey
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hubert James Willey



Hubert James Willey, DCM & Bar (11 July 1897-6 September 1948) was twice awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal, then the second highest British gallantry award, for his service on the Western Front, during the First World War.

Born in Dublin, the second son of James Willey and Emily Maud Bannister, he joined the Rifle Brigade soon after the outbreak of war.

He was first awarded the DCM for an action in 1915, just over a month after his eighteenth birthday. The citation published in the London Gazette of 16 November 1915 reads:

B/2391 Serjeant H.J.Willey, 9th Battalion, Rifle Brigade.

For conspicuous gallantry and ability on the 25th September, 1915, on Bellewaarde Ridge. During the action Serjeant Willey passed continually backwards and forwards trying to establish communication with the Battalion on his right, and later, when all his Officers had been killed, he rallied and organised the men of his own and other Companies, and captured a position in the German second line trenches, which he held against all counter attacks. During the day he was under incessant machine gun and shell fire. He also took six prisoners, and made them carry back the wounded of his party. He exhibited the greatest bravery and devotion to duty.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubert_James_Willey
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herman Goering in the First World War

(...) Goering joined the German Army in June, 1912. He served with the infantry during the first few months of the First World War but was hospitalized with rheumatoid arthritis of the knees. After recovering, he transferred to the German Army Air Service.

At first Goering was an observer for his friend and war ace, Bruno Loerzer, but eventually became a fighter pilot and scored his first victory on 16th November 1915. After the death of Manfred von Richthofen Goering became the leader of his JG 1 squadron. By the end of the war Goering had achieved 22 victories and had been awarded the Iron Cross and the Pour le Merite for bravery.

After the war, Goering earned his living as a pilot working for the Fokker company based in Holland. While there he met and married Baroness Karen von Fock-Kantzow. (...)

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWgoring.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Brief History of the 79th Cameron Highlanders of Canada Overseas Drafting Detachment 1915-1916

16 November 1915 - 79th Camerons have 700 men enlisted for active service.

http://cameronhighlanderscanada.com/43pg7.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS, 16 NOVEMBER 1916

CAREY, Lieutenant G E, died as a result of a bomb exploding during an instruction class.

FRASER, Sergeant J R, Auckland, NZEF in France, was awarded the Military Medal for gallant behaviour. He is the son of P R Fraser, NZ Insurance Co. Was in charge of a department in the warehouse of John Burns & Co. Ltd. He saw action at Gallipoli and was one of the last boatload off the peninsula.

GARLAND, Lieutenant H G de F, son of Dr Garland of Hamilton, has been awarded the Military Cross.

HOUCHEN, Chaplain C, former Vicar of Te Kuiti and Inglewood, has been awarded the Military Cross.

JOHNSON, Frontiersman M E of Wanganui Squadron but whose home is in North Auckland, has been promoted to sub-lieutenant. He served on Gallipoli where he was severely wounded but he eventually got to the front again from England. He was in the El Romani fight and his younger brother Captain O P JOHNSON, was killed during the battle, being hit in the forehead when in the thick of the fighting.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn16nov1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 November 1916 → Commons Sitting

BRITISH-MADE COCAINE (EXPORTS).


HC Deb 16 November 1916 vol 87 c968 968

Mr. T. TAYLOR asked the President of the Board of Trade what was the amount and value of British-made cocaine exported abroad during the year 1915; and whether the amount is higher than in any previous year?

Mr. RUNCIMAN 17,647 ounces of British-made cocaine and cocaine salts, valued at £5,719, were exported from the United Kingdom to all destinations in 1915. These exports were greater than in any year since 1911, the year in which such exports were first separately recorded.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/16/british-made-cocaine-exports
Zie ook http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1916/nov/16/british-made-morphia-exports voor exportcijfers van morfine.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fourth Army battle reports, 16 th November, 1916.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/transcripts/battles/battle_reports.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Drumright, Oklahoma Fire, Nov. 16, 1916



Photo from a postcard showing the fire that destroyed two blocks in Drumright, OK in 1916.

http://www3.familyoldphotos.com/photo/oklahoma/14311/drumright-oklahoma-fire-nov-16-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 16 November 1916, Page 3





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19161116.2.19
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H.H. Munro

H.H. Munro [pseudonym Saki] (1870-1916), prolific Scottish author of the Edwardian era, often referred to as the master of short stories and compared to O Henry and Dorothy Parker. (...)



World War I started and while he was officially too old, at age 44 Munro volunteered as a soldier, enlisting in the 22nd Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. He was offered a commission but refused, saying he could not expect soldiers to obey him if he did not have any experience. He wrote a number of short stories from the trenches and promoted to Lance Sergeant (full Corporal) in September of 1916.

Just a month later, on 16 November 1916, while serving near the French town of Beaumount-Hamel, Hector Hugh Munro was fatally shot by a German sniper's bullet. According to several sources his last words were: "Put that damned cigarette out!"

http://www.online-literature.com/hh-munro/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CANADIAN BLACK WATCH

In 1895, the Canadian Black Watch (then known as the 5th Battalion, Royal Scots of Canada) was officially permitted by General Order to wear the Red Hackle: "5th Battalion, Royal Scots of Canada: The Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men of this Battalion are permitted to wear the Red Hackle in the feather bonnets." It appears, however, that the 1895 General Order simply recognized a long standing internal regimental dress regulation. Indeed, as far back as 1863, one of the Regiment's flank companies wore a red feather in its full dress headgear.



Although there is strong evidence of the Canadian Regiment wearing the red hackle prior to deploying for the First World War, the Black Watch battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force-the 13th, 42nd, and 73rd Battalions CEF-did not immediately wear the hackle overseas. According to Col. P.P. Hutchison, author of Canada's Black Watch: The First Hundred Years (1962), "The Royal Highlanders of Canada had not thought they were entitled to do so overseas, at least until they had won their spurs in actual battle" (p.91). After the 13th Battalion's magnificent stand at 2nd Ypres, and the exploits of all three battalions at the Somme, there was little doubt that the Royal Highlanders had proven themselves. Accordingly, the war diary of the 13th Battalion dated 16 November 1916 states that "as many men as possible were fitted out with Balmorals and Red Hackles an honour which they greatly appreciated." A year later, on 30 November 1917, the war diarist of the 42nd Battalion recorded that "the Battalion, pursuant to a request received some time prior from the 1st Bn of Imperial Black Watch, adopted the Red Hackle as part of its head-dress."

http://www.blackwatchcanada.com/en/heritage-and-history/a-brief-history
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 16 November 1917

HMAS PARRAMATTA, (torpedo boat destroyer), took in tow the torpedoed Italian transport ORIONE. While the lines were being passed to the disabled ship, a torpedo fired by an enemy submarine near-missed PARRAMATTA.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/16-november-1917/
Zie ook http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Parramatta_(I)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H. L. Mencken

Henry Louis Mencken (12 September 1880 – 29 January 1956), better known as H. L. Mencken, was a twentieth-century journalist, satirist, social critic, cynic, and freethinker (...). He is often regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the early 20th century.

Explanations exist; they have existed for all time; there is always a well-known solution to every human problem — neat, plausible, and wrong.

- "The Divine Afflatus" in New York Evening Mail (16 November 1917);

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/H._L._Mencken

... en een bonus, voor de docenten onder ons:

School teachers, taking them by and large, are probably the most ignorant and stupid class of men in the whole group of mental workers.
- The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche (1908), pg. 217
Wink
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eleutherios Venizelos on the British Empire

Available here is a sound clip featuring the voice of the controversial Greek wartime Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos.

Recorded on 16 November 1917 Venizelos spoke (in English) on the inevitable victory of the might of the British Empire when pitted against the Central Powers as led by Germany. The Germans, he said, were doomed to lose the war.

Stukkie audio... http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/venizelos.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Clemenceau: I will fight the war

Recalled by President Poincaré on 16 November 1917 to succeed to Painlevé's cabinet, at 77 years of age, Georges Clemenceau was the man for the situation. "My aim," he said to the Chambers, "is to be the victor." The indomitable energy and remorseless iron will in the face of the task in hand that had given him the nickname the "Tiger", spoke for themselves and could bear this out.

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=12586
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zantvoorde British Cemetery

(...) On 16 November 1917 21st Divisional Artillery learned that 2 charred & unidentifiable bodies have been found in an aeroplane at 28.J.1J.d.70.05. From number on the Vickers machine gun (A4587) the craft was identified as RE8 (A3850) used by Lieutenants Marvin (pilot) & Barton (observer) - 2nd Lt. Clarence Henry Barton is buried in the next grave. (...)

http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/gardiner3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 16 November 1918, Page 3





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19181116.2.40
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - INFLUENZA DEATHS - 1918

AUCKLAND EDUCATION BOARD
Teachers who have died of influenza: CAMPBELL, Mr J, CARTER, Miss Ellen E, CRAWSHAW, Miss E, FRICKER, Miss H E, GILBERT, Mr J K, MALCOLM, Mr G H, McCHESNEY, Mr H R, NEWICK, Mrs F, O'BRIEN, Mr Don, ROHAN, Mrs Hazel M, SMITH, Mr H.

SOUTH AFRICAN VETERANS - Deaths from Influenza
Four members of the First NZ Contingent which fought in South Africa have died from influenza. Their names are: Mr T CASEY, son of the late Mr Maurice Casey of Auckland, Major W C MORRISON, NZSC, General Staff Officer, Canterbury Military District, Mr James THORPE, Hawkes Bay, employed in the Public Works Dept, Mr R S YOUNG of Ohau, who was rather severely injured as the result of his service in South Africa and never entirely recovered.

Lees verder op http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/influenza1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Crown Prince Wilhelm on the German Revolution, 16 November 1918

In the wake of the Kaiser's abdication his eldest son - Crown Prince Wilhelm - expressed a desire on 11 November 1918 - the date of the armistice - to be allowed to lead his army back home to Germany. His wish was, given the anti-royalist fervour of the moment, rejected out of hand by the government. He too went into exile in Holland, despatching a letter to Hindenburg following his arrival in which he explained and justified his position (reproduced below).

Crown Prince Wilhelm to Paul von Hindenburg on the German Revolution, 16 November 1918

Highly Honoured Field Marshal:

In these most grievous days of our life, both for my father and for myself, I too must say goodbye to your Excellency.

With deep emotion I have been obliged to decide to make use of the authority granted me by your Excellency to lay down my post as chief commander and to take up my residence in the first instance in a neutral country.

I have only been able to force myself to this step after hard internal struggles, although it is repugnant to my whole nature not to be able to lead my brave troops home.

I desire, however, once again briefly to explain my attitude.

Contrary to many unjust opinions, which have always tried to represent me as a war instigator and a reactionary, I have from the beginning adopted the standpoint that this war was for us a war of defence.

Again and again during 1916, 1917, and 1918 I made both oral and written representations to the persons concerned that Germany must endeavour by every means in her power to terminate the war and be glad at maintaining herself against the entire world on the basis of the status quo.

In many conversations with General Ludendorff I for a long time pleaded for a wise peace by understanding, and expressed the view that the most favourable opportunity for attaining this end was reached when we occupied strong, powerful positions before and also during the spring offensive.

As regards internal politics, I am the last person to oppose the liberal development of our Constitution. Only a few days ago I set forth this view in writing to Prince Max of Baden.

Nevertheless, when the weight of events hurled my father from his throne, I was not only not heard, but was simply passed over as Crown Prince and as heir to the throne. No renunciation was either demanded from or made by me.

Notwithstanding these facts my standpoint was to persevere at my post, and my ideal was, by holding my army group together, to avoid further causes of damage and disintegration for our Fatherland.

The attitude of the present Government, however, was authoritative as to my remaining further at my military post. I had been informed by it that the Government did not count upon further military employment for me.

Your Excellency will kindly also note that copies of this letter have been sent to the Minister of the royal house, the Prussian Ministry, the Vice-Presidents of the lower house, the President of the upper house, the Chairman of the Military Cabinet, and some friends of mine among the military leaders.

FREDERICK WILHELM

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/abdication_crownprince2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

‘The War Illustrated’, 16th November, 1918: 'Mons After Four Years'



British cavalry marching through Mons in November 1918 - illustration by R. Caton Woodville

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/British_Front/Mons_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

South Africa Magazine, 16 November 1918

INFLUENZA IN SOUTH AFRICA

Cape Town, November 6. Conditions are returning to the normal in practically all the large towns of the Union, although there still occur a number of deaths from pneumonia. The situation in some of the country districts is still serious, notably amongst the native and coloured population. Quantities of serum, however, are now being distributed, and it is expected that the disease will be controlled in the course of a week. An outbreak of the epidemic is reported from the Natal sugar estates, especially amongst the Indian workers.-Reuter.

Pretoria, November 7. It is officially stated that, owing to the rapid spread of Spanish influenza northwards, the immigration of Europeans or natives into Nyasaland is prohibited except in cases of extreme urgency.-Reuter.

Cape Town, November 8. A feature of the influenza epidemic has been the manner in which cooperation in relief work has brought together Dutch and British, particularly in the Free State. Mr. Merriman, speaking at a meeting at Stellenbosch, in thanking those who had helped, mentioned an English farmer in the Free State whose home was badly stricken, the whole household being ill, until a motorist brought medicine, relief, and sympathetic assistance. The farmer, who had previously regarded this motorist with horror and detestation, now looked upon him as the most kind-hearted of men. The motorist was General Hertzog.-Reuter.

Lees verder op http://www.genealogyworld.net/write/flu_d.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Roll of Honour - Hertfordshire - Tring

HEDGES John Russell
Private, 1st Bedfordshire Regiment. Killed in action in Lebanon on 16 November 1918. Age 26. Son of Elizabeth of 7 Parsonage Place. Beirut War Cemetery.

http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Hertfordshire/Tring.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archives: The end of the First World War
Peter Hoskin, Friday, 12th November 2010

A blast of celebration – and of reflection – from The Spectator, written after the armistice in 1918. There is more than a touch of foresight in the warning that, "True peace and valid reconstruction demand … as much time, renunciation and self-sacrifice as the winning of the war."

Thanks be to God, The Spectator, 16 November, 1918

The thought that has filled the mind of the nation on Monday, and has possessed it ever since, is the thought, Thanks be to God. Under a thousand names and forms, consciously and unconsciously, realised fully or only half realised, this it is that has given unity to the nation and made the moment mighty. Not to have recorded this fact, and to have left unsaid what we have just said, would have been impossible. But it is equally impossible to say more. If it is true that the greatest truths demand the greatest care in their statement, it is also true that the greatest and most moving thoughts entertainable by man can only find the simplest expression. No flow of eloquence, no torrents of rhetoric, will help is to go beyond the four words which we have placed at the head of this article. But they are sufficient both for our hearts and for our lips. If we were to attempt to fathom the Divine purpose or to analyse its workings, we should but fall into spiritual pride or self-glorification, or else become lost in the mazes of inquiry, as to why and how all the tumult and the agony of the last four years were necessary or were permitted. On such topics each human soul must find its own pathway, its own answer, and its own solution. It is not for us at any rate to try to lift the veil of Divine mystery. There is a fine saying of Lincoln's which we may call to mind. He was asked whether he could really feel sure that God was on the side of the North. He answered, with his wise simplicity, that he had not thought of the matter in that way. What had troubled him was the question of whether the North was on the side of God. Let us leave the mystery of the war at that, contented, if we may not enjoy in thankfulness what we cannot understand. We dare not proclaim that ours was the cause of God, nor can we even hold with absolute certainty that we have been on the side of god. But at any rate in our thankfulness we may and do draw near to that great hope. Whatever may have been the Divine intervention, our duty is clear. We profess deep gratitude, and we feel it. To prove the reality of that gratitude we must show our faith in works. We must make the world new fashioned, better and worthier than the old.

The central fact of the war is the triumph of Democracy. Popular Government has proved, as we felt sure it would prove, stronger and more war-worthy than Autocracy and Slavery. Democracy does not know how to prepare for war nearly as well as tyranny, autocratic or oligarchical, but it is a hundred times a better stayer and a better temporary loser. When a whole nation has but one thought in it, and that thought is its own and not imposed from above, it is invincible. The peoples of the Allied Governments possessed in peace no such instruments of war as those made ready by Germany and Austria. Yet the end of the war was never doubtful to those who had eyes to see. For Germany each fatal triumph only brought the inevitable end more near. Democracy was able to cast a spell in war which shivered the arms of her assailants. And now that Democracy has proved herself invincible in war she must prove herself invincible also in bearing the burdens and solving the problems of peace. That she will in the end prove worthy of her destiny is our belief, but such worthiness cannot be achieved by self-glorification or complacency. Democracy has its dangers and its risks like every form of government. The chief of these dangers is the proclamation in words, but the denial in deeds, of government of the people by the people for the people. If a nation allows a section of the nation to usurp the name, the functions, and the powers of the people as a whole, true Democracy may be as much outraged as it is by the rule of a Kaiser.

Now it is the fated hour for the nation's resolve. If it determines to maintain, not in theory but in fact, Justice, Liberty, Honesty and Humanity, the precious cause for which the British Empire has bled and endured, in a four years' agony, will be secure. But determination can only be lasting and of might if it weans itself from the emasculating food of sentiment, rhetoric, and spiritual pride, and remembers, even in the intoxication of triumph, to be sober in its judgements, to be sincere with itself, and to be steady and reasonable even in good doing. If the people suppose that the new and better world which we desire can be taken by storm, or built in a day, or established in a frenzy of good intentions, they will find themselves cruelly mistaken. True peace and valid reconstruction demand - we know it is a hard saying - as much time, renunciation, and self-sacrifice as the winning of the war. Indeed, it is a harder task, for superficially, at any rate, there can be none of that "rapture of the strife" which in war touches, and touches to fine issues, many of the nobler spirits.

though we see all the needs and the dangers, we have good hopes. Our soldiers have shown the very qualities we have just described in many a stricken field and in many a combat that seemed hopeless, and which, when victory came at last, left the victors more surprised than vanquished. Our soldiers must teach those who have remained at home the spiritual lessons of war, and prove to us once again that in all the great things of life it is the spiritual and not the material triumph that counts. As they served and saved us and the world by their unconquerable valour in the Retreat from Mons, in the long-drawn agony of the Ypres Salient, in the deadly combats of last March, they must serve and save us now. They and our sailors in their long vigil have preserved for us all that makes life worth living - Freedom and Honour. It is for them to teach us how to guard and keep unstained their priceless gift.

Democracy, it cannot be said too often, must be true to herself and obey the law of her own being. Happily, Free Government and Popular Government are no new things here. We have throughout our history enjoyed and been possessed by the Spirit of Liberty and of Justice. Englishmen have always declared that the will of the People should prevail, and that the supreme law, the law above Kings and nobles, Churches and all other powers, is the voice of the People. But if Democracy is not new to us in essentials, it is coming to us now in a new form with its twenty million voters. What is even more momentous, it is, owing to the changes wrought by the war, bringing with them problems many and great which clamour for solution. In dealing with these Democracy must remember, even in the highest moments of its zeal for change, for development, for the construction of a new and better world, that power is not everything, or, rather, that power is a trust, and must be used with caution, and with care for the rights of individuals, even when such care appears to be delaying reform. Such a spirit is the essential mark of trusteeship. The sovereign People must always remember that through it is good to have a giant's strength - and they will have strength beyond anything we have ever know in our history - it is base to use it like a giant.

It is said that Mr. Gladstone shortly before his death, in a melancholy mood and reviewing the future in the light of past experience, recalled how power in England had been enjoyed in turn by Kings, by Aristocracies, by the Middle Classes, and now finally by the People. Each holder of supreme authority had in turn made an ignoble use of its powers. Instead of regarding those powers as a trust, it had looked upon them as a means of selfish or class exaltation. What assurance, what hope had we, he asked, that the old bad tradition would be broken, and that the People, when they fully realised their power, would not show themselves as callous in their trust? Our hope is better. We believe, and we claim to have sure foundations for our belief, that just as Democracy has proved stronger and more self-sacrificing and altogether nobler in war than has either Autocracy or Aristocracy, so Democracy in peace will prove far less selfish than her predecessors. We have this assurance to support us, that in true Democracy we have reached the rock bottom. We have got down to the foundations of the State and cannot go further. Our backs, so to speak, are against the wall. The only alternative to the will of the People is individualist anarchy, with all its countless miseries. To the weak anarchy is a trampling mob, without pity, but not without fear. A nation with its back to the wall, like a man in the same position, may, we believe, be braced, not weakened, by the thought that all other resources are exhausted, that it has no other shifts to try, no other shoulders on which it can throw responsibility, that all depends upon its own strength of will, and that it will not be able to indulge in the luxury of blaming others if it allows itself to be destroyed.

What is to be Democracy's lamp through the gloom, its guiding force? It may be told in one word: Justice. Justice is the antiseptic of the world; the greatest, and the simplest of all the moral qualities. It is easier to be heroic than to be just. If we are asked by some jesting Pilate "What is Justice?" we shall answer: "You shall not fight us with a word." Justice is safe from the mocking Devil of sophistry that loves first to put words upon a pinnacle and then hurl them down. Justice may be not be definable, but it lies secure in the conscience of each man and woman, ready to help us if we will only give it its rights. Justice may seem, and in a sense is, stern, inexorable, not to be denied. Yet, and here is the supreme mystery, in the highest, truest sense Justice is a knowledge made more luminous and creative, through love. Was not He Who preached the Gospel of Love also the supremely Just?

http://www.spectator.co.uk/coffeehouse/6461898/from-the-archives-the-end-of-the-first-world-war.thtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Nov 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nov. 16, 1919: Tarred and feathered

Anti-German sentiment was widespread in the United States in the final two years of World War I. German-language newspapers were shuttered, lists of “disloyal” German-Americans were published in newspapers, “pro-German” books were burned and vigilantes attacked German immigrants.

On Aug. 19, 1918, a group of Luverne, Minn., men forced their way into a house belonging to the family of John Meints, a German-American farmer they considered to be disloyal to the United States. They removed him forcibly and drove him by car to the South Dakota border, where masked men “assaulted him, whipped him, threatened to shoot him, besmeared his body with tar and feathers, and told him to cross the line into South Dakota, and that if he ever returned to Minnesota he would be hanged,” court records show.

Meints sued 32 of the men involved, seeking damages of $100,000 for false imprisonment. After a lengthy trial in Mankato that produced more than 1,100 pages of testimony, a U.S. District Court jury ruled for the defendants, prompting the giddy homecoming described below in a page one story in the Minneapolis Tribune. Meints -- not "Meintz," as this disappointingly short piece has it -- won a new trial on appeal, and eventually settled out of court in 1922 for $6,000.

All Luverne Greets
32 Citizens Freed in
Tar-Feather Case
Court Vindicates Men Accused
Of Punishing John Meintz
As Disloyalist


Welcome home by a large delegation of Luverne (Minn.) citizens, headed by a band, was the sequel yesterday to the acquittal of 32 residents in federal court at Mankato on the charge of kidnapping, tarring and feathering John Meintz, according to dispatches from Luverne last night.

Meintz asked personal damages of $100,000 as balm for the treatment he received on the night of August 19, 1918. The jury denied him any damages, after deliberating one hour and a half.

Judge Wilbur F. Booth, in charging the jury, said that the evidence was overwhelming in support of the contention that Meintz was disloyal and that there was a strong feeling against him in the community.

The action of the Luverne citizens in staging a celebration was taken as an indication of strong approval of the acquittal verdict, according to dispatches.


Tarred and feathered: John Meints.

http://www.startribune.com/blogs/70155507.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2010 7:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

16 November 1918: Sdt Gustaaf Armand Vereecken

162/1956 Sdt Gustaaf Armand Vereecken, I/105é batt 12é Artillerie. From Oostakker, Gustaaf was born on 17 December 1893. The son of Livinus and Leonie Praet, he died of sickness in the War Hospital at Sint-Michiels, Brugge on 16 November 1918. He is now still buried in the Belgian Military Cemetery at Brugge.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Nov 2017 10:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Korte biografie van Christoffer Jacobus Johannes Bruinsma

(...) Een jaar nadat zijn oudere broer zich had aangemeld bij de Koninklijke Marine, meldde Chris zich op 16 september 1902 in Willemsoord voor de Adelborsten-opleiding. In die tijd konden jonge mannen van 16 jaar oud beginnen met een beroepsofficiersopleiding bij de Koninklijke Marine. Chris werd op 16 september 1906 Adelborst Eerste Klasse. (...)

In 1914 werd Chris ingedeeld bij de mijnendienst, een onderdeel van de Torpedodienst. commandant van de mijnenvisscher Hr. Ms. Zeemeeuw, een Stoomloodstransportvaartuig gebouwd in 1906 bij het Etablissement Feijenoord. In 1914 werd Nederland geconfronteerd met veel aangespoelde zeemijnen van diverse soorten en maten. Het onschadelijk maken van de mijnen is pionierswerk. Er waren een aantal teams werkzaam langs de kust die hun ervaringen delen met de officieren en torpedomakers aan boord van Hr.Ms. 'Schorpioen', het logementsschip van de Torpedodienst te Hellevoetsluis.

Op 16 november 1914 gebeurde het ongelofelijke. Chris was commandant van een mijnopruimingsploeg. Naar verluid had hij al meer dan honderd zeemijnen succesvol onschadelijk gemaakt. Die fatale dag ging er blijkbaar iets mis. Wat er precies is gebeurd blijft ongewis.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.joostbruinsma.nl/westkapelle1914/cjjbruinsma.html
Zie ook http://www.joostbruinsma.nl/westkapelle1914/
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