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1 oktober

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Okt 2006 11:56    Onderwerp: 1 oktober Reageer met quote

Angriffe bei Thiepval und Rancourt abgeschlagen
Die Beute von Hermannstadt: 3000 Gefangene und reiches Kriegsgerät



Großes Hauptquartier, 1. Oktober.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei der Armee des Generalfeldmarschalls Herzogs Albrecht von Württemberg sowie auf der flandrischen und Artoisfront der Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht entfalten die Engländer eine besonders lebhafte Patrouillentätigkeit.
An der Schlachtfront nördlich der Somme nahm der Artilleriekampf um Nachmittag große Heftigkeit an. Wiederum erfolgten bei und östlich von Thiepval starke englische Angriffe, die wie an den vorangegangenen Tagen von Truppen des Generals v. Stein und Sixt v. Armin nach hartnäckigen Nahkämpfen abgeschlagen wurden. Auf Rancourt und westlich davon stürmten französische Regimenter vergebens gegen unsere Stellungen an. Teilvorstöße aus Courcelette, aus Morval und nördlich von Halle scheiterten im Sperrfeuer.
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz:
Rechts der Maas spielten sich unter vorübergehend auflebender Artillerietätigkeit kleine bedeutungslose Handgranatenkämpfe ab.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Russen haben an verschiedenen Stellen ihre Angriffstätigkeit wieder aufgenommen.
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Westlich von Luck nimmt das feindliche Feuer seit heute früh zu. Beiderseits der Bahn Brody-Lemberg und weiter südlich bis zur Graberka bei Zarkow ist dem feindlichen Vorgehen teils durch Sperrfeuer Halt geboten, teils ist der bis zu sieben Malen wiederholte Ansturm völlig zusammengebrochen. Auf dem südlichen Angriffsflügel haben die Russen in der vordersten Verteidigungslinie Fuß gefaßt.
Front des Generals der Kavallerie Erzherzogs Carl:
Beiderseits der Zlota Lipa kam es zu heftigen Nahkämpfen. Im Winkel zwischen der Ceniowka und Zlota Lipa hat sich der Gegner vor geschoben. Weiter westlich warfen türkische Truppen eingedrungene feindliche Abteilungen gestern und heute morgen durch sofortigen Gegenangriff wieder zurück und machten hierbei 230 Gefangene.
In den Karpathen herrschte im allgemeinen Ruhe. Die Zahl der bei Str. Klauzura gemachten Gefangenen ist auf über 600 Mann gestiegen.
Kriegsschauplatz in Siebenbürgen:
An der Ostfront wurden rumänische Angriffe am Marostal abgewiesen. Im Görgenytal und weiter südlich entzogen sich die Vortruppen zum Teil dem feindlichen Stoß.
Die Beute der deutschen Truppen aus dem Gefecht südlich von Henndorf (Hegen) erhöht sich um 8 Geschütze. Nordwestlich von Fogaras hat der Feind seinen Angriff eingestellt. Aus der Schlacht von Hermannstadt waren bis gestern eingebracht: über 3000 Gefangene, 13 Geschütze. Ferner sind erbeutet 1 Flugzeughalle, 2 Flugzeuge, 10 Lokomotiven, 300 Waggons mit Munition, über 200 Munitionswagen, über 200 gefüllte Bagagewagen, 70 Kraftwagen und 1 Lazarettzug. Weiteres Material wird erst allmählich aus den Wäldern geborgen werden. Der Rote Turm-Paß ist angefüllt mit zerschossenen Fahrzeugen. Südlich des Passes wurden rumänische gegen die Höhen westlich Caineni gerichtete stärkere Vorstöße abgeschlagen. Im Hötzinger (Hatszeger) Gebirge griff der Feind westlich des Strell- (Sztrigy-) Tales vergeblich an.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Am 29. September erzwang eine österreichisch-ungarische Donauflottille die Einfahrt in den Hafen von Corabia, vernichtete 9 und erbeutete 7 teils beladene Schiffe. Bukarest wurde von unseren Flugzeuggeschwadern mit beobachteter guter Wirkung bombardiert.
Mazedonische Front:
An vielen Stellen zwischen dem Prespasee und dem Vardar lebhafte Feuerkämpfe und vereinzelte ergebnislose feindliche Unternehmungen. Ein starker Angriff brachte den Gipfel des Kajmakcalan in den Besitz des Gegners.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff.1)


Die neue Front in Flandern - Verlustreiche Angriffe der Amerikaner östlich der Argonnen
Großes Hauptquartier, 1. Oktober.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Nahe an der Küste haben wir bei einem erfolgreichen Vorstoß einige hundert Belgier gefangen.
Unsere neue Front in Flandern verläuft im Zuge der in der vorjährigen Flandernschlacht ausgebauten rückwärtigen Stellung von dem Handzame-Abschnitt - westlich an Roeselare vorbei über Ledegem - Geluwe nach Vervik und dann in der Lys-Niederung nach unserer alten Stellung bei Armentières. Der Feind griff gestern nachmittag zwischen Roeselare und Vervik an. Er wurde vor unseren Linien abgewiesen. Neben Belgiern und Engländern nahmen wir gestern hier auch Franzosen gefangen.
Vorstöße des Feindes zwischen Fleubaix und Hulluch und Teilangriffe gegen die Höhen von Fromelles und Aubers scheiterten.
Beiderseits von Cambrai setzte der Engländer tagsüber seine heftigen Angriffe fort. Am Nachmittage gelang es einer neu eingesetzten kanadischen Division, vorübergehend nördlich von Cambrai vorbei auf Marillies vorzustoßen. Unter Führung des Generalleutnants v. Fritsch warf die in den Kämpfen zwischen Arras und Cambrai besonders bewährte württembergische 26. Reserve-Division den Feind wieder auf Tilloy zurück. Auch südlich von Cambrai haben wir unsere Stellungen gegen den mehrfachen Ansturm des Feindes restlos behauptet.
Heeresgruppe Böhn:
Beiderseits von Le Catelet nahm der Feind am Nachmittag seine Angriffe zwischen Vendhuille und Joncourt wieder auf. Auch südlich von Joncourt und südlich der Somme entwickelten sich am Abend heftige Kämpfe. Angriffe des Feindes wurden überall abgewiesen.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
Gegen unsere Linien zwischen Aisne und Vesle und über die Vesle zwischen Breuil und Corchery richtete der Franzose heftige Angriffe. Trotz mehrmaligen Ansturms sind sie bis auf einen Teilerfolg, der den Feind auf die Höhen nördlich von Breuil führte, gescheitert. In der Champagne beschränkte sich der Feind auf Teilangriffe östlich der Suippes, gegen St. Marie-a-Py, nördlich von Somme-Py und gegen unsere neuen Linien, die wir in der Nacht nördlich von Aure und Marvaux bezogen hatten. Sie wurden abgewiesen; bei St. Marie-à-Py nahmen wir hierbei zwei französische Kompagnien gefangen. Mit stärkeren Kräften griff der Amerikaner östlich der Argonnen an, Brennpunkte des Kampfes waren Apremont und der Wald von Montrebeau. Wir schlugen den Feind überall zurück. Er erlitt auch gestern wieder besonders schwere Verluste.
Heeresgruppe Gallwitz:
Auf dem westlichen Maasufer blieb die Gefechtstätigkeit auf Störungsfeuer beschränkt.

*

Infanterie, Pioniere und Artillerie haben an der Vernichtung zahlreicher Panzerwagen gleichen Anteil. In den letzten Kämpfen taten sich hierbei besonders hervor die Leutnants Suhling und Baumeister vom Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment 90, die Vizefeldwebel Volkmann vom Garde-Reserve-Schützen-Bataillon und Rauguth vom Reserve -Infanterie -Regiment 27, die Leutnants Keibel vom Feldartillerie -Regiment 40, Schrepler vom Feldartillerie-Regiment 74, Ribbelt vom Feldartillerie-Regiment108, Mayer und Bräuer vom Reserve -Feldartillerie -Regiment 241, Benninghaus vom Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment 63 und Unteroffizier Thele vom Feldartillerie -Regiment 40.


Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Okt 2006 11:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 : Crisis in Germany

At four o’clock on the morning of October 1, 1918, Max von Baden arrives in Berlin to take office as the new German chancellor, after conflict within the German military and government leadership causes his predecessor, Georg von Hertling, to resign.


Although the Allies had breached the mighty Hindenburg Line—the heavily fortified defensive zone envisioned as the last line of German defenses on the Western Front—in the last days of September 1918, German forces in general continued to hold. The news that German ally Bulgaria had sought and been granted an armistice, however, caused German Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff to lose his once-steely nerve. At a crown council convened by Kaiser Wilhelm II at Spa on September 29, Ludendorff demanded that the German government seek an immediate armistice based on the Fourteen Points outlined by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson the previous January. This abrupt switch by Ludendorff—who until then had claimed the German forces were far from defeat—and his direct appeal to the kaiser angered government leaders like Hertling, who arrived too late to actively participate in the meeting and promptly resigned the chancellorship.


When von Baden arrived in Berlin the next morning, he made it clear that his policy was not to seek an armistice until the German army was able to reestablish its stability at the front. He argued that by suing for peace Germany would forfeit its post-war negotiating power, stating that "a request for an armistice makes any peace initiative impossible." Baden, an aristocrat appointed by the kaiser, quickly implemented necessary constitutional reforms in Germany, undermining the power of the military’s Third Supreme Command—and of Ludendorff in particular—in the hopes that a more moderate and democratic Germany could negotiate more favorable armistice terms with the Allies. Despite his initial resistance, von Baden himself contacted Wilson on October 4 to seek an immediate armistice. Over the next few weeks, pressured by the leftist Social Democrats, von Baden oversaw the creation of a German republic and Kaiser Wilhelm’s abdication on November 9, and then announced his own retirement, handing control to the Social Democratic leader Friedrich Ebert.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Third Battle of Antwerp, 1-10 October 1914

The Third Battle of Antwerp, 1-10 October 1914, was the final phase of a more prolonged period of fighting around Antwerp that had begun during the third week of August 1914 when the bulk of the Belgian army had fallen back from its initial front line to a new line based around Antwerp.

Although the presence of the Belgian army did force the Germans to detached the III Reserve Corps and the Naval Division from the army advancing towards the French border, the retreat to Antwerp and the fall of Liège did open up the gap in the Belgian line that the Germans needed if their plan for a rapid advance into north west France was to succeed.

Aware of this, King Albert I of Belgium ordered a series of counterattacks in an attempt to pull more German troops away from the advance. On 24 August the Belgians launched a large scale sortie towards Malines, which was turned back after three days. A second sortie on 9 September reached Vilvoorde, ten miles outside the outer line of fortresses. The final sortie came on 27 September. By this time the German attack into France had been turned back at the First Battle of the Marne and the Race to the Sea was about to end in failure for both sides.

The Germans were now free to turn more of their attention to Antwerp. General Hans von Beseler, the German commander at Antwerp was himself an engineer. By the end of September the heavy siege guns used at Liège and Namur had reached him. On 1 October the heavy siege guns opened fire, destroying Antwerp’s outermost forts one by one. On 3 October the Germans had blasted a gap in the line of forts and were able to launch an assault that came close to forcing the abandonment of the city.

On 4 October the situation was temporarily restored by the arrival of the British Royal Naval Division. British strategy for hundreds of years had been aimed at making sure Antwerp stayed out of hostile hands. This had become something of an obsession, with Antwerp and the Scheldt estuary seen as the best route for a possible invasion of southern England. In one of the more bizarre incidents of the war, Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, arrived in Antwerp and took virtual command of the fighting there for two crucial days. Often criticised as a foolhardy gesture, Churchill’s presence in Antwerp probably helped prolong the defence by a crucial couple of days, during which the main British and French armies moved closer to the coast in the last days of the Race to the Sea.

The situation around Antwerp became increasingly dangerous. On 5 October the Germans breached the second and final line of modern forts around Antwerp and reached the inner line of redoubts, built in 1859 and totally unable to stand up to modern artillery. On 6 October King Albert was forced to order the evacuation of his army. The bulk of the Belgian army was able to escape along the coast to the south west. On the way they met a British force under General Rawlinson that had been sent to help defend the city. Both forces continued the retreat south west. The Belgian army escaped from Antwerp largely intact, and was able to take up a new defensive position along the Yser River, where they formed the extreme left wing of the Allied line that led from the North Sea to the Swiss border.

Antwerp itself surrendered on 10 October. By then the garrison had been reduced to General Deguise, one sergeant and one private soldier, the rest of the army having escaped. It is sometimes suggested that Antwerp could have been held if the main British relief forces had moved with more urgency. With German troops already approaching Ypres in the dash north to the sea the main Allied line was already forming up over fifty miles west of Antwerp. If Antwerp had been held, it would have been as an isolated defensive camp.

Rickard, J (21 August 2007), Third Battle of Antwerp, 1-10 October 1914, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_antwerpIII.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Arras

In October, 1914, the French Tenth army attempted to outflank German forces on the Western Front by advancing along a line between Arras and Lens. After initial progress towards Douai was forced to withdraw after a counter-attack from Crown Prince Rupprecht and the German Sixth Army. The French Army lost Lens to Germany, but was able to retain Arras.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWarras.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 17:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EDITH CAVELL - Fragile Martyr

1 October, 1915 (2 weeks before execution)

"I'm afraid it is likely to go hard with Miss Cavell. I'm afraid we are powerless."

- In-house memo from Undersecretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Sir Horace Rowland.

http://www.worldwar1.com/heritage/e_cavell.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chronology of the Armenian Genocide -- 1915

October 1 - U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing delivers a note to German Ambassador Bernstorff relating to the massacres of the Armenians.

October 1 - The governor-general of Sivas Province, Ahmed Muammer, travels to Amasia and elsewhere to inspect the completion and effect of the massacres in preparation for Talaat's inspection trip.

October 1 - 600 Armenian orphan boys are Turkified in Herek.

http://www.armenian-genocide.org/1915-4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garrett War Diary - OCTOBER 1915 Mundros/Lemnos

1st October 1915 Friday
Main Guard.
We fell in two deep and at the slope to hear a Court Martial Sentence read out, this morning. The prisoner, an Australian was escorted by two sentries and he was charged with having been drunk on sentry duty and having stolen two tins of condensed milk from Government Stores. The A.P.M. read the charge first and then the sentence. He was sentenced to 3 years penal servitude. The prisoner flinched at that. Reading on the A.P.M. said that the sentence was commuted to 3 months field punishment. The man was so dazed that he had to ask afterwards what he got. One silly fool told him 3 years and 3 months. The shock of hearing himself sentenced to three years stunned him and he failed to hear the rest.
The Greeks and Gipoes had a bit of a scrap today. Sticks and knives.

There have been some fighting on the Peninsular during the last few days and a lot of prisoners have been taken I hear. The Border Brigade (86th?) comprised of the Borders, K.O.S.B., S.W. Borderers, and Inskillings (Skins) returned to the trenches today..
News from France. 120,000 German prisoners taken.
Graham WHYTE shot in Tower for leading air raids over London (this is a beaut).

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/oct1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 17:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Ancre Heights, 1 October-11 November 1916

The battle of the Ancre Heights of 1 October-11 November 1916 was part of the wider first battle of the Somme. It was fought on the left of the British line of the Somme, with the aim of pinching out a German salient on the Ancre River created by the limited British advances further along the line. The attack was to be launched by the Reserve Army, which held the front on either side of the Ancre.

One attack was to be made on the front north from Hamel, on the right bank of the Ancre. It was hoped that this attack would advance east along a five mile front, and that its right flank would reach Miraumont on the Ancre, then four miles behind the German front line. A second attack would be made on the left back of the river, from the Thiepval Ridge. This attack also had Miraumont as its target. The attack on the Ancre Heights was to be launched at the same time as a Fourth Army attack further east (battle of the Transloy Ridges, 1-18 October 1916).

The main attack was to begin on 12 October (the official battle dates includes the preparation period). General Gough, commander of the Reserve Army (to become the Fifth Army at the end of October), spend the first part of October reorganising his units and launching preparatory attacks.

These included an attack by the Canadian Corps north of Courcelette, on the right flank of the Reserve Army, designed to capture part of the German front line (the Regina Trench) defended by the German Marine Brigade. On 1 October the Canadians advanced 400 yards east of Courcelette, but made no progress against their primary target. At no point did they capture the Regina Trench. Worse, by the end of 17 October they had made very little further progress and were still short of their primary target for 1 October.

By 12 October, the weather was so bad that the planned offensive had to be postponed. The attack north of the Ancre was cancelled, and a new plan put in place. This involved an attack on the Regina Trench on 21 October, followed by an attack along the Ancre from 25 October.

On 15 October Gough issued orders for the new attack along the Ancre. It would be carried out by II Corps south of the river and V corps to the north. Its objectives included the ridge north of Courcelette, Miraumont, Serre, Pys and Irles, all on the or close to the Ancre. By the end of the entire battle of the Somme the only one of these objectives that would have been achieved was the partial clearance of the Courcelette ridge.

The attack on the Regina Trench went in at 12.06 pm on 21 October, and was a rare success. Supported by 200 heavy guns and howitzers, in half an hour II Corps captured the German front line on a front that ran from Thiepval to Courcelette. Once in the German trenches it was discovered that due to the convex nature of the ground to the north, they did not command a view down into the Ancre valley.

The main attack along the Ancre was repeatedly postponed due to poor weather, first to 1st November, then to 5th November and then indefinitely. Finally a more limited attack along the Ancre was carried out in mid November (battle of the Ancre, 13-19 November 1916) to pinch out the tip of the German salient on the Ancre.

Rickard, J (20 September 2007), Battle of the Ancre Heights, 1 October-11 November 1916 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ancre_heights.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary Notes of Oberst von Thaer, 1 October 1918

Colonel von Thaer - Excerpts of Diary Notes from October 1, 1918

Terrible and appalling! It is so! Indeed! As we were gathered together, Ludendorff stood up in our presence, his face was pale and filled with deep worry, but his head was still held high. A truly handsome Germanic hero figure. I had to think of Siegfried with the mortal wound in his back from Hagen's spear.
He said roughly the following: It was his duty to tell us that our military condition was terribly serious. Any day now, our Western Front could be breached. He had had to report this to His Majesty the Kaiser recently. For the first time the question had been posed to the Supreme Army Command--by His Majesty the Kaiser and the Reichs Chancellor--what the officers and troops were still capable of accomplishing. Together with the General Field Marshal, he [Ludendorff] had answered that the Supreme Army Command and the German Army were at an end; the war could no longer be won, but rather an unavoidable and conclusive defeat awaited. Bulgaria had already been lost. Austria and Turkey, both at the end of their powers, would also soon fall. Our own Army had unfortunately also been heavily contaminated with the poison of Spartacus-socialist ideas, and the troops were, he said, no longer reliable. Since the 8th of August the situation had rapidly gotten worse. As a result, some troops had proven themselves so unreliable that they had had to be quickly pulled from the front. If they were replaced with other troops willing to fight, they would be received with the label "Strike breakers" and challenged not to fight anymore. He said he could not operate with divisions that were no longer reliable.
It was thus foreseeable, he went on to say, that the enemy in the near future, with the help of American troops anxious to fight, would succeed in a great victory, a breakthrough in grand fashion. As a result, the West Army would lose its last hold and retreat in full disbandment across the Rhein and carry the revolution back to Germany.
This catastrophe, he said, must be avoided by all means. For the cited reasons we could no longer allow ourselves to be beaten. Therefore, the Supreme Army Command demanded of His Majesty the Kaiser and of the Chancellor that a proposal for the bringing about of peace be made to President Wilson of America without delay, for bringing about an armistice on the basis of his 14 Points. He said he had never shied away from demanding the utmost from his troops. However, after clearly realizing that the continuation of the war was useless, he was of the opinion that an end needed to be found as quickly as possible in order not to unnecessarily sacrifice the most valiant people who were still loyal and able to fight.
It had been a terrible moment for him and for the Field Marshall to have to report this to the His Majesty the Kaiser and the Chancellor. The latter, Count Hertling, then informed His Majesty the Kaiser in a noble manner that he would then have to resign his office. After so many honorable years, as an old man, he could not and would not close out his life by tendering a petition for ceasefire. The Kaiser had accepted his petition for resignation.
Excellency Ludendorff added: "At present, then, we have no Chancellor. Who will fill this position is yet to be determined. I have, however, asked His Majesty the Kaiser to bring those circles into the government whom we can mainly thank that we have come to this. We will now see these gentlemen brought into the Ministries. They should make the peace that must now be made. They made their bed, now they must lie in it!"
The effect of these words on the listeners was undescribable! As L. spoke, quiet sobbing and moaning was audible. Many, probably most all, had involuntary tears run down their cheeks. I stood to the left of General Director Gen. von Eisenhart. We instinctively grasped one another by the hand. I almost pressed his flat.
After his last words, L. lowered his head slowly, turned and went to his adjoining room.
Since I had an appointment to report to him afterwards, I followed him and -- since I'd known him so long -- grabbed his right arm with both hands, something I never would have done under other circumstances, and said: "Your Excellency, is that the truth? Is that the last word? Am I awake or dreaming? That really is too terrible! What will happen now?"
I was completely beside myself. He remained calm and gentle and said to me with a deeply sorrowful smile: "Unfortunately, that is how it is, and I see no other way out."

http://www.gwpda.org/1918/thaereng.html
Of in het Duits: http://user.cs.tu-berlin.de/~ohherde/thaer.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 30 Sep 2010 19:52, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE

(...) 1 October 1918 - The Offensive is clearly not meeting expectations. The lack of roads in the Argonne creates a stupendous traffic jam. Pershing replaces several inexperienced divisions. Tank support because of the terrain and mechanical problems has not lived up to expectations.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/bigshow.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 - Syria - Lawrence of Arabia

1st October, 1918: Arab and British forces commanded by Lawrence of Arabia capture Damascus from Turkish forces .

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/october1st.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Weekly Rations (October 1918)

The German populace suffered from extensive deprivation during the war, as the British blockade and the demands of the army resulted in severe shortages of food supplies at home. Here one sees the weekly rations for the homefront in October 1918. Quantities were limited to: 50 g. (1.8 oz.) of meat, 57 g. (2 oz.) of fat, 25 g. (.9 oz.) of butter, 5 lb. (5.5 American lbs.) of bread, 125 g. (4.4 oz.) of legumes, 250 g. (.6 lb.) of flour, 4-5 lb. (4.4-5.5 American lbs.) of potatoes, 1 lb. (1.1 American lbs.) of marmalade, ½ liter (1 pint) of milk, and 1 g. (.04 oz.) of sugar.

Foto... http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=1731
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Merrifield

William Merrifield VC, MM (9 August 1892- 8 August 1943) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Sgt. William Merrifield was a native of England, who had emigrated to Canada for employment. He enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) on the outbreak of First World War and in 1917, at 27 years of age, was transferred to 4th (Central Ontario) Battalion, CEF, as a replacement. He went on to win the Military Medal (MM) for his conduct during the horrendous battle of Passchendaele in November of that year.

On 1 October 1918 at the battle of the Canal du Nord in France, only a month before the Armistice, Sergeant Merrifield was trapped with his comrades under the fire of two German machine-gun posts. Merrifield gathered up bombs (grenades) and single-handedly attacked and destroyed the two machine guns. Dashing from shell-hole to shell-hole he killed the occupants of the first post and, although wounded, continued to attack the second post and with a bomb killed the occupants. He refused to be evacuated and led his platoon until he was again severely wounded. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for his heroic actions.

The 4th (Central Ontario) Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force is perpetuated today by The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (RHLI), which contributed the majority of the soldiers to the unit.

After the War, William Merrifield moved to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario where a school is named after him in recoginition of his service to his country.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Merrifield
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Kroniek van Roesbrugge tijdens Wereldoorlog I

1 oktober 1914 : niemand mag de gemeente verlaten tenzij in het bezit van een vrijgeleide. De mensen spraken van een “laissez-passer”. Om naar Frankrijk te mogen gaan, is een bijzondere toelating vereist door de commandant van de gendarmerie.

http://www.wo1.be/ned/geschiedenis/gastbijdragen/roesbrugge/roesbrugge.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

1 oktober 1914 - Dag en nacht trok een eindeloze stoet havelo­ze vluchte­lingen door de Noorderkem­pen, richting Nederland. Alleen al in de provincie Noord-Brabant zouden er in die dagen 410.000 Belgen onderge­bracht worden in 176 gemeen­ten. Een bijzondere pleisterplaats bleek de dubbel­ge­meen­te Baarle-Hertog-Nassau te zijn. Op een bepaald ogenblik verble­ven er niet minder dan 24.000 vluchtelingen op Baarles grond­gebied. (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zomertijd

(...) De eerste praktische toepassing van zomertijd was door de Duitse regering gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog, tussen 30 april 1916 en 1 oktober 1916. Kort daarop volgde ook het Verenigd Koninkrijk, voor het eerst van 21 mei 1916 tot 1 oktober 1916. Vervolgens voerde het Congres van de Verenigde Staten op 19 maart 1918 verschillende tijdzones in (die al sinds 1883 bij de spoorwegen in gebruik waren) en maakte de zomertijd officieel (in werking tredend op 31 maart) voor de rest van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De zomertijd werd in 1918 en 1919 gedurende zeven maanden in acht genomen. De wet bleek echter zo onpopulair (hoofdzakelijk doordat men destijds meestal vroeger opstond en eerder naar bed ging dan tegenwoordig) dat deze werd afgeschaft. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zomertijd
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Stijl Vol. 1, no. 1, oktober 1917

Heerlijk leesvoer... http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/De_Stijl/001/001/pages/001.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Arab Army of Sharif Husayn entering Damascus on October 1, 1918, declaring the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Foto... http://syrianhistory.com/en/photos/369
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 01 Okt 2018 11:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2010 20:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Masschelein

De Ieperse adjudant Charles Masschelein sneuvelde in Pervijze in de nacht van 30 september op 1 oktober 1918. Hij was één vande 157 soldaten uit Ieper die in de Eerste Wereldoorlog omkwamen.

- Hij is geboren in Ieper op 21 juli 1896
- Oudste zoon van Alphons Carolus Masschelein (brouwer) en Erminia Maria Vanderhaeghe.
- Studeerde mechanica.
- 1915 start dienstplicht (opleidingscentrum 10 in Dieppe en Fecamp)
- 19/09/1915 korporaal
- 19/03/1916 sergeant
- 01/08/1916 adjudant-pelotonscommandant in O.C. nr. 2
- 24/11/1916 naar 2de legerdivisie aan het front in 6de linieregiment 2de compagnie.
- 1917 6de linieregiment
- 1918 adjudant
- Sneuvelde tijdens het eindoffensief tijdens een nachtelijke patrouille (in de nacht van 30 september op 1 oktober 1918). Hij werd getroffen door 3 mitrailleurkogels in hoofd en lever en een granaatscherf. Zijn manschappen brachten hem terug naar de loopgraven.
- Begraven op 2 oktober op de militaire begraafplaats in Steenkerke.
- In 1923 bijgezet in het familiegraf in de stedelijke begraafplaats van Ieper.

http://www.bloggen.be/tejong/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2012 19:45    Onderwerp: On This Day - 1 October 1914 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 1 October 1914

Western Front

Battle round Roye: Vain German efforts to break French line.

St. Mihiel: French destroy bridge made over Meuse.

Antwerp: Fort Waelhem silenced.

B.E.F. begins to leave the Aisne and move west and the north.

Eastern Front

East Prussian Frontier: Russians recover Augustovo and begin a nine-days' attack (Battle of Augustovo) on the retreating Germans.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_10_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2012 19:47    Onderwerp: On This Day - 1 October 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 1 October 1915

Western Front

Minor actions, Souchez and Lorraine.

Eastern Front

German attacks on Dvinsk and Smorgon; Linsingen gains ground 25 miles east of Lutsk.

Southern Front

Unsuccessful Italian attacks on Tolmino; Concentration of Austro-German forces along Serbian frontier.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British monitors bombard Lombaertzyde and Middelkerke.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_10_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2012 19:48    Onderwerp: On This Day - 1 October 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 1 October 1916

Western Front

British attack on line Eaucourt-Le Sars (on Albert-Bapaume road); all objectives taken on front of 3,000 yards, Eaucourt occupied. Prisoners, etc., to date.

Zeppelin raid on east coast, L31 down at Potter's Bar, 1 killed, 1 injured.

Eastern Front

In region of Brody, Russians advance after severe fighting.

Southern Front

Italians take trenches in Transvenanzis Valley (Trentino).

Serbs progress north-east of Kaymakchlan, and occupy important Bulgar positions.

British capture 3 villages on Struma front.

Bulgaria declares war on Romania.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_10_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2012 19:50    Onderwerp: On This Day - 1 October 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 1 October 1917

Western Front

Five powerful German attacks repulsed between Ypres-Menin road and Polygon Wood and at Zonnebeke.

Between Chaume Wood and Bezonvaux (Verdun) temporary German success.

French and British airmen bomb Rhine towns and Roulers; Dunkirk bombed by Germans, serious material damage.

Aeroplane raid on London: 11 killed, 41 injured.

Eastern Front

German airmen bomb Oesel Island (Riga).

Southern Front

Austrian attack on Bainsizza Plateau repulsed.

Naval and Overseas Operations

East Africa: Fighting proceeding in Mbemkuru Valley; 75 miles south of Kondoa Irangi (north of Cent. Rly.) a German guerilla detachment surrenders.

British troops meet strong resistance 30 miles south-west of Lindi.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_10_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Sep 2012 19:52    Onderwerp: On This Day - 1 October 1918 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 1 October 1918

Western Front

British progress and take ground south of Le Catelet; stiff fighting near Bony and south of Cambrai.

French take part of St. Quentin.

Germans fall back from Reims-Aisne plateaux; steady French advance in Champagne; Flanders ridge occupied and Ledeghem seized by British.

Southern Front

Austrians take defensive measures on their southern frontier in consequence of Bulgarian Armistice.

Italians occupy Berat and push rapidly forward in Albania.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Damascus occupied by British and Arab forces; 7,000 prisoners taken.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British flag hoisted at Ebeltoft Harbour, Spitsbergen.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_10_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Okt 2018 11:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1 October 1918 - The Statesman (India)

ALL GOING WELL - Reuter learns that everything is going well for the Allies in the Western offensives. Distinct progress has been made on the whole length of the attacking fronts. Between Ypres and Dixmunde the Allies have progressed four to five miles since yesterday morning taking a total of 6,000 prisoners. The fall of Cambrai is now certain owing to the capture of several important points. Two hundred guns were captured in this sector. North of St. Quentin the Allies have gained an important footing on the eastern side of the underground canal near Bellicourt. Consequently the fall of St. Quentin is regarded as imminent. The enemy is apparently retiring from the Chemin-des-Dames. The French are steadily progressing in the Champagne despite strong resistance. The Allies’ attack between Ploegsteert and Dixmunde is under the supreme command of King Albert, with whom General Plumer is acting in conjunction.

PROGRESS ON WHOLE FRONT - A French Eastern communiqué says: General progress was made on the whole front with important captures of prisoners and material. The Allies’ left wing broke down the resistance of the enemy still holding out between Lakes Pressa and Ochrida and north-west of Monastir and they passed Krushevo on a wide front, advancing to Kicevol. In the centre the Serbians who entered Veles at noon advanced on the front of Karabuniste-Nudduik to within twenty-three miles of Uskub. They also reached the region of Kotchana-Radovista and pushed cavalry in the Lehovo region to within six miles of the Bulgarian frontier. The Allies’ right wing occupies the Strumnitza region and is ascending the Strumnitza valley eastwards. Over three hundred guns have been captured since the beginning of the offensive.

AVIATORS PART - Our aeroplanes co-operated in every phase of Saturday’s operations. Patrols reconnoitering in the rear of the Germans lines day and night reported enemy movements. Bombs were dropped and machine-gun fire operated from an extremely low height on enemy troops, transport trains, and gun teams. Heavy casualties were inflicted. Twenty-two machines were destroyed during the day and three driven down out of control. Twenty-four of ours are missing. We dropped twenty-two tons of bombs during the day and thirty-four tons during the night many machines continuing their attacks against until dawn. All our night fliers returned.

https://www.thestatesman.com/100-years-ago/100-years-ago-1-october-1918-1502691290.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Okt 2018 11:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Panoramic view of the ruins of Ypres, 1st October 1917

Battle of Passchendaele - The Third Battle of Ypres is more commonly known as the Battle of Passchendaele. The British-led offensive, which took place on the Western Front between 31 July 1917 and 6 November 1917, is infamous for the deep mud and the high number of casualties.

Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces on the Western Front, confident after British success at Messines Ridge in June and concerned the German blockade would soon cripple the British war effort and fearful of the possibility of Russian withdrawal from the war increasing German forces on the Western Front, ordered the British Infantry to begin an attack at Ypres on 31 July 1917.

Quickly the drainage systems around Ypres were destroyed and the soil turned to mud by a combination of near constant artillery fire and the heaviest rainfall the region had seen for 30 years. The mud quagmire was so deep that it halted tanks, incapacitated weapons and drowned men and horses.

On 6 November after weeks of battles, stalemate and heavy rain the remains of Passchendaele village was captured by British and Canadian forces barely 5 miles from their initial position. Haig proclaimed the offensive a success and called off the attack.

In a little over three months the Third Battle of Ypres had claimed 325,000 Allied and 260,000 German casualties

Maar het gaat om een foto... https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/panoramic-view-of-the-ruins-of-ypres-october-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Okt 2018 12:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

General Haig's diary entry for 1 October 1914.
[National Library of Scotland reference: Acc.3155/98]

http://digital.nls.uk/great-war/general/early-fighting/large-diary-6.html
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