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Assassination of an Archduke, 1914

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jun 2006 7:07    Onderwerp: Assassination of an Archduke, 1914 Reageer met quote

Two bullets fired on a Sarajevo street on a sunny June morning in 1914 set in motion a series of events that shaped the world we live in today. World War One, World War Two, the Cold War and its conclusion all trace their origins to the gunshots that interrupted that summer day.

The victims, Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and German Lancershis wife Sophie, were in the Bosnian city in conjunction with Austrian troop exercises nearby. The couple was returning from an official visit to City Hall. The assassin, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip burned with the fire of Slavic nationalism. He envisioned the death of the Archduke as the key that would unlock the shackles binding his people to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

A third party, Serbia, figured prominently in the plot. Independent Serbia provided the guns, ammunition and training that made the assassination possible.

The Balkan Region of Europe entered the twentieth century much as she left it: a caldron of seething political intrigue needing only the slightest increase of heat to boil over into open conflict. The shots that day in Sarajevo pushed the caldron to the boiling point and beyond.

ADVERTISMENT
A Royal Murder

Seven conspirators joined the crowd lining the Archduke's route to City Hall. Each took a different position, ready to attack the royal car if the opportunity presented itself. The six-car procession approached one conspirator, Gabrinovic (or Cabrinovic), who threw his bomb only to see it bounce off the Archduke's car and explode near the following car.

Unhurt, the Archduke and his wife sped to the reception at City Hall. The ceremonies finished, the Royal procession amazingly retraced its steps bringing the Archduke into the range of the leader of the conspiracy, Gavrilo Princip. More amazingly, the royal car stopped right in front of Princip providing him the opportunity to fire two shots. Both bullets hit home.

Borijove Jevtic, one of the conspirators gave this eyewitness account:

"When Francis Ferdinand and his retinue drove from the station they were allowed to pass the first two conspirators. The motor cars were driving too fast to make an attempt feasible and in the crowd were many Serbians; throwing a grenade would have killed many innocent people.

When the car passed Gabrinovic, the compositor, he threw his grenade. It hit the side of the car, but Francis Ferdinand with presence of mind threw himself back and was uninjured. Several officers riding in his attendance were injured.

The cars sped to the Town Hall and the rest of the conspirators did not interfere with them. After the reception in the Town Hall General Potiorek, the Austrian Commander, pleaded with Francis Ferdinand to leave the city, as it was seething with rebellion. The Archduke was persuaded to drive the shortest way out of the city and to go quickly.

Capture of PrincipThe road to the maneuvers was shaped like the letter V, making a sharp turn at the bridge over the River Nilgacka [Miljacka]. Francis Ferdinand's car could go fast enough until it reached this spot but here it was forced to slow down for the turn. Here Princip had taken his stand.

As the car came abreast he stepped forward from the curb, drew his automatic pistol from his coat and fired two shots. The first struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. She was an expectant mother. She died instantly.

The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart.

He uttered only one word, 'Sofia' -- a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.

The officers seized Princip. They beat him over the head with the flat of their swords. They knocked him down, they kicked him, scraped the skin from his neck with the edges of their swords, tortured him, all but killed him."

Another Perspective

Count Franz von Harrach rode on the running board of the royal car serving as a bodyguard for the Archduke. His account begins immediately after Princip fires his two shots:

"As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Leaving City HallDuchess cried out to him, 'In Heaven's name, what has happened to you?' At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees.

I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say, 'Sopherl, Sopherl, don't die. Stay alive for the children!'

At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly, 'It's nothing!' His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, 'It's nothing!' Then, after a short pause, there was a violent choking sound caused by the bleeding. It was stopped as we reached the Konak."

References:
Brook-Shepard, Gordon, Archduke of Sarajevo (1984); Dedijer, Vladimir, The Road To Sarajevo (1966); Morton, Frederick, Thunder At Twilight (1989).
"Assassination of an Archduke," EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (1998).

http://eyewitnesstohistory.com/duke.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jun 2012 6:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Schop! Vandaag 98 jaar geleden werd het vuur aan de lont gestoken...


Extra leesvoer:
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/harrachmemoir.htm
http://www.worldwar1.com/tlsara.htm
http://www.lermuseum.org/en/chronology/first-world-war-1914-18/1914/assassination-of-archduke-ferdinand-28-june-1914/
http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/comment/sarajevo.html

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Jun 2012 14:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 juin 1914
Assassinat d'un archiduc à Sarajevo
Ce document existe en version intégrale pour les Amis d'Hérodote

Le 28 juin 1914, l'héritier de l'empire austro-hongrois et son épouse sont assassinés à Sarajevo par un terroriste serbe, Gavrilo Princip (19 ans). Imputé à la Serbie par le gouvernement autrichien, l'assassinat va servir de prétexte au déclenchement de ce qui deviendra la Première Guerre mondiale.
Lees verder:
http://www.herodote.net/histoire/evenement.php?jour=19140628
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jun 2012 6:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Foto: Archduke Franz Ferdinand; wife, Sophie; and their children

Quote:
“Assassination has never changed the history of the world.” — Benjamin Disraeli, May 1865.

Coming just weeks after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, the comments of soon-to-be British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli may have sounded prophetic to his ears. Lincoln’s death did not change the outcome of the American Civil War or reverse the Republican reforms of his administration.

But almost 50 years later, on June 28, 1914, the assassination of the heir to Hapsburg’s Austro-Hungarian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife, Sophie, served as the precipitating event that engulfed all the Western powers in the war that changed everything.

For decades, European powers had been seething over a number of diplomatic, economic and political issues. Each of the “Great Powers,” Austria-Hungary, the British Empire, France, Germany, Italy and Russia, were dealing with internal political and economic challenges, facing diplomatic issues over their colonization efforts, and had been financing large investments in military capability. The growing industrial capabilities of the countries resulted in increased trade and a sense of “interdependence” among them as necessary for growth. The economic interdependence was chastened by a series of allegiances that resulted in an uneasy “balance of power.”

Russia was committed to supporting Serbia after it had won its independence from the Ottoman Empire; Germany was concerned that its neighbor Austria-Hungary maintain its borders and power and pledged to support it; and Great Britain and France maintained an “Entente Cordial” of support (Russia signed an agreement of support with Britain in 1907, forming the “Triple Entente.”) These “entangling alliances” could have stopped the First World War, as they had prevented wars for decades, but instead they played a role in fanning the flames of conflict.

All it took to shatter the tensions preserving peace were the reactions after two shots fired by a 19-year-old Serbian, Gavrilo Princip, into Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The heir presumptive and his wife had been invited to dedicate a hospital in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by the governor of the Austrian provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Gen. Oskar Potiorek. The couple arrived in Sarajevo by train and headed to the hospital in an open car. Six members of the Serbian-backed Black Hand secret society were waiting along the route for an opportunity to kill the archduke.

The second conspirator along the route threw a grenade at the couple’s car, but the driver saw it coming and sped ahead. The grenade exploded under the wheels of the car behind them, injuring two of the people in the car and dozens of spectators. In the confusion, the archduke’s driver made a wrong turn and was spotted by Princip, who was munching on a sandwich and figuring out how to get away. He rushed up to the car, fired twice and mortally wounded the royals. They died on the way to the hospital.

On July 23, Austria presented its demands to Serbia with a 48-hour time limit on compliance. In a rapid-fire sequence, the Great Powers’ efforts at diplomacy broke down while military mobilization began, and Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28. By Aug. 6, it was declared war all around.

By the end of the “Great War,” millions were dead, numerous rulers deposed and all the Great Powers hollowed.

Two bullets, the lives they ended, and the emotional responses they engendered changed history.



Bron: www.tennessean.com
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