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10 juli

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jul 2006 4:12    Onderwerp: 10 juli Reageer met quote

10 juli 1916

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Fortdauer der schweren Kämpfe an der Somme


Großes Hauptquartier, 10. Juli.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Beiderseits der Somme dauert der schwere Kampf fort. Immer wieder schlagen unsere tapferen Truppen den Angreifer in seine Sturmstellungen zurück und wo sie seinen sich dichtauf folgenden Angriffswellen vorübergehend Raum geben mußten, haben sie ihn durch raschen Gegenstoß wieder geworfen; so wurde das Wäldchen von Trônes den dort eingedrungenen Engländern, das Gehöft La Maisonette und das Dorf Barleux den Franzosen im Sturm wieder entrissen und gegen den Feind in Hardecourt vorgearbeitet. Um Ovillers wird ununterbrochen Mann gegen Mann gekämpft. Im Dorfe Biaches haben die Franzosen Fuß gefaßt, zwischen Barleux und Belloy sind ihre vielfachen Angriffe unter den größten Verlusten restlos zusammengebrochen. Weiter westlich hinderte unser Sperrfeuer sie am Verlassen ihrer Gräben.
Zwischen dem Meere und der Ancre, im Gebiete der Aisne, in der Champagne und östlich der Maas frischten die Feuerkämpfe zeitweise auf; zu Infanterietätigkeit kam es westlich von Warneton, östlich von Armentieres, in der Gegend von Tahure und am Westrande der Argonnen, wo vorstoßende französische Abteilungen abgewiesen wurden. Bei Hulluch, bei Givenchy und auf Vauquois sprengten wir mit gutem Erfolge.
Der Flugdienst war beiderseits sehr rege. Unsere Flieger haben fünf feindliche Flugzeuge (eins bei Nieuport-Bad, zwei bei Cambrai, zwei bei Bapaume) und zwei Fesselballons (je einen an der Somme und an der Maas) abgeschossen. Die Oberleutnants Walz und Gerlich haben ihren vierten, Leutnant Leffers seinen fünften, Leutnant Parschau seinen achten Gegner außer Gefecht gesetzt. Dem letzteren hat Seine Majestät der Kaiser für seine hervorragenden Leistungen den Orden Pour le mérite verliehen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf dem Nordteile der Front hat sich abgesehen von einem vergeblichen russischen Angriff in Gegend von Skrobowa (östlich von Gorodischtsche) nichts Wesentliches ereignet.
Heeresgruppe des Generals v. Linsingen:
Der gegen die Stochodlinie vorfühlende Feind wurde überall abgewiesen, ebenso scheiterten seine Vorstöße westlich und südwestlich von Luck. Deutsche Flugzeuggeschwader griffen feindliche Unterkünfte östlich des Stochod erfolgreich an.
Armee des Generals Grafen v. Bothmer:
Patrouillentätigkeit und erfolgreiche Gefechte im Vorgelände.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Unsere Vorposten südlich des Doiransees schlugen feindliche Abteilungen durch Feuer ab.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Der russische Vorstoß auf Baranowitschi

Gorodischtsche, 10. Juli.
Über die russischen Versuche durch einen Stoß in südwestlicher Richtung Baranowitschi zu erreichen, ist der gestrigen Meldung zuzufügen:
Nach dem starken, vorbereitenden Artilleriefeuer des 2. Juli setzten die Infanterieangriffe im Morgengrauen des 3. Juli an der Front östlich Gorodischtsche, etwa von Kartschewo bis Wygoda ein. Es gelang den wiederholten feindlichen Stößen, die auf den Höhen nördlich des Serwetschknies stehenden österreichischen Truppen zurückzudrängen. Die deutschen Reserven stellten allerdings in unmittelbarem Gegenangriff bis zum Nachmittag die Lage wieder her. Auch vorübergehende russische Vorteile südlich des Serwetschknies wurden alsbald ausgeglichen. An dem in das Serwetschknie einmündenden Stkrobowabach gelangen russische Angriffe in den Nachmittagsstunden. Die Russen erreichten dort die zweite Stellung, es gab erbitterte im Wald hin- und herwogende Nahkämpfe, bei denen schließlich österreichisch-ungarische und deutsche Truppen die Russen wieder aus der zweiten Stellung herauswarfen und sie somit in einen Geländegewinn verwiesen, der in schmaler Front etwa 300 bis 400 Meter tief, an der tiefsten Stelle kaum 800 Meter tief ist. Der russische Anprall war damit zum Stehen gekommen. Auch wiederholte russische Angriffe am 4. Juli brachen zusammen, nur südlich Kartschewo kamen dabei die Angreifer vorübergehend in die Gräben, die Eindringlinge wurden aber, soweit sie noch den heftigen Handgranatenkampf überlebten, gefangen genommen.
Am 5. und 6. Juli flauten dann die Gefechte ab, nur das Artilleriefeuer blieb stellenweise lebhaft. Nördlich Wygoda wurde eine von den Russen besetzte Höhe gesäubert.
Am 7. und 8. Juli setzten dann die Russen frisch herangebrachte Kräfte nach starker Artillerievorbereitung, die sich öfters zum Trommelfeuer steigerte, in dichter Menge zu wiederholtem Sturm an. Nur an ganz wenigen Stellen drangen sie hierbei in unsere Gräben ein und wurden dort zusammengehauen oder gefangen genommen. Die meisten dieser Angriffe erstickten schon im Artilleriesperrfeuer. Es wurden in diesem Abschnitt in den Angriffstagen Gefangene von neun verschiedenen Divisionen gemacht.
Am 9. Juli herrschte verhältnismäßige Ruhe, nur in den späten Abendstunden machten die Russen überfallartige Angriffe, die aber restlos scheiterten. Das allgemeine Ergebnis ist bisher, daß die Russen einen ganz minimalen Geländegewinn mit erschreckenden Opfern bezahlten. Vorgehende Patrouillen fanden die Mulden vor unseren Stellungen gefüllt mit Leichen. Unsere Truppen haben sich bei diesen Kämpfen zäh geschlagen. Auch nachdem Gräben und Stellungen im Trommelfeuer völlig eingeebnet waren, hielten sie in Löchern und Granattrichtern tapfer aus.

Dr. Fritz Wertheimer, Kriegsberichterstatter. 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Fünf englische Wachtschiffe in der Otrantostraße zerstört

Wien, 10. Juli.
Amtlich wird verlautet:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Der gestrige Tag verlief verhältnismäßig ruhig. Vereinzelte Vorstöße des Feindes wurden abgeschlagen.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
An der Isonzofront beschränkte sich die Gefechtstätigkeit auf Artilleriefeuer und Luftkämpfe. Unsere Seeflugzeuge warfen auf die Adriawerke neuerdings Bomben. Zwischen Brenta und Etsch wurde an mehreren Stellen erbittert gekämpft. Gegen unsere Linien südöstlich der Cima Dieci führten starke Alpinikräfte mehrere Angriffe, die von Abteilungen unserer Infanterie-Regimenter Nr. 17 und 70 unter schwersten Verlusten des Feindes abgeschlagen werden. Über 800 tote Italiener liegen vor unseren Gräben. Nachts scheiterte ein feindlicher Vorstoß im Raume des Monte Interotto. Im Abschnitte östlich des Brandtales griffen Alpini den Valmorbia und den Monte Corno an, gelangtem auch in den Besitz dieses Berges, verloren ihn aber wieder dank eines Gegenangriffes unserer tapferen Tiroler Landesschützen, denen sich 455 Italiener ergaben.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
Bei Tagesanbruch traf unser Kreuzer "Novara" in der Otranto-Straße auf eine Gruppe von vier oder - wie alle dabei gemachten Gefangenen übereinstimmend angeben - von fünf armierten englischen Überwachungsdampfern und zerstörte sie alle durch Geschützfeuer. Die Dampfer sanken brennend, davon drei nach Explosion der Kessel. Von ihren Bemannungen konnte die "Novara" nur 9 Engländer retten.

Flottenkommando. 1)



Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 10. Juli. (W. B. )
Das Hauptquartier teilt mit:
An der Irakfront keine Veränderung. Im Abschnitt von Felahie wurde eine berittene feindliche Erkundungsabteilung auf dem rechten Ufer des Tigris von unserer Erkundungsabteilung überfallen; sie floh und ließ ihre Pferde zurück.
Von der persischen Front ist keine neue Nachricht eingegangen.
An der Kaukasusfront hat sich aus dem rechten Flügel nichts von Bedeutung ereignet. Südlich des Tschorok wurden die vom Feinde vorgestern in Gruppen im ganzen Abschnitt versuchten Gegenangriffe sämtlich abgewiesen. Die feindlichen Truppen, denen es gelungen war, in einigen Abschnitten in unsere vorgeschobenen Schützengräben einzudringen, wurden nach Osten zu verjagt, nachdem wir einen Gegenangriff gemacht hatten, der zu einem blutigen Handgemenge geführt hatte. Nördlich des Tschorok fanden auf dem linken Flügel Scharmützel statt. Sonst nichts von Bedeutung. 2)


U-"Deutschland" in Amerika

London, 10. Juli.
Reuter meldet:
Die Blätter veröffentlichen ein Telegramm aus New York, in dem berichtet wird, daß ein deutsches Tauchboot mit einer wertvollen Fracht Farbstoffe in Baltimore landete. Zwanzig Meilen außerhalb der Küste wurde durch englische und französische Kreuzer Jagd auf das Tauchboot gemacht, wodurch sich die Ankunft um vier Tage verzögerte.
Baltimore, 10. Juli. (W. B.)
Reuter meldet:
Das hier angekommene deutsche Tauchboot namens "Deutschland" erhebt Anspruch darauf, ein unbewaffnetes Handelsschiff zu sein, das Fracht führt. Seine Ladung ist an Schumacher u. Co. in Baltimore konsigniert. Sie besteht aus Farbstoffen und Medizinen. Lake, der Kassierer der Lake-Torpedo Company in Bridgeport (Connecticut), erklärt, er beabsichtige einen Protest gegen die "Deutschland" anzustrengen, da sie die Patente der Lake-Torpedo-Company verletzt habe. Die Offiziere der "Deutschland" stellen in Abrede, daß das Tauchboot von feindlichen Kriegsschiffen verfolgt wurde, und erklären, daß sie weder britische noch französische Kriegsschiffe gesehen haben. Ein Küstenschutzkutter folgte der "Deutschland" auf ihrer Fahrt nach der Chesapeake-Bay. Der Grund hierfür wurde nicht angegeben. Aber es verlautet, daß das Tauchboot unter Aufsicht bleiben soll. Die Firma Schumacher ist Agent des Norddeutschen Lloyd. 2)

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_07_10.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 10 Jul 2014 14:26, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jul 2006 14:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg resigns

On July 10, 1917, Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, chancellor of Germany, resigns his position after failing to control the divided German Reichstag (government) as World War I threatened to stretch into its fourth agonizing year.

A former Prussian minister of the interior and state secretary in the Imperial German Office, Bethmann Hollweg was appointed German chancellor by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1909. Though of a relatively liberal bent, Bethmann Hollweg from the beginning strove to satisfy both the right and left extremes within the Reichstag, with varying results. His efforts to pursue diplomacy within Europe were often undermined by the strength of the German military establishment, supported by the kaiser. One outstanding example of this dynamic was Bethmann Hollweg’s unsuccessful efforts to scale back Germany’s aggressive naval build-up in the first decade of the 20th century, in accordance with negotiations he entered into with Britain. In the end, the kaiser weighed in on the side of Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, and the naval arms race continued.

Though Bethmann Hollweg personally expressed hopes of avoiding Germany’s going to war in the summer of 1914, he nonetheless played a central role in the machinations between Austria-Hungary and Germany that occurred in the wake of the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo in late June. Once the war was underway, Bethmann Hollweg struggled to make his influence felt with the kaiser and the military leaders of Germany, who effectively dictated policy from the first year of war and whose power was formally consolidated with the creation of the Third Supreme Command—effectively a military dictatorship—in August 1916. The chancellor, echoing more liberal elements within the Reichstag, including the socialists, spoke out for peace more than once and argued for limitation of Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, actions that earned him the contempt of the military and naval command, including Von Tirpitz and Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich von Ludendorff.

The chancellor owed his final downfall, however, to his failure to manage the civil unrest within Germany, reflected in the feuding Reichstag. During the summer of 1917, as parliamentary debate raged over a proposed peace resolution, Bethmann Hollweg found himself unable to continue to balance the feuding elements of the German government, especially the majority Socialist Party—which was itself alienating its most radical leftist elements by aligning with a center-left coalition—and the conservative right, which predictably enjoyed the support of Hindenburg and Ludendorff. Having previously committed—reluctantly—to an unrestricted naval policy that had led the United States to declare war on Germany the previous April, Bethmann Hollweg was seen by the center-left, the authors of the Reichstag peace resolution, as a warmonger and by the right as a weakling for supporting the efforts to broker a peace.

Exhausted, Bethmann Hollweg rose in the Reichstag on July 9 to respond to his critics: “My position does not matter…I myself am convinced of my own limitations…I am considered weak because I seek to end the war. A leading statesman can receive support neither from the Left nor the Right in Germany.” The following day, he resigned as chancellor. He was replaced by Georg Michaelis, a relatively obscure undersecretary of state in the Finance Ministry who served for less than four months, only to be replaced by the equally unobtrusive Count Georg von Hertling, who served until the last month of the war and was, like Michaelis, basically a puppet premier subject to the authority of the kaiser and the military.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Preparations for the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum

On July 9th, Berchtold advised Franz Josef that he would present Belgrade with an ultimatum containing demands that were designed to be rejected, which would have ensured a war without the “odium of attacking Serbia without warning, put her in the wrong” and ensured that Britain and Romania would remain neutral. On July 10th, Berchtold told Tschirschky he would present the Serbs with an ultimatum containing “unacceptable demands” as the best way of causing war, but “chief care” would be taken about how to present these “unacceptable demands”. In response, Wilhelm wrote angrily on the margins of Tschirschky’s dispatch “They had time enough for that!”

It took a week from July 7–14 for Tisza to be persuaded to support the war against Serbia. On July 9, Prince Linchnowsky, the German Ambassador in London was told by the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey that he “…saw no reason for taking a pessimistic view of the situation” . Despite Tisza's opposition, Berchtold had ordered his officials to start drafting an ultimatum to Serbia on July 10th. The German Ambassador reported that “Count Berchtold appeared to hope that Serbia would not agree to the Austro-Hungarian demands, as a mere diplomatic victory would put the country here again in a stagnant mood”. Count Hoyos told a German diplomat “that the demands were really of such a nature that no nation that still possessed self-respect and dignity could possibly accept them”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Crisis#Preparations_for_the_Austro-Hungarian_Ultimatum
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ASHTON TERRITORIALS - THE 9th BATTALION of the MANCHESTER REGIMENT

The Reporter Headlines on Saturday 10th July 1915

HEAVY LOSSES AMONG ASHTON TERRITORIALS.
Reporter: - "These are very sad days for many homes in Ashton. A heavy list of casualties among the men of the 1/9th Battalion Manchester Regiment has come through this week. Most of them relate to men who have been killed or died of wounds. The names of between twenty to thirty men have been received. It is a terrible toll of young life, which is being exacted from the Town. The list of casualties among the Ashton Territorials since they took part in the fighting in the Dardanelles during the past few weeks has now reached large proportions. The greatest sympathy is extended to their families. But, the men have died the death of heroes. They have given their lives in the noblest cause for which man can die - they have died in order that others might live in greater freedom and happiness - that England shall be free and not enslaved in the hands of a foreign militarist foe."

TERRITORIAL KILLED
Youth Who Records a Brave Act by Another.

"Eddy was always unselfish", said Mrs Heinemann, of Old Street, Ashton, in speaking of her son, Private 1859 E. HEINEMANN, who has been killed in action with the Ashton Territorials in the Dardanelles. This characteristic is borne out by his message, in which he tells of a brave deed performed by a comrade. Writing on June 5th, he says - "You will see that we are still in the land of the living, although it is not the Turks fault. It is a grand country out here. The sea almost surrounds us, and there are plenty of 'shells' but no 'fish'. You will remember me telling you about a chap called Sylvester. Well, the other day we advanced in front of the firing line and dug ourselves in. It was risky work. One of our fellows got hit. Sylvester picked him up and carried him back, and then came out again, and went on with the digging. It was a brave act, wasn't it?"

Private HEINEMANN was 20 years of age. He was educated at the Ryecroft British School, under Mr. Mason, who is now at the West End Council School, and attended the Wesleyan Chapel, Stamford Street, and Sunday School in Mill Lane. He was in the Boy Scouts for a time, and was a keen Scout. In 1914 he joined the Territorials, and was one of the first to volunteer for foreign service. He was a motor and coach painter, and sign writer by trade, but in addition, possessed an artistic taste which displayed itself in numerous little sketches. In some of his letters he shows that he possessed a keen appreciation of the beautiful, judging by his poetic descriptions of the sky and the glorious sunsets to be seen in Cleopatra's land. Sympathetic reference to his death was made at the Wesleyan Chapel on Sunday night, where his name appears in the Roll of Honour. The photograph of Private HEINEMANN was snapped as he was painting a machine gun. (EDWARD HEINEMANN is buried in the Redoubt Cemetery, Helles).

DROYLSDEN APRENTICE,
Falls While Fighting With Ashton Territorials.

So anxious was Private 1321 GEORGE WILLIAM HUDSON, of the Ashton Territorials, who is officially reported to have died of wounds received on June 7th, at the Dardanelles, to have a rap at the enemy that, whilst in Cairo, believing there was no possibility of the battalion serving active service, he volunteered to go to France, so that he might have a chance of being in at the fighting. His desire to fight was at length gratified, and now, having done his duty, he lies at rest somewhere in the Dardanelles. He fell in the gallant bayonet charge led by Captain HAMER and Lieutenant STRINGER, when the Ashton Territorials earned glory for themselves. Private HUDSON, who was 20 years of age, lived at 42, Edge Lane, Droylsden. He was an apprentice machinist at the works of Messrs. Electric-motors Ltd, Higher Openshaw, and joined the Ashton Territorials about six months prior to the war. (GEORGE WILLIAM HUDSON is buried in the East Mudros Military Cemetery, Lemnos).

YOUTH DIES FROM WOUNDS.
Mr. and Mrs William Robinson Lee, of Cockbrook, Ashton, have received information from the military authorities at Preston that their son, Private 1917 FREDERICK CHARLES LEE, 1/9th Manchester Regiment died from wounds on the 19th June. The notification of death was accompanied by a message of sympathy from the King and Queen to the family in their great sorrow. Private LEE was only 19 years of age, and was a member of the Territorials prior to the out break of war. He volunteered for active service. Prior to the war, he was employed as a piecer at Whitelands Mills, and was associated with St. Gabriel's Mission, Cockbrook. (FREDERICK C. LEE died of wounds on the 19th June. He is buried in the Lancashire Landing Cemetery).

DROYLSDEN YOUTH KILLED.
In Bayonet Charge With the Ashton Territorials.

One of the Ashton Territorials who fell on June 7th. in the brilliant bayonet charge led by Captains HAMER and OKELL, and Lieutenants STRINGER and WADE, was Private 2012 JOHN TETLOW, of 170, Edge Lane, Droylsden, who was regarded as a promising heavyweight boxer.

Private TETLOW, who was only 18 years of age, worked as a moulder at Messrs. Crossley's works, and was a member of the Crossley Lads Club. He had been a telegraph boy at the Openshaw Post Office. Whilst out in Egypt he 'managed' SAMMY BONSALL, the Stalybridge boxer, in his fight with the champion of the South Australian contingent, which BONSALL won in four rounds. It had been known that some of the Ashton Territorials fought amongst the Turks at Ismalia, but not the whole battalion. In an interesting letter, Private TETLOW says - " I have two medals to come, one for being one of the Sultans Guard of Honour on the day he was proclaimed Sultan, and one for going to Ismalia. I will have a bar on that medal. There are only 18 in the battalion who will have a bar on. Four out of each Company and two Corporals went to Ismalia with the Indians to fight the Turks". (JOHN TETLOW is buried in the Redoubt Cemetery, Helles).

Lees vooral verder op http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1915page6.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mr. Crackanthorpe to Sir Edward Grey. (Received July 15.)

Belgrade, July 10, 1914.

Sir,
The severe reprisals taken against the Serb population in Bosnia in consequence of the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand have, as was to be expected, unchained the passions of the Servian Yellow Press. I will not trouble you with any of these acrimonious articles which are both irresponsible and unofficial. They have recently been condemned by theGovernment organ, the "Samouprava" in a leading article in which stress is laid on the correctattitude taken by the Servian Press immediately after the assassination, and on the general reprobation of the crime in Servia. It is therefore, states the "Samouprava," all the more regrettable that certain organs should have been induced by subsequent events in Bosnia to attempt a justification of the murder. The only result of this can be to justify the consequences which the murder has entailed on the Serb population of Austria-Hungary. The hope is expressed that these press polemics will now cease. Servia is now strong enough to discard the employment of threats and insults. The article concludes by emphasising the fact that the Austro-Hungarian Press has seized the opportunity to open a campaign of slander and menace against this country, and to incite the populace to outrages on innocent and peaceful citizens, thereby incurring the blame of every civilised State.

I have, &c.
DAYRELL CRACKANTHORPE.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/1914m/gooch/35-50.htm

Leuke site!: British Documents on the Origins of the War, 1898-1914, http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/1914m/gooch/goochidx.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Greek Genocide 1914-23

The New York Times, July 10th 1921, page 4.

700,000 GREEKS VICTIMS OF TURKS
Charge Made by Washington Legation, Which Puts Dead at That Figure.
KILLINGS AND DEPORTATIONS
These, With Famine, Said to Have Been Responsible for the Tragedy in Asia Minor.
Special to The New York Times.
WASHINGTON, July 9.--Nearly 700,000 Greeks have been massacred, deported, or have died of famine since the war with Turkey began, according to a statement given out today by the Greek Legation. Half of these victims are said to have been Greeks of Pontus and the others were from the interior of Asia Minor. Part of the statement follows:
"American travelers and others just arriving from Samsoun, said a dispatch from Constantinople, report horrible details of the presecution of Christian populations in that region. The notorious murderous chief, Osman Agha, arrived at Samsoun the second day of Bairam, a Turkish holiday similar to Easter, inaugurating his entry by the murder of ten Greeks. Then, surrounding the stores of the American Tobacco Company, he arrested all the Greek clerks, numbering about 800, and had them transported to an unkown destination. The Greek quarter was then surrounded and 1,500 other Greeks arrested and deported to the interior.
"The population of thirty other villages in the Samsoun region were massacred while they were being transported to the place of exile. The Turkish authorities prohibited the use of the waters of the river contaminated by the bodies. Other villages, having refused to comply with the deportation order, were set on fire by the Turks, and the inhabitants, regardless of aege and sex, were killed.
"The American commission which went to this place reported these crimes and brought back burned bones, which were shown to the Turkish Governor.
"Since the beginning of the war the Turks have exterminated by massacres, deportations and through famine more than 350,000 Greeks of the Pont (Pontus, district of Asia Minor bordering on the Black Sea) and as many other Greeks from the interior of Asia Minor. This work of extermination of an enture peaceful population is pursued right before the eyes of a civilized world.
"The Ecumenic Patriarchate is much worried by reports which are constantly coming in from the Metropolitans, regarding massacres and persecution of Greeks in the interior. The Patriarchate is preparing for the British High Commissioner a long memorandum showing in detail the Turkish crimes. At the same time the Patriarchate will call the attention of the Interallied authorities to violations by the Turks of the regulations laid down by the Interallied control at Constantinople in the arrest of Greeks coming from Ismid and other localities of Marmora, under the pretext that they had participated in activities against the Turks."


http://www.greek-genocide.org/press/10071921.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly - What is a Scab? (1915)

Workers’ Republic, 10 July 1915.

The question seems rather superfluous. We will be told that everyone knows what a scab is. In Dublin the idea of being called a ‘scab’ rightly awakens horror in the minds of all honest workers be they men or women. No one likes to be associated with the creature who, when the rights of Labour were in the balance of conflict, when the dignity of Labour was attacked, when the liberties of Labour were in peril, basely abandoned his fellows and ‘sold the pass’ on his comrades. And yet, as simple as it seems the question involves more than can be answered without a good deal of thought.

What is a scab?

A scab is a worker who in the course of a strike or lock out helps the employer to keep his business going – to dispense with the aid of the men or women he formerly employed. To understand what a scab is we must first understand what constitutes a striker. A strike is an attempt to obtain certain concessions from an employer or group of employers by stopping his business, and thus stopping the flow of profits. If a body of workers are on strike the question of whether they are winning or losing is settled in the long run by their success in stopping their employers’ business. If they succeed in stopping that business they win, if they do not succeed they lose. If their Union is able to pay Strike Pay for a year or two years they would still lose if the business can go on without them; nay, if the Union could pay a Strike Pay greater in amount than the weekly wages they had earned they would still lose if the employer’s business was going on without them. But if the business cannot go on without them then they win. Hence, and this is the pivot of the whole question, whosoever enables the employer to continue his business without the striking workers is scabbing upon those workers.

Now let us imagine a practical illustration of this case. The labourers in the shops and yards of certain Dublin railway depots are on strike for an increase in their miserable wages. The work of these labourers consists mainly in helping or attending certain skilled tradesmen. If the Companies can get men degraded enough to do it they will bring in men to do the work formerly done by the men on strike. These men will be scabs. But what will be the skilled tradesmen who will accept the help of these scabs, who will instruct them in their duties, and work side by side with them in the effort to enable the Companies to defeat the strikers?

Many of the skilled tradesmen have already signified their attitude. All of them have stood firm in their refusal to do other work than their own. On Saturday, July 3rd, six engine drivers on the Midland and Great Western Railway were asked and agreed to wash out the boilers of their engines. On Sunday the local branch of their Union held a meeting and strongly repudiated their action. On Monday the Company requested the attendance of a deputation to discuss the matter in the office. The deputation attended and stood firm in their refusal. The United Smiths are equally firm, as are the Boilermakers.

But looming in the background is the threat of the Companies to get scabs to help the tradesmen. On the Dublin and South Eastern some few scabs have already been obtained. These scabs first worked a coal boat, and then went into the workshops to attend the skilled men as helpers.

As a result these skilled men are already face to face with the question we are treating in this article.

If a labourer who goes into work on a dispute is a scab, what is the skilled tradesman who accepts him as a helper?

We know how our readers would answer the question, we know how the Transport Union has always acted when another Union had its members on strike from the same employment as our members were engaged in, we know what honour and wisdom would dictate, but –

What will the skilled Trades do? How will they answer the question, “What is a scab?”

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1915/07/scab.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Somme - July 1916

10 July 1916 - ... while my half went up to occupy a large deep dug-out whose entrance unfortunately faced the Germans. What made matters worse, it was the only entrance and therefore liable to be blown in and entomb the men.

This is a very good description of the dugout mentioned in the newspaper article in Albert's personal effects.

Onderstaand het hierboven genoemde newspaper article :

A cutting from the "The Saturday Review" dated 14 April 1917, amongst the personal effects of Albert Chapman 27th Field Ambulance R.A.M.C.

AN EARLY SOMME BATTLEFIELD. - III.

By a Sergeant in Kitchener's.


The trees of B---- Wood had long ago surrendered their midsummer leaves, and in the dusk held up their stark branches as though asking mercy of the smouldering sky. Looking upwards you could see a lonely leaf flapping. Stars and rags seemed caught in the boughs. To the commoner wilderness of death this place was a step forward into hell, where forms of fear had their haunts and evil spirits all but visible moved in their own paths. The menace of outraged Nature breathed in the startling odour of sap from thousands of bruised tree trunks. Corpses of trees and men mingled corruption, and their limbs lay equally broken.

The M.O. wearing his cape, walked ahead. We had entered the wood from the corner near the cross roads and were now wending our way after him. The place was quiet that evening; only an occasional shell fell and echoed. Sticks snapped under our feet. We came at last to a clearing and descended to a trench that ran left to right. It was one of the two trenches, running the length of the wood, which were held by our battalion. This trench must have been eight or nine feet deep, and was so narrow that a stretcher fully opened could not pass along it. But we had not far to go before we turned sharp, descended a little passage, and found ourselves in a good dugout roofed with three layers of tree trunks very solidly set. This was our new aid post.

The enemy knew every corner of the wood: they had the range of the trench and the position of the dugout accurately. The only mistake, from our point of view, was that the door now faced front, so that a shell by ill luck might have fallen in the entrance.

Next morning a reserve battalion made an attack over the heads of our battalion, who thus became a reserve in their turn. The enemy barrage fire grew thick and continuous, and the wood maintained its sinister tradition. Shells of all kinds flew screaming into it as to their natural home. The dugout was soon filled with wounded, who came crawling along the trenches or who were brought in by the stretcher bearers for treatment. To get them in and out of the dugout was difficult enough, but the real struggle was getting loaded stretchers across the mud, roots, and fallen timber in the wood. Progress was so slow and painful that wherever possible four bearers went with a stretcher as far as the cross roads, whence two would return to the aid post. For a couple of hours, owing to the intense shelling, our operations were suspended. Down in the dugout the M. O. worked cheerfully, though he looked on the verge of collapse from fatigue. Albert, one of our bearers, who was an excellent dresser, quite unperturbed under such conditions, remained to help. Albert had plenty of work, but I fancy he chiefly remembers searching continuously for the iodine bottle, which in the crowd and semi-darkness, was always getting lost. Immersed in our work, we came to feel that time had stopped, and that we were engaged in a void of blood and mud and noise. The creepers hanging down over the entrance moved in the draught from shell after shell. The crash of falling boughs [..........................] faces wild with terror appeared and disappeared at the entrance of the dugout. Although the iodine bottle continued to elude him, the M. O. never swore. On one occasion, after a crash that sounded immediately over us, he remarked quietly, " The Saviour loves us". Certainly death with a monstrous axe seemed to be striding in the wood above us. The wounded huddled themselves into corners as far as possible from the door. I went out on one occasion into the trench and saw the troops. The strain of enduring for hours together the peculiar nameless horror of this place, without any allaying occupation, was too much for flesh and blood. Then it was that something wonderful happened. In a lull of a few seconds a bird sang three notes. They were notes full and unbearably sweet, and had an effect indescribable upon those who heard them.

The storm closed over us again, and the next thing I remember was the figure of a man, mad with terror, who rushed into the dugout holding his back and shouting, " I'm hit in the liver!" The M. O. silenced him at once. He had been badly bruised in the back and now sat whimpering in a corner, but he was temporarily insane through fright. As I was to go back on a message for the M. O. I took him and another wounded man with me. The other case had been badly hurt in the foot, but he took my arm and walked with assistance. He was a small, conscientious man, who talked continually and cheerfully as we picked our way through the trees and shrubs or strove to stand upright in the mud. But the madman ran ahead crying to us and waving his arms. We went very slowly, and would overtake him at cross paths, where he crouched behind a tree trunk, peeping out like a hare. The branches here and there had been bent into fantastic shapes resembling bowers and trellises. Shrapnel burst frequently over us and made a strange knocking sound against the timber. Boughs and whole trees crashed to the ground, and the sound rang and mingled with homeless echoes. In the pitiless light of day the wood was more terrible than at dusk, when the eye could not penetrate its naked aisles. The smell of sap persisted like a poison in the nostrils.

But the barrage was more intense behind the wood. I gave the madman directions as to getting to the nearest communication trench, and he flew off at once, though we told him he was safer with us. We never knew whether he reached the A. D. S. in safety. He on my arm smiled and apologised for going so slowly, though each step must have hurt him. He maintained his conversation in an even voice and mentioned that he had left his best friend behind him. "Eh, but he were a good pal to me ", said he. As we passed the cross roads the shells were falling fairly thick, and we pulled our helmets well down over the nape of the neck. Meanwhile the conversation had taken a religious turn, and I heard him say that he believed in Christ very firmly, and so was not troubled with personal fear. As he spoke a large shell known as a " Coal-Box " fell about twenty feet on our right. Clods of earth pelted us and the smoke rose like genie from a bottle. The thought occurred to both of us that the thing was an apparition of evil, taking its place captiously beside his declaration of faith. He raised his collar as though at a thunder-shower. With his arm in mine I did not even feel surprised at the absence in myself of the common sensations of fear. We did not alter our pace, and in about ten minutes had crossed the barrage area. When we came [.................] dressing station I directed him and said good-bye. I had never met as brave a man.

On my return journey I had occasion to pass the trench where we had our previous aid-post. The place was almost obliterated by shells that had probably fallen the night we left. Mentally I paid a tribute to the M. O.' s instinct for aid-posts and when to leave them.

Near by I found a soldier half-sitting, half-lying on an old firing step. He was a mere boy with rosy cheeks, and had received a head wound that had stunned him. I carried shell dressings in my pocket, and bandaged him, but almost immediately a shell burst close by, and lumps of earth fell upon us, battering us. He had lost his helmet, and under the brutal shower he bowed himself and groaned. I half-carried him to a place under cover, where I had to leave him, to return to the M. O. Following the same route, familiar by now, the communication trench, the open field came before me, and then the cross roads with their shell pitted pavement and drunken signboard. But it was no longer a place of terror. The [...] arose on each side, and the air was full of uncouth sounds; but in this place that wounded man had spoken his astonishing words and delivered me from the tyranny of fear. I, too, had believed, as he had believed; yet it seemed marvellous, as though I had read it in a tale, that I should have been bound with one such a moment whose faith was greater than my own. I reached the corner of the wood and paused for a moment. The poisonous odour greeted me, and at once the figure of that other man, maddened by fear, seemed to peep at me round the tree trunks. And what of him? What of that boy I had but just left in pain? What of that German prisoner whose lunatic eyes had prophesied to us what we in our turn would have to endure? Is there any triumph for the grown man rejoicing in his own spirit, or in God's, while hundreds of children - while one child - is driven mad beside him? Rather there is more mercy in these blundering shells, more truth in three notes of a bird than in all the half creeds and half righteousness of men. Here in this scar across Europe, between the opposing lines of guns, both the strong and the weak offered equally to a spiritual God their courage and their terror in protest against every false compromise between good and evil that has gone to produce - this.

http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hoddy/somme.htm & http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hoddy/newspap.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917: Eerste inzet van Mosterdgas te Lombardsijde, tijdens Operation Strandfest. Op 12 juli 1917 word opnieuw Mosterdgas ingezet tijdens de Derde Slag om Ieper.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Royal Welch Fusiliers in the First Battle of the Somme

The Wood was strategically important and strongly defended by German infantry and artillery; successive assaults on 7 to 8 July failed as the advancing troops were cut down while crossing open ground. About this, the Commander in Chief, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig wrote in his diary that:

The 38th Welsh Division had not advanced with determination to the attack

– a totally unjustifiable accusation based on incomplete information. In fact the 115th Brigade lost more than 600 men in this stage of the battle.

However, a renewed attack by the 113th and 114th Brigades (the former consisting of four RWF battalions) early on 10 July gained a foothold in the Wood, and until late the following day Welsh battalions fought their way through the chaotic, shattered and bewildering mass of broken timber and dense undergrowth against an unseen enemy, preceded by a creeping artillery barrage which added to the deafening noise and further uprooted or brought down trees. To add to the horror and confusion, this even fell at times on their own men. But on the night of 11/12 July the Germans withdrew from the Wood, leaving behind hundreds of dead. As Colin Hughes has written in his fine account of the battle – which in part redresses Haig's hasty judgement –

… its capture can be attributed wholly to the 38th (Welsh) Division …

But the cost to the Division was very high – in all it lost nearly 4,000 men including 600 killed and as many missing. The five RWF battalions lost well over 1,000 men including four out of five commanding officers: it should be remembered that not one man in the Division had been trained to fight in thick woodland, and for the majority this was their first experience of battle.

http://www.rwfmuseum.org.uk/nbsomme.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Donald Simpson Bell

Donald Simpson Bell VC (3 December 1890 – 10 July 1916) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)

When World War I broke out, he became the first professional footballer to enlist into the British Army – joining the West Yorkshire Regiment in 1915.[2] He was rapidly promoted to Lance Corporal and then was commissioned into the 9th Battalion, The Yorkshire Regiment (Alexandra, Princess of Wales' Own) in 1915. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 5 July 1916 at Horseshoe Trench, Somme, France. He was killed in action on 10 July 1916.

For most conspicuous bravery. During an attack a very heavy enfilade fire was opened on the attacking company by a hostile machine gun. 2nd Lt. Bell immediately, and on his own initiative, crept up a communication trench and then, followed by Corpl. Colwill and Pte. Batey, rushed across the open under very heavy fire and attacked the machine gun, shooting the firer with his revolver, and destroying gun and personnel with bombs. This very brave act saved many lives and ensured the success of the attack. Five days later this very gallant officer lost his life performing a very similar act of bravery.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Simpson_Bell
Zie ook http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=190937
Zie ook http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1345393/Somme-memorial-to-mark-English-footballs-VC.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Royal Australian Navy

The Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia. On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy'.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Australian_Navy
Zie ook http://www.navy.gov.au/The_R.A.N._-_A_Brief_History
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexei Brusilov's Announcements Regarding the Kerenski Offensive

10 July 1917

DIRECTION OF DOLINA - On July 8th, about midday, after artillery preparation, the troops of Gen, Kornilov's army attacked the fortified positions of the enemy to the west of Stanislau, on the Jamnica front, and, having pierced the foremost and most important position of the enemy, our troops advanced and captured in battle the small town of Jezupol [on the Bystrzyca] and the villages of Ciesow, Pawelcze, Rybno, and Stary Lysiec [all west of or on the same river].

Our cavalry, giving immediate pursuit to the retreating enemy, reached the River Lukwa [about eight miles behind the enemy first line].

During the course of the day 131 officers and 7,000 rank and file were taken prisoners; 48 guns (including 12 heavy guns) and numerous machine guns were also captured.

10 July 1917

Yesterday the troops of Gen. Kornilov continued the offensive in the region west of Stanislau. The Austro-Germans offered an energetic resistance, launching desperate counter-attacks.

Fighting of a most stubborn and sanguinary character took place on the roads leading to Halicz in the vicinity of the villages of Huciska, Pacykow and Pawelcze. In the streets of the last-named village hand-to-hand fighting occurred, which ended in the complete defeat of the enemy.

In yesterday's fighting we captured more than 1,000 Austro-German prisoners, three field guns, and a large quantity of trench engines, machine guns and engineering and war material.

The gallant conduct of our troops was beyond praise and the officers were everywhere in the forefront.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/russia_brusilov2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Operation Hush: planned landing on Belgian coast

Then, at 5.30am on the the 10 July the massed German artillery, including three 24cm naval guns in shore batteries and 58 artillery batteries (planned naval gunfire support from destroyers and torpedo-boats was cancelled), opened up on the British positions in the bridgehead. Mustard gas (Yellow Cross) was used for the first time in the barrage. All but one of the bridges over the Yser River were demolished, isolating the 1/Northamptonshire and 2/KRRC of 2nd Brigade, 1st Division on the extreme left flank. Telephone communication was also cut. The German bombardment continued throughout
the day. The British artillery attempted a counter-barrage but several guns were knocked out and the German infantry were well protected. At 8pm, the MarinesKorps launched the infantry assault, by which time the two British battalions had suffered 70-80% casualties. The German stormtroopers attacked down the coast, outflanking the British. Their attack was then followed by waves of German Marines, supported by flamethrower teams to mop up dugouts. After a gallant defence, the British battalions were overwhelmed. Only 4 officers and 64 other ranks managed to reach the west bank of the Yser.

Lees het hele artikel op http://www.1914-1918.net/hush.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Telegraph battalion, Signal corps. Tables of organization and equipment. July, 1917

http://www.archive.org/details/telegraphbattali00unitrich
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DIARIES OF SAMUEL MILLER KEPLINGER JR., AMBULANCE DRIVER
AMERICAN FIELD SERVICE, WWI -- FRANCE


7-10. [1918] Took Smithy to Souilly. Rather serious.

Cooler today.

Am making good mileage for a year old, roughly used ambulance. About six kilometres to the litre. Poor gasoline, too.

Getting a terrible appetite. Can eat anything --- and lots of it. Eat a lot of fat lately. --- Am gaining a little weight.

One year ago today, Max & I landed at Bordeaux.

Been on the Somme, Marne, Verdun, Argonne & St Mihiel sectors. Been to Paris (8 times), Rouen, Aix-les-Baines on permissions.

http://www.ourstory.info/library/2-ww1/Keplinger/kepTC.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE CREATION OF THE WORKERS’ AND PEASANTS’ RED ARMY

Report to the Fifth Congress of Soviets at its session of July 10, 1918

Our opponents and, to an even greater extent, our enemies – though it must be said that in the course of the revolution our opponents are being transformed into enemies – reproach us for having realized only gradually, only belatedly, the need to create an army, and an army built according to solid, planned, scientific principles.

The program of our party, like that of any workers’ socialist party, does not say anything about the destruction and suppression of the army in the present period of struggle, but only about reconstructing it on new, democratic principles, the principles of militia service and armament of the entire people.

I shall speak later about the modification that the principle of universal armament undergoes in the revolutionary conditions of an epoch of civil war. But now, before dealing with that question, I have to ask you this: what caused the disappearance of the old army, which was a regular army constructed, so far as the material and ideological means and resources of the old regime permitted, on the basis of scientific principles?

Lees verder op http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/military/ch35.htm#bwert
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mine Accident at Airdrie - 19 workmen entombed

[Glasgow Herald, July 10 1918]

An alarming pit accident by which 19 miners were entombed occurred yesterday at Stanrigg Colliery, near Airdrie

Over 70 men were in the pit when the moss above the workings subsided into the hump section. With the exception of 19 they managed to escape to the surface. A rescue party from Coatbridge was summoned, and operations were at once begun to try and reach the imprisoned miners. The moss-slip affected an area of about one acre. The moving mass filled up the roads in the pit, cutting off the escape of the men. The rescue party set to work immediately on arrival to bore through, so that they might get into communication with the entombed men and pass food to them. Subsequently an attempt was begun to reach them by sinking a shaft through the moss, but up till midnight it had not succeeded. The pit is situated in a desolate region in the in the hills amongst the moors.

The Entombed Men
The men entombed reside in villages in the vicinity of the pit. Their names and addresses are:-

David M'Niven (17), Baird Square, Rawyards; Wm. Marshall (33), Greengairs; Alex. Park (50), Greengairs; John Sneddon (34), Greengairs; James Sneddon (14), Greengairs; Bernard M'Adams (18), Greengairs; Lesley Gilchrist (15), Wattstown; Alex. Gilchrist (30) Wattstown; Wm. Gilchrist (35), Wattstown; Wm. Campbell (38), Plains; Geo. Templeton (36), Meadowhead; Robt. Campbell (32), Meadowhead; Wm. Williamson (44), Plains; Robt. Pollock, sen. (43), Caldercruix; Robt. Pollock, jun. (17), Caldercruix; John Queen (60), Darngavil; Neil Lindsay (16), Longriggend; Wm. Bradie (47), Whiterigg; Robt. Bradie (18), Whiterigg.

Nog meer krantenartikelen... http://scottishmining.co.uk/45.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 July 1919 – Henry Perry (aka Beckett)

Lodger from hell, Henry Perry, aka Beckett was done for wiping out his landlord and the family, who had so trustingly and unsuspectingly taken him in.

Perry murdered the Cornish family – made up of Walter, mum, Alice, plus daughters Alice and Marie – all in cold blood.

At a time when post-traumatic stress was coming to the fore post-World War I, ex-army man Perry proposed a whole litany of war sufferings in his defence. This included a bastinadoing sesh, (where the soles of his feet were whipped), after which his captors whacked him on the head with a rifle butt before holing him up in a Turk jail, then there were the head injuries thanks to shrapnel embedded in his brain.

Stress out

He also put it down to hearing voices in his head that had told him to commit the murders. But no-one bought shell-shock as a defence, because he had previous.

While he hadn’t committed murder before that point, he had chalked up as many as 17 convictions before he’d gone off to war.

According to Clive Emsley’s extremely specific round-up entitled ‘Violent crime in England in 1919’, the actual trial prosecutor, Percival Clarke, is said to have remarked ‘The war has done great good for some persons, it has taught them discipline, and made honest and honourable men of people who started badly. But the brutalities of war may have made more vicious a person who was vicious before’.

And it was this damning indictment that secured the quadruple murderer his guilty verdict and he was hanged at Pentonville for his crimes, aged 36.

http://eotd.wordpress.com/2008/07/10/10-july-1919-henry-perry-aka-beckett/
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Versailles

July 10, 1919 - President Woodrow Wilson personally delivers Treaty of Versailles to U.S. Senate.

http://www.britannica.com/facts/10/40947893/July-10-1919-President-Woodrow-Wilson-personally-delivers
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Peace Day

In some ways it was never entirely clear what message Peace Day was intended to put across. A letter in a Manchester newspaper put one view of the matter:

Sir,
I am sure the title Peace Day will send a cold shiver through the bodies of thousands of 'demobbed' men who are walking about the streets of Manchester looking for a job. Could a term be found that would be more ironical for such men. Perhaps, after the Manchester and Salford Corporations have celebrated this 'Peace' and incidentally will have wasted the thousands of pounds which it will cost, they will devote their spare time to alleviating the 'bitterness' and 'misery' which exist in the body and mind of the unemployed ex-soldier.

It is high time some very forcible and active measures were taken. Many Manchester businessmen refuse to employ the ex-soldier on the grounds that he has lost four years of experience in this line or that line of business through being in the army. What a splendid and patriotic retort to make to the men who were chiefly instrumental in saving their business from being in the possession of the Hun.


Manchester Evening News July 10th 1919

And there were others who felt that perhaps it was not quite the time to celebrate. The ex-serviceman's federation in East Anglia had decided in June 1919 to boycott peace celebrations.

http://www.aftermathww1.com/peaceday.asp

Desalniettemin: http://www.howtobearetronaut.com/2010/02/vivid-colour-pictures-of-londons-peace-day-19th-july-1919/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 09 Jul 2010 22:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 22:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 July 1919 → Commons Sitting

PEACE CELEBRATIONS - FRENCH FLAG.


HC Deb 10 July 1919 vol 117 cc2006-7 2006

Sir H. BRITTAIN asked the Prime Minister whether, as a compliment to our French Allies and in celebration of our combined victory, he is prepared to advise His Majesty to instruct Government Departments to fly the flag of France on the 14th of July?

The FIRST COMMISSIONER Of WORKS (Sir Alfred Mond) His Majesty has already commanded that this should be done.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/jul/10/french-flag
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 23:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Detroit's Own" Polar Bear Memorial Association

"Polar Bear" Stories as told by themselves and/or their relatives

http://pages.prodigy.net/mvgrobbel/photos/polarbearstories.htm

Een voorbeeld:

"Diary of Pvt. Wilfred L. Martell" - the daily entries of Wilfred Martell, Signal Detachment, HQ Co., 339th Inf., covering the period 13 Oct 1918 through 10 July 1919

http://home.comcast.net/~mvgrobbel/military/martell.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 23:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

20 July 1920 - Former German Colonies in Africa Awarded as Mandates

The League of Nations agreed on 20 July 1920 to award former German colonies (lost as a result of World War I) as mandates. Tanganyika (which formed the greater part of the German colony Deutsche Ostafrika) was awarded to Britain (became Tanzania in 1961), the greater part of the colony of Togo went to France (became Togo in 1960), and the lesser part of Togo went as Togoland to the British (became part of Ghana in 1957). The German colony of Kamerun was divided between the French as Cameroun (became Cameroon in 1960) and the British as British Cameroon North (became Nigeria in 1961) and British Cameroon South (joined with Cameroon in 1961).

http://africanhistory.about.com/b/2009/07/20/20-july-1920-former-german-colonies-in-africa-awarded-as-mandates.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jul 2010 23:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reprise:
July 10, 1919 - Woodrow Wilson Addresses the Senate

On July 10, 1919, the president of the United States, for the first time since 1789, personally delivered a treaty to the Senate. This was no ordinary treaty; it was the Treaty of Versailles, ending World War I and establishing the League of Nations. As Secret Service agents and Capitol police sealed off the Senate wing to everyone without a special pass, President Woodrow Wilson walked into the chamber lugging the over-sized document under his right arm. Recently returned from Paris and his unprecedented self-assigned role as leader of the American negotiating team, Wilson hoped for prompt Senate approval, but feared trouble from Republicans, newly restored as the chamber's majority party.

The president's address set his ratification campaign off to a stumbling start, as he strained to read from typewritten notes on small index cards. Perhaps suffering from the effects of a small stroke, Wilson inadvertently omitted words as he proceeded. Realizing this, he stopped and repeated the garbled sentence, only to drop more words and repeat more sentences.

Only near the end of his forty-minute address did Wilson approach eloquence. Setting aside his cards, the president turned to the Republican side of the chamber, where members sat in sullen hostility. He declared that treaty approval was their only option. "The stage is set, the destiny disclosed. It has come about by no plan of our conceiving, but by the hand of God. We cannot turn back. The light streams on the path ahead, and nowhere else." His conclusion evoked only scattered applause.

Wilson's worsening medical condition, including a major stroke the following October, robbed him of the resiliency that had brought significant legislative victories earlier in his presidency. Refusing to agree to the "reservations" necessary to gain vital support from moderate Republicans, Wilson suffered major defeats as the Senate rejected the treaty in November and again the following March.

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Woodrow_Wilson_Addresses_the_Senate.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jul 2014 14:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 juli 1914

There were just three weeks of peace left in Europe, but there is little sense that this might be the case in today’s paper – the article about “Austria, Servia and the Sarajevo Crime” on page 11 claiming that “nothing will be asked of (Serbia) which could be regarded in Belgrade either as an affront of a humiliation.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ww1-archive/10957387/Daily-Telegraph-July-10-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jul 2014 14:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germany and the Ultimatum: Heinrich von Tschirschky and Bögendorff (Vienna) to Gottlieb von Jagow (July 10, 1914)



Quote:
This memorandum from Heinrich von Tschirschky and Bögendorff (1858-1916), the German ambassador in Vienna, to his superior in Berlin, Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jagow (1863-1935), illustrates the hesitancy of the Austrian government in presenting the ultimatum to Serbia. Wilhelm’s marginalia suggests his rash and desultory approach to decision-making. By inserting a quotation from Frederick the Great at the end of the memorandum, he indicates his aversion to diplomatic consultations as well as his frustration regarding Germany’s options.


Count Berchtold provided me with the following details of his
discussion in Ischle yesterday with His Majesty Emperor Franz
Joseph:

His Majesty the Emperor discussed the circumstances with
great equanimity. He first expressed his heartfelt thanks for the
comments made by our Majesty and the imperial government,
and he said that he entirely agreed with us—a decision had to
be reached immediately in order to put an end to the
intolerable situation involving Serbia. Count Berchtold added
that H.M. was fully aware of the consequences of such a
decision.

The minister then told the emperor about two possible
modalities concerning additional steps against Serbia. H.M.
believed that they could possibly be united, but all told, H.M.
generally believed that concrete demands had to be made of
Serbia. The minister said he did not wish to deny the
advantages of such an approach. It would eliminate the odium
that would otherwise fall upon the monarchy if it surprised
Serbia, and it would place Serbia in the position of blame. This
approach would also make it a lot easier for Romania and
England to adopt a neutral stance. A main concern here
currently lies in formulating suitable demands against Serbia,
and Count Berchtold said he was eager to know the prevailing
view in Berlin. He believed that one demand could be for an
agency of the Austro-Hungarian government to be installed in
Belgrade to monitor the activities of Greater Serbia from there.
Another possible demand could be the dissolution of societies
and the dismissal of a few of the compromised officers. Serbia
should be given a very short period to respond, probably 48
hours. Of course, Belgrade would still have time enough to
obtain instructions from Petersburg. If the Serbs accept all the
demands, that solution would be “very disagreeable” to him,
and he is considering making demands that would be entirely
impossible for the Serbs to accept.




Finally, the minister once again complained about the stance of
Count Tisza, who is making it difficult for him to deal with
Serbia in a resolute fashion. Count Tisza claims that one must
proceed in a “gentleman-like” manner, but this is hardly
suitable in view of such important state interests and especially
in the case of an opponent like Serbia.

The minister would gladly follow the imperial government’s
suggestion that the press be used to sway public opinion in
England against Serbia—Count Szögyény sent a telegram
concerning this matter. But in his opinion this must be done
carefully so as not to alarm Serbia prematurely.

The war minister will be going on holiday tomorrow, and Baron
Conrad von Hötzendorf will also be leaving Vienna for a time.
As Count Berchtold confided in me, they are doing so
deliberately in order to avoid causing any alarm.


Similar to the Silesian wars!

“I am against councils of war and counseling, especially since the more timid
party always gains the upper hand.”


Frederick the Great

Source: Heinrich von Tschirschky and Bögendorff (Vienna) to Gottlieb von Jagow (July 10,
1914), in Walther Schücking and Max Montgelas, eds., Die Deutschen Dokumente zum
Kriegsausbruch [German Documents on the Outbreak of the War]. 5 vols., Berlin, 1922, vol. 5, p.
29

Original German text reprinted with marginalia in Imanuel Geiss, Julikrise und Kriegsausbruch
1914 [The July-Crisis and the Outbreak of War 1914]. 2 vols., Hannover, 1963-64, vol. 1, pp.
144-45.

Translation: Adam Blauhut
Zie verder op deze link voor de opmerkingen van Wilhelm


http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=801

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