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30 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Apr 2006 7:25    Onderwerp: 30 April Reageer met quote

April 30

1917 Battle of the Boot

On this day in 1917, the so-called Battle of the Boot marks the end of the British army’s Samarra Offensive, launched the previous month by Anglo-Indian forces under the regional commander in chief, Sir Frederick Stanley Maude, against the important Turkish railroad at Samarra, some 130 kilometers north of Baghdad, in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

Fresh from the triumphant capture of Baghdad, Maude decided not to hesitate before moving to consolidate the Allied positions to the north, where Turkish commander Khalil Pasha’s forces had retreated from Baghdad to await reinforcements sent from Persia. In the Samarra Offensive, begun on March 13, 1917, some 45,000 Anglo-Indian frontline troops were sent up the Tigris River towards the railway at Samarra; on March 19, Maude’s forces seized Falluja, preventing the Turks from flooding the Euphrates River onto the plains and hampering the British advance. Though an attempt on March 25 to intercept the Turkish reinforcement troops, led by Ali Ishan Bey, met with failure, the British were able to capture another city, Dogameh, by the end of March.

As the Samarra Offensive continued into April, the Turks had backed up to positions between the Tigris and the Al Jali Canal; the Samarra railway itself lay in between. Heavy fighting beginning on April 21 resulted in a Turkish defeat two days later and they were forced to cede Samarra to the British. Less than a week later, Ishan suddenly reappeared with the majority of his troops at Dahubu in an attempt to surprise the British forces; they were aware of his movements, however, and the Turks were met by several infantry brigades, commanded by General William Marshall, and forced to retreat to prepared positions in the foothills that spanned the river at Band-i-Adhaim. The subsequent action that took place, beginning early the morning of April 30, became known as the Battle of the Boot, for the boot-shaped peninsula of high ground on which it was fought.

Marshall began his infantry attack early in the morning of April 30; his forces advanced quickly, taking 300 Turkish prisoners and two lines of trenches within a short time. A sandstorm subsequently halted British operations, and the Turks were able to call on reserve forces for a successful counter-attack. By the time the sandstorm cleared, in the late afternoon, Isha and his men had taken 350 British prisoners and begun a retreat into the mountains; the punishing heat prevented Marshall’s troops from pursuing them.

The Battle of the Boot effectively ended the Samarra Offensive, as Maude decided to pause in order to regroup and give his forces the chance to recover their strength. Casualties in the offensive numbered some 18,000, with losses due to illness running more than twice that number. Ishan and his Turkish forces remained in the mountains, preparing for the renewal of hostilities on the Mesopotamian front that would begin that fall.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 14:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

30 april 1815: instelling van de Militaire Willemsorde

Koning Willem I stelt de Militaire Willemsorde (MWO) in. Deze wordt toegekend aan militairen die zich in de strijd hebben onderscheiden door daden van ’moed, beleid en trouw’. De onderscheiding, een wit geëmailleerd kruis met acht gouden, geparelde punten, voorzien van een Bourgondisch kruis van laurierstokken en gedekt door een kroon, wordt toegekend in vier ‘klassen’. De eerste MWO wordt toegekend aan de Prins van Oranje, de latere koning Willem II, voor zijn verrichtingen bij Quatre Bras en Waterloo. In totaal krijgen maar liefst 1.004 militairen de MWO voor hun deelname aan deze beide veldslagen. Later wordt de koning iets zuiniger met de toekenning van deze onderscheiding.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814_1914/index.aspx

Militaire Willems-Orde

De orde werd op 30 april 1815 ingesteld door Koning Willem I: "tot belooning van uitstekende daden van moed, beleid en trouw, bedreven door diegenen, welke, zoo ter zee als te lande, in welke betrekking ook, en zonder onderscheid van stand of rang, Ons en het Vaderland dienen. Deze Orde zal echter in bijzondere gevallen ook kunnen worden gegeven aan vreemde militairen, niet in Nederlandschen dienst zijnde."

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militaire_Willems-Orde
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign: January - April 1915

30 April 1915 - The Hobart Mercury reported that on 29 April at Melbourne the Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, had issued the following statement about the Gallipoli landings:

"Some days ago the Australian War Expeditionary Forces were transferred from Egypt To the Dardanelles. They have since landed."

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/january-april-1915.html

Anzac Day

Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand, and is commemorated by both countries on 25 April every year to honour members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. It now more broadly commemorates all those who died and served in military operations for their countries. (...)

On 30 April 1915, when the first news of the landing reached New Zealand, a half-day holiday was declared and impromptu services were held. The following year a public holiday was gazetted (i.e., officially declared) on 5 April and services to commemorate were organised by the returned servicemen.[3]

The date, 25 April, was officially named Anzac Day in 1916; in that year it was marked by a wide variety of ceremonies and services in Australia and New Zealand, a march through London, and a sports day for the Australian and New Zealand soldiers in Egypt.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anzac_Day
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Australian submarine, AE2, 30 April 1915
Presented by Ian Hodges, Military Historian, Australian War Memorial, on Wednesday, 30 April 2003 beside the Roll of Honour at the Memorial.

Transcript
Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. My name is Ian Hodges, from the Memorial’s Military History Section, and this afternoon I’m going to speak to you about the Australian submarine AE2 and its eventful voyage through the Dardanelles during the opening days of the Gallipoli campaign. This is one of a series of short Roll of Honour talks that began last year to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the events of 1942. We’ve extended the scope of these talks now to include other anniversaries and other conflicts.

Early on the morning of 26 April 1915 Sir Ian Hamilton, the commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary force, having launched the Gallipoli operation less than 24 hours earlier, was faced with recommendations to re-embark his force. As deliberations continued through the small hours, a signal arrived. The Australian submarine AE2 had made its way through the Dardanelles and was threatening Turkish shipping approaching that narrow waterway from the Sea of Marmora.

Legend has it that this news encouraged Hamilton to order his troops to hold on at Gallipoli. In reality, the decision was based on the knowledge that the evacuation of thousands of men from under the gaze of the Turks would involve heavy casualties, but news of the AE2’s success did lift already sagging morale; one of few bits of good news on an anxious day.

With its half-English, half-Australian crew, AE2, as the name implies, was one of two submarines built in England and placed in the service of the Royal Australian Navy before the First World War. Her sister ship, the AE1, was lost with all hands off Rabaul in September 1914 in mysterious circumstances. By the end of 1914 any danger to convoys leaving Australia from German raiders had passed and a single submarine in this part of the world, when the war was raging in Europe, was of little use. So, on December 31 1914, AE2 and her crew joined the second convoy bound for the Middle East. She was towed to Port Said by HMAS Berrima and then made her way to the Aegean, in readiness for the plan to send a naval force through the Dardanelles and threaten Constantinople. She arrived in the eastern Mediterranean in early February 1915.

In March she was damaged entering Mudros Harbour and repairs were not completed until mid-April. AE2 had thus missed the naval attempts against the Dardanelles that ended in disaster for the British and French navies on 18 March. Now the Gallipoli operation was being recast as a series of amphibious landings in support of further naval operations, and the AE2 was given the task of making her way through the Dardanelles to disrupt Turkish shipping and preventing reinforcements and supplies reaching the battlefields of Gallipoli.

The danger and difficulty of this operation, always obvious, had become even more evident in recent days. Just before the repairs on AE2 were complete, the British submarine, E15, had run aground while attempting to make her way through the Dardanelles. Her captain and nine crew members were killed by Turkish fire and the survivors were taken prisoner.

On the evening of 24 April, with just two hours notice, AE2’s captain, Lieutenant Commander Henry Stoker, received orders to force a passage through the straits. He did not doubt that it was possible, his submarine had a submerged range of 80 kilometres on battery power — just enough to get through the straits and into the Sea of Marmora if all went well. By midnight on the 24th, Stoker was guiding his submarine along the surface through the entrance to the straits. His plan was to get as far as he could on the surface after the moon set, preserving his electrical batteries and diving just before dawn.

The plan didn’t work. Stoker was forced to dive to avoid a Turkish searchlight and in so doing damaged his propeller. The submarine remained undetected but was now unable to continue the operation. Stoker returned to Tenedos, a small island off the entrance to the Dardanelles, at about 8.00 am. The repairs only took a few hours and he was ordered to try again the next night.

But his orders this time were slightly different. With the landings to take place at Gallipoli early on 25 April, Stoker was now to protect the fleet by attacking minelaying ships in the Narrows before making his way through the Dardanelles. Even if this proved impossible, Stoker was to “run amok” in the waters off Chanakkale as a diversion for the landings on the other side of the peninsula. Despite the obvious dangers of the operation Stoker remained optimistic and even carried an extra-large white ensign with him to help advertise his submarine’s presence once she reached the Sea of Marmora. Thus began AE2’s last, and most perilous, voyage.

Stoker entered the Dardanelles at 2.30 am on 25 April 1915 and for the next two hours made his way on the surface, sometimes searchlights illuminated his submarine but somehow she remained undetected for almost 2 hours. Then, at 4.30 in the morning, just as the first troops were coming ashore at ANZAC Cove, a shot rang out from the northern shore. The AE2 had been spotted.

Stoker dived and began the nerve-wracking passage through Turkish minefields. Some of the crew tried to play cards to ease the tension, but the fear was too great for the men to concentrate. Someone on board counted 18 mine wires scraping the AE2’s side and twice something much louder hit the submarine, possibly mines that failed to explode. Stoker and his men survived the first obstacle and surfaced to periscope depth at about 6.00 am; AE2 was immediately seen and fired upon from the forts on the shore. But Stoker continued his observations and decided to attack a small cruiser. He fired a single torpedo and dived. His crew heard the explosion when the torpedo hit, not the cruiser he had seen but a nearby gunboat.

But now they had their own troubles. AE2 had run aground, her conning tower dangerously exposed so close to a Turkish fort that the shore-based guns couldn’t be depressed sufficiently to hit the submarine. It took five minutes – an eternity to the crew – before Stoker was able to order full ahead and AE2 slid down the bank and back into the water with Turkish patrol boats in pursuit. She made her way farther into the Dardanelles. Still hunted by Turkish ships Stoker decided to rest AE2 on the bottom near the Asiatic shore and hide until nightfall, when he could surface and recharge her batteries. It was 8.30 on the morning of 25 April. Just kilometres away, the fight for Gallipoli was raging; Stoker had just 32 kilometres left to cover before he was through the Dardanelles.

The crew faced a long day – some tried to sleep, but tensions were running too high. For more than ten hours they listened, nerves taut, as Turkish ships hunted above them. Hours after the sound of the ships faded Stoker surfaced. The submarine stank, the air was thick with diesel and the stench of men too long confined. The crew took turns to stand on deck and breathe in the fresh night air, relieved at having survived the dangerous hours beneath the surface. It was at this point that Stoker signalled his success to the fleet, just as Hamilton was deliberating about evacuating ANZAC.

Whatever the effect of Stoker’s signal, he was in a difficult position. He couldn’t even be sure that the signal had been received. He might be isolated far behind enemy lines with a major battle in progress. He had no deck gun with which to fire on Turkish shipping and only six torpedoes left. But he realised that the psychological effect of his presence could be considerable. In fact the effect of his success was more tangible. His signal, as we now know, had been received and within two hours a second submarine, E14, was ordered to repeat Stoker’s feat.

AE2 remained on the surface until dawn, fired at a Turkish ship and missed, and then entered the Sea of Marmora at 9.00 am on 26 April. Stoker fired on several ships over the next two days without success, at one point surfacing among Turkish fishing boats to advertise his presence, an incident made famous in Charles Bryant’s painting that now hangs in the Memorial’s administration building. On 29 April, with fierce fighting going on just miles away on the Gallipoli peninsula, Stoker returned to the straits, dived and then turned back into the Sea of Marmora, with his periscope breaking the surface to give the impression of a second submarine entering the Sea. He shook off his pursuers yet again, fired and narrowly missed hitting (by a yard he was later told) a Turkish gunboat.

AE2 was down to the last of its ten torpedoes and Stoker was planning to sail for Constantinople and attack shipping there when, on 29 April, the watchman sighted another submarine. It was the British vessel E14, which had made the same dangerous passage through the Dardanelles two days after AE2. The two captains agreed to rendezvous the next morning.

The planned meeting never happened. On 30 April, as she approached the rendezvous, AE2 dived to avoid being seen by a Turkish torpedo boat. Half an hour later, while at a depth of 16 metres, AE2 went bow-up and broke the surface just 90 metres from the Turkish vessel. Under heavy fire, Stoker ordered the forward tanks flooded and AE2 plunged back into the depths, down to 30 metres before rising again, breaking the surface at speed and out of control. Stoker ordered the ballast tanks flooded, again sending his submarine on a wild, almost vertical dive, deeper and deeper until she passed 30 metres. All eyes were on the boat’s sides, waiting for them to cave in. But instead AE2 shot back up again, surfacing quickly and almost immediately being hit three times by the torpedo boat.

AE2 was doomed and Stoker knew it. He ordered the crew to abandon ship and left only when the last man was safely in the water. The entire crew survived the sinking, were picked up and became prisoners of war. Their terrifying voyage had almost come to a fatal end. But having survived the dangers of five days of intense operations, four of AE2’s crew were unable to survive the rigors of captivity.

Two British submarine commanders, whose ships followed the AE2 into the Sea of Marmora and survived to tell the tale, were awarded the Victoria Cross. For Stoker there was no such recognition, partly perhaps because the story of the AE2 remained largely hidden from the public until after the war, when he and the surviving crew members were released from Turkish captivity. Today 88, years after she was sunk in the Sea of Marmora, we remember the AE2 and her crew.

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/remembering1942/ae2/index.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 at Sea - Royal Navy Despatches, Gallantry Awards and Honours from the London Gazette

29149 - 30 APRIL 1915
Admiralty, 28th April, 1915
The KING (is) pleased to confer the Royal Naval Reserve Officers' decoration upon the following Officers:
Commander: William Marshall.
Senior Engineers: Wallis Vincent Browne, George Albert Vine.
Engineer: Frederick William James.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyBritishLondonGazette1504.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Norman Thomas Gilroy war diary, 30 April-17 May 1915

[Page 3]
Friday 30th April 1915. Was rudely awakened about 5.30am this morning by the “Prince of Wales” which is still within hailing distance of us, firing 4 or 5 shots from her 12” guns; the concussion was so great that it made the ship vibrate. At 10.30am Major Bruce came aboard; he was very sunburnt and looked tired, but otherwise alright. He had quite a number of experiences to relate, and had a good concourse of listeners. The first day he was ashore he was taking his battery up the hill when he was met by a larger crowd of Australians running down; he stood in front

[Page 4]
of them and asked why they were retreating?; they answered that the position was too hot, and they could not find any of their officers; he told them they must hang on and to do the best they could. Seeing the position was very serious he handed his own battery over to Capt Whitting and went back to the firing line with the Australians, and stayed till they became settled. At another time a party of Australians seeing he and his Indian gunners sneaking up after them, mistook them for Turks and were about to open fire on them, when the word was passed on that it was

[Page 5]
the Mountain Battery. Later still, himself and Capt Whitting were out reconnoitring, when Capt W. noticed a Turkish sniper aiming at them from a hole in the ground; he snatched a rifle from one of the orderlies hands and fired a few shots; the Major, though he did not see the enemy, fired a couple of shots at the place Capt W’s bullets landed; the sniper did not reply so they finished their work and returned to the base. Snipers have been responsible for a big percentage of the total casualties especially amongst the officers at whom they take particular aim; most officers have now taken

[Page 6]
the precaution of removing their distinguishing badges, and wear the same uniform as a private. The Major was very pleased with Capt Kirby’s behaviour, and said he had been injured while directing operations; feeling faint, he sat down on the ground, and continued to direct from there, till he was discovered by the Red Cross people; they took him to the base, from where he escaped, and went back to his battery, considering that the bandages were sufficient treatment. Many German & Turkish spies have visited our trenches several of them pretending they were English officers. In many cases

[Page 7]
they have been detected through their faulty English; on these occasions the troops have wasted no time on ceremony but promptly transfixed them. For cool audacity some of them are unequalled, wearing the uniform of an Australian officer, one came into the trenches and ordered a retreat, a sergeant, entertaining suspicions asked him who he was, and to what regiment he belonged, as he did not recognise him as one of his battalion’s officers. The spy replied “Never mind who I am, you carry out my orders”, but the segt. now fully aroused arrested him, and sent him to headquarters where it was

[Page 8]
proved beyond doubt that he was a spy. He received a spy’s penalty, at the hands of the court martial. One occasion the warships were shelling an important Turkish position, when from the top of a hill close to where they knew the Australians to be, a heliograph message was sent, signed by the name of a high Military officer, ordering them to cease fire. They immediately did so. When asked by the General why they were not still shelling the Turks they showed him the heliograph message which they had received. Knowing no such message had been sent by rightful authority

[Page 9]
he ordered a continuance of the bombardment. It was later proved that the message was the work of the enemy. The Turks, have on several occasions desecrated the corpses of our dead; some of our men have revenged the insult by similarly treating theirs. On the first night of the invasion, the captured positions were only retained by the most strenuous efforts of the men. General Bridges who, it is said, was deeply affected by the loss of such large numbers of Australians reported to General Birdwood that it was impossible to hold the position, as the men could not support him. Genl. Birdwood replied that

[Page 10]
the positions must be retained at all costs. They were retained, and the cost was not small. Several barges being sent alongside the majority of the M.B. transport branch disembarked this afternoon; some of the mules were very restive while being slung from our deck to the barges below; one kicked so much that it broke the rope tied around its loin and fell into the water; it swam right around the ship, and was being hauled aboard when the rope slipped & suffocated it. The light cruiser that figured so prominently in the Heligoland fight at the beginning of the war, H.M.S. Amethyst, was a good deal in evidence cruising among the fleet today.

[Page 11]
She has done some good work here, having passed through the Narrows and carried the party that cut the cable between the Dardanelles forts and the Asiatic side. She is a very pretty craft, and looks like a big destroyer. At 3.30pm a hostile shell from somewhere ashore or the Dardanelles came whizzing across the hills and dropped into the sea a couple of hundred yards astern of us; the splash made was similar to that made by the shells on Sunday morning. The fire that we observed inland last night is still burning & showed up plainly tonight

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2009/D03167/a2702.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Irish Rising

Sunday 30 April 1916
At 3.45 p.m. Pearse signed an order for general unconditional surrender. On Sunday, 30th April, the Rising ended in military defeat for the Republican forces. On Sunday all organized resistance ended. At 5 p.m. April 30, the tricolor was pulled from the top of the remains of the GPO, the dream of the republic seemingly pulled down with it.

In a letter to his family, Thomas McDonagh recalls "On April 30th. I was astonished to receive by a messenger from P.H. Pearse, Commandant General of the Army of the Irish Republic, an order to surrender unconditionality to the Brittish General. I did not obey the order as it came from a prisoner. I as then in supreme command of the Irish Army, consulted with my second in command and decided to confirm the order. I knew that it would involve my death and the deaths of other leaders. I hoped that it would save many true men among our followers, good lives for Ireland. God grant it has done so and God approve our deed. For my self I have no regret. The one bitterness that death has for me is the separation it brings from my beloved wife Muriel, and my beloved children, Donagh and Barbara. My country will then treat them as wards, I hope. I have devoted myself too much to National work and too little to the making of money to leave them a competence. God help them and supprot them, and give them a happy and prosperous life. Never was there a better, truer, purer woman then my wife Muriel, or more adoreable children than Don and Barbara. It breaks my heart that I shall never se my children again, but I have not wept or murmured. I counted the cost of this and am ready to pay it. Muriel has been sent for here. I do not know if she can come. She may have no one to take the children while she is coming. If she does -".

http://theirishrising.blogspot.com/2010/04/sunday-30-april-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

30 april 1916 - Warme, prachtige zomerdag - geschikt weer om Goethe te lezen. In de namiddag krijgen we een kwartiermeester met zijn gezel die naar stalling en kamers komt zien, zonder afdoende bescheid nochtans van 't geen we krijgen zullen. Dat is voor onze meiavond - idyllischer gedachtenis.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0020.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

30 april 1916 - Burgemeester van Gilse kloeg over ‘belachelijke plagerijen’ naar aanleiding van de arrestatie van Oscar Van den Driessche (ontvanger bij de telegraaf): “Functionarissen van Baarle-Hertog worden op het grondgebied van Baarle-Nassau systematisch opgepakt en in overtreding bevonden, alhoewel ze dezelfde papieren hebben als de inwoners van Baarle-Nassau. Meerdere eerbare mannen van Baarle-Hertog zijn door het vredesgerecht van Tilburg al veroordeeld tot celstraffen van 1 tot 7 dagen en geldboetes. Er is sprake van ondermijning van het gezag.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Irish Rising: Eamon Ceant

Eamonn Ceannt was born in Glennamaddy, County Galway on 21 September 1881, but is raised and educated in Dublin as son of a constable of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC). After finishing his study at the University College Eamonn Ceannt worked for the Treasury Department of the Dublin Corporation.
He was devoted to Irish language, music and dance and in 1900 Eamonn Ceannt joined the Gaelic League. Beside teaching Irish he was an excellent piper who added lustre to a meeting from Irish athletes with the pope. Eamonn Ceannt joined Sinn Féin in 1908 where he came to the attention of Sean Mac Diarmada who recruited him for the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB). In the year of its formation Eamonn was appointed to the Provisional Committee of the Irish Volunteer Force (IVF) and acquired the rank of Captain. In this capacity he was involved in the Howth Gun Running.
In 1915 Eamonn Ceannt was introduced in the Supreme Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB). Although he was not a member of the Military Council of the Republican Brotherhood (IRB) it is assumed that Ceannt was involved in the planning of the Rising of 1916. The fact that he is signatory of the Poblacht na hÉireann also implies involvement in the preparations. During the Easter Rising Eamonn Ceannt was in command of the South Dublin Union and surroundings.
Eamonn Ceannt was court-martialled and sentenced to death by firing squad. The verdict was carried out on 8 May 1916 in Kilmainham Gaol.

Lees meer biografieen van meer Notable Persons involved in the 1916 Rising op http://www.aoh61.com/history/rising.htm

The Irish Rising: Eamonn Ceannt

Introduction


Eamonn Ceannt was born in 1881 in Galway, but was raised and educated in Dublin.

In a memorandum sent by General Sir John Maxwell to the then British Prime Minister, Herbet Asquith, the following description was provided for Eamonn Ceannt:

This man was one of the signatories to the Declaration of Irish Independence. He was on the Executive Committee and Central Council of the Irish Volunteers and attended all their meetings. He was an extremist in his views and identified himself with all pro-German movements. He held the rank of Commandant in the rebel army and was in command at the South Dublin Union in the capture of which the British troops suffered heavily, losing both officers and men. He was armed at the time of his surrender.

Eamonn Ceannt was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3-4 May 1916. The proceedings are contained in the PRO document WO 71/348.

Court Martial Proceedings

The members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonel G. German and Lieutenant-Colonel W.J. Kent.

To the charge of " ... did take part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."
The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong who stated

I was at Patricks Park on 30 April 1916. The British troops were fired on, the fire came from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. Several casualties occured. I was under fire. I was present about 5pm when the party from Jacob's Factory surrendered. I directed an officer to make a list of the unarmed men. The accused surrendered as one of the party and was at the head of it, his name was not on the unarmed list. There was an armed list made and his name appears at the head and from information he gave he his described as Commandant. I asked him to give orders and he did so, they were obeyed.

When cross-examined by the accused, Major Armstrong confirmed that the two lists of men: armed and unarmed, were made after the groups of men were disarmed. Armstrong stated that the accused did not have a rifle but a revolver or automatic pistol which he removed from a pocket and placed on the ground.

Eamonn Ceannt called three witnesses in his defence: John McBride, Richard Davys and Patrick Sweeney. One of the other witnesses due to be called was Thomas MacDonagh, but he was executed by firing squad during the early morning of 3 May 1916.

The 1st witnesss called by Eamonn Ceannt in his defence was John McBridewho stated

I know the accused intimately. I should be in no doubt as to his identity. I remember Sunday 30 April 1916 and preceding days, I was in Jacob's factory, I left it on Sunday afternoon between 4 and 5pm. The accused was not in my company before I left. It was impossible for the accused to be in Jacob's factory without my knowledge, he had no connection with the party that occupied Jacob's factory.

When John McBride was cross-examined he stated that he saw the accused in the area of St Patrick's Park when the group under his command surrendered, and that he did not see the accused at any time between Easter Monday and Sunday 30 April 1916. He also confirmed that he did not have any knowledge that the accused was the Commandant of the 4th Battalion.

Both Richard Davys and Patrick Sweeney confirmed that they had not seen the accused in Jacob's Factory, however Richard Davys stated that he saw the accused in the area of St Patrick's Park.

Following his last witness Eamonn Ceannt made the following statement

Three witnesses who were in Jacob's Factory from Monday 24 April 1916 to about 5pm on Sunday 30 April have sworn that I was not in Jacob's Factory during any of that period and was not one of a party which surrendered from Jacob's Factory on Sunday 30 April. Another witness who was not available [Thomas MacDonagh] whould have been able to corroborate these three. The evidence makes it quite clear that I can't have had anything to do with the firing from the neighbourhood of Jacobs which resulted in casualties to British troops at St Patrick's Park as referred to. I don't accuse Major Armstrong of endeavouring to mislead the Court but it's clear that he was deceived in thinking that I was attached in any way to the Jacobs party which as deposed fired on British troops in the neighbourhood of Patrick's Park. He had admitted that his plan of making a list of armed men was by a process of elimination of the unarmed men from the whole list on parade and from recollection. He had admitted that the list of armed men was compiled after all men had been disarmed. I submit tha this evidence is not conclusive except insofar as it concerned the unarmed men and is not evidence as to the men who were armed. I claim at least that there is reasonable doubt and the benefit of the doubt should be given to the accused. In regard to my carrying arms there is no positive or direct evidence except that Major Armstrong believes I carried a revolver or automatic pistol which he says I took from my pocket and laid upon the ground. As to my having surrendered to the military authorities this is sufficiently proved by my presence at Richmond Barracks and is hereby freely admitted. As to the accusation that I did an act " ... with the intention and for the purpose of assisting the enemy ..." I content myself with a simple denial. The Crown did not even tender evidence in this regard. I gave away my automatic pistol. The Volunteer uniform more often that not does not indicate the rank of the wearer. The witness I intended to call and could not be found from the description I gave to the Police would have proven that I did not come from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. I came at the head of two bodies of men but was only connected with one body.

Court Martial Verdict

Eamonn Ceannt was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. The sentenced was confirmed by General Maxwell.

Between 3.45 and 4.05am on 8 May 1916, Eamonn Ceannt was shot in the former stonebreakers yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Lane Cemetery.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/eamonn_ceannt.htm
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1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: Attempted German advance from St. Julien repulsed.

Zeppelin raid on East Anglia.

Eastern Front

Germans reach the railway stations of the Muravievo and Radziviliski (Province of Kovno, Baltic Provinces).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Australian submarine AE2 sunk by Turkish warship in the Sea of Marmora.

Political, etc.

German warning in U.S. newspapers re: sailing in "Lusitania".
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1916
Western Front

German attack from Messines Ridge defeated by artillery.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Belgian column arrives in Victoria Nyanza region.

Political, etc.

707 Dublin rebels surrender.
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1917
Western Front

Damage at Zierikzee (Holland) by unknown aeroplane.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

General Maude defeats 13th Turkish Corps at Gorge of Shatt-el-Adhaim and Kifri.

Political, etc.

Jockey Club stops racing after 4 May.

Polish scheme for Galicia published.
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1918
Western Front

Fierce fighting in Noyon sector.

Eastern Front

Russia: Rumoured that a counter-revolution is about to take place.

Southern Front

Operations during the month confined to artillery, air and patrol actions.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British reach Tank river on Mosul road and capture 12 guns and 1,800 prisoners.

British advance east of Jordan to attack south of Es Salt.

Line advanced at Mezra (Jerusalem).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Canadian Pacific liner, S.S. "Oronsa", sunk by submarine.

Further prohibited area in North Sea announced for 15 May.

Political, etc.

Mr. Ian Macpherson, Under-Secretary of State for War, appointed Vice-President of Army Council.

Major-General Harrington to be Deputy Chief of the Imperial General Staff.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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Zomertijd

De eerste praktische toepassing van zomertijd was door de Duitse regering gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog, tussen 30 april 1916 en 1 oktober 1916. Kort daarop volgde ook het Verenigd Koninkrijk, voor het eerst van 21 mei 1916 tot 1 oktober 1916. Vervolgens voerde het Congres van de Verenigde Staten op 19 maart 1918 verschillende tijdzones in (die al sinds 1883 bij de spoorwegen in gebruik waren) en maakte de zomertijd officieel (in werking tredend op 31 maart) voor de rest van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De zomertijd werd in 1918 en 1919 gedurende zeven maanden in acht genomen. De wet bleek echter zo onpopulair (hoofdzakelijk doordat men destijds meestal vroeger opstond en eerder naar bed ging dan tegenwoordig) dat deze werd afgeschaft.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zomertijd
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The Bedfordshire Regiment in the Great War - 1916 War Diary appendices

8th Bn. Bedfordshire Regt. at April 30th 1916

Killed Officers 5 O.R. 49 Wounded Officers 3 O.R. 95 Missing believed Killed O.R. 91 Sick to Hospital 90 Sick from Hospital 22 Evacuated to Base 20

A Coy Strength 13 Officers 212 O.R.

B Coy Strength 4 Officers 138 O.R.

C Coy Strength 5 Officers 205 O.R.

D Coy Strength 5 Officers 170 O.R.

Total 27 Officers 725 O.R.

http://www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/8thbn/8thbtn1916appendices.html
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

30 april 1917 - In de Anna Paulownastraat in Tilburg is de Duitse deserteur Gustaaf Hancke en de Tilburger P.J.van Iersel zwaar gewond door de Tilburger Piet Maas, de eerst genoemde is direct overleden. Bij deze messenstekerij waren meerdere Duitse deserteurs aanwezig. (Nieuwe Tilburgse Courant)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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Auckland Regimental pipe band in France 30 April 1918

Fotootje... http://exhibitions.archives.govt.nz/animpressivesilence/node/325
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1919)

30 april 1919 - Op 30 maart 1919 kreeg Cornelis Huijbrechts een verlofbrief voor 42 dagen om vanuit Wilrijk naar Merksplas te reizen. Zijn definitieve verlofbrief werd op 30 april 1919 geschreven in Gent. (Jos Huybrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=192&Itemid=47
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Diaries of AIF Serviceman Bert Schramm

During part of the course of his military service with the AIF, 2823 Private Herbert Leslie Schramm, a farmer from White's River, near Tumby Bay on the Eyre Peninsular, kept a diary of his life. Bert was not a man of letters so this diary was produced with great effort on his behalf. Bert made a promise to his sweetheart, Lucy Solley, that he would do so after he received the blank pocket notebook wherein these entries are found. As a Brigade Scout since September 1918, he took a lead part in the September 1918 breakout by the Allied forces in Palestine. Bert's diary entries are placed alongside those of the 9th Light Horse Regiment to which he belonged and to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade to which the 9th LHR was attached. On this basis we can follow Bert in the context of his formation.

Wednesday, April 30, 1919

Bert Schramm's Location - Ismailia, Egypt.

Bert Schramm's Diary - Went onto Kantara by the 12.30 train. Landed the prisoner over there and returned to Ismailia and will have to wait until tomorrow to get a train back to Zagazig. The Sydney and Brisbane and some submarines went through the canal today en route for Australia.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary

9th Light Horse Regiment Location - Zagazig, Egypt.

9th Light Horse Regiment War Diary - 0630 two Officers 50 Other Ranks "B" Squadron ten Other Ranks Headquarters proceeded by train to Tel el Kebir where a large party of Turkish prisoners of was for repatriation were taken over and escorted to Alexandria and handed over to the ship's escort there.

One officer and 72 Other Ranks evacuated to hospital during the month, 18 Venereal Disease Cases and the remainder mostly with recurrent malaria.

Owing to the disturbances amongst the civil population demobilisation of the AIF in Egypt was now at a standstill. The conditions of affairs was fully realised and all ranks carried on cheerfully. Discipline of the Regiment during the month was good.

Éindeloos mooie site, zelfs mét deze waarschuwing: WARNING: This site contains (...) language which may be considered inappropriate today. Ga onverwijld naar http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog/1906726/bert-schramms-diary-30-april-1919/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RMS Lusitania: The Fateful Voyage

On April 30th 1915, the Lusitania was at New York, being loaded with meat, medical supplies, copper, cheese, oil and machinery, but she was also secretly being loaded with munitions for Britain for the war.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/lusitania.htm
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Grandpa's War

A journal of my research into the experiences of my grandfather Charles Leslie Lionel Payne (1892-1975) as a machine-gunner in the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the Great War

30 April 1915 - West Sandling Camp, Shorncliffe

The following day, a Friday, was spent "unpacking equipment, baggage &c." Presumably the men spent some time setting themselves up and exploring their new surroundings, while the officers met their counterparts in other units of the Canadian Second Division, settled in at the officers' mess, and started organizing activities for the first week of their stay. Wilbert C. Gilroy, an officer with the Canadian Dental Corps, arrived at Dibgate Camp near Shorncliffe in early June, also via the SS Carpathia, and recounts in a letter home that he was surprised to meet many of his old friends from Winnipeg in the officer's mess:

The old saying about the world being such a small place, still holds good. When I arrived at this out of the way place, I fully expected to be quite alone outside of the few I knew of our own crowd. But not so. As soon as we arrived I immediately began to see my old friends ... In fact I knew all the officers with exception of three or four which I know now. And it is the same all over the camp.

The 2nd Divisional Train now consisted of 26 officers and 459 men, organized into four Companies, Numbers 5 to 8, and the Headquarters. There were also three additional personnel attached from the Canadian Army Medical Corps (C.A.M.C.). Leslie Payne, George Willox, Bob Moodie and William Hogg would remain in this vicinity for most of the summer of 1915.

The following is from notes made by my father C.B. Payne (CBP):

The 1" O.S. map of 1945 (Sheet 173) shows what I think is likely to be [Dibgate] camp, though it isn't named, about 1½ miles N.E. of Hythe Town centre. In September 1950 my parents & Bunnie spent a holiday at Folkestone and I joined them for a [weekend]. (By bus from Canterbury where I worked 28th August 1949 to 15th Nov 1950.) On 10th September Dad & I walked to Sandgate, on the road to Hythe, and I vaguely recall his mentioning having been at a camp nearby. Or do I imagine it?

Shorncliffe appears to have been a military base at least as far back as 1802, when General Sir John Moore ("the father of the Light Infantry") began to develop further his ideas for the training of infantry at that location. Germans troops were even trained there during the preparations for the Crimean Campaign. Otterpool was another training camp to the west of Shorncliffe, near Lympne. Shorncliffe and Dibgate became major training and embarkation camps for Canadian (C.E.F) soldiers during the First World War, and the base for the entire Canadian Second Division. By February 1915, there were 40,000 Canadian troops training in Shorncliffe, Hythe and Dibgate. Shorncliffe is still an army barracks, and was recently home to a Ghurka Regiment.

According to the War Diary, Saturday was "spent in cleaning of lines &c." presumably preparing their camp for long term occupation, for training, and for the arrival of the horses, which they would take charge of and train with over the next few weeks. On Sunday, however, there was no parade, and no onerous duties to perform; the men would perhaps have had a chance to relax and explore a bit further afield.

Harold W. McGill had the following to say about the situation of the camp at Shorncliffe, in a letter home:

Our camp is on a hill over looking the sea about four miles from Folkestone. The ships are passing up and down all day and on clear days we can make out the French coast quite distinctly. With field glasses we can see the towns and villages. We are about 50 minutes by flying machine from the scene of the fighting.

This illustrated that even though it would be another four and a half months before they got to France, they could never feel too detached from the war. Louis Duff of the 28th Battalion expressed similar sentiments in his own letters:

Our camp is seven miles west of Dover on a height overlooking the sea. We have two very pretty coast towns close by, Hythe west of us about an hours walk and Folkestone, a popular sea side resort, east of us a couple of miles. On a clear day the coast of France shows up very plainly. Submarines and Torpedo Boat Destroyers are patrolling the sea all the time. Aeroplanes and dirigible balloons are a common sight.

http://grandpaswar.blogspot.com/2005/04/30-april-1915-west-sandling-camp.html
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The Diary of Thomas Fredrick Littler

Fred Littler joined the Cheshire Regiment shortly after his 17th birthday in 1914. He trained in Aberystwyth, Cambridge, Northampton and Norwich, before beginning work at Siddley Deasy in Coventry.

He signed for Foreign Service on his 18th birthday, and, after further training, left England for Rouen in March 1916. His diary describes his experience of battle in Northern France for 11 months from April 1916, where he sustained a leg injury, which eventually led to his return to England to convalesce.

In England he met his future wife and joined the Royal Engineers with whom he returned to France in April 1918 until the end of the war. He reports many casualties around him on the front line and in support positions, and himself survived Spanish Flu, a major killer, towards the end of the war
.


April 30th 1916 - A German Aeroplane passed over here followed by three British and a battle royal took place in the air, the German escaped. Many of the King Edward Horse (cavalry) who were in a field were wounded by bullets and shrapnel.
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Executive Order 2605A - Taking Over Necessary and Closing Unnecessary Radio Stations
April 30, 1917

Whereas the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, have declared that a state of war exists between the United States and the Imperial German Government; and

Whereas it is necessary to operate certain radio stations for radio communication by the Government and to close other radio stations not so operated, to insure the proper conduct of the war against the Imperial German Government and the successful termination thereof.

Now, therefore, it is ordered by virtue of authority vested in me under the Constitution under the Joint Resolution of Congress, dated April 6, 1917, and under the Act to Regulate Radio Communication, approved August 13, 1912, that such radio stations within the jurisdiction of the United States as are required for Naval Communications shall be taken over by the Government of the United States and used and controlled by it, to the exclusion of any other control or use; and furthermore, that all radio stations not necessary to the Government of the United States for Naval Communications may be closed for radio communication and all radio apparatus therein may be removed therefrom.

The enforcement of this order is hereby delegated to the Secretary of the Navy, who is authorized and directed to take such action in the premises as to him may appear necessary.

This order shall take effect from and after this date.

WOODROW WILSON
THE WHITE HOUSE,
April 30, 1917.

John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online]. Santa Barbara, CA. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75415.
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April 30, 1917

The American Friends Service Committee was founded to provide young Quakers and other conscientious objectors the opportunity to serve those in need as an alternative to military service in what was later known as World War I. They worked with British Friends assisting refugees from that conflict.

http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/thisweek.htm#friday
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James Connolly: "Old Wine in New Bottles"
First Published in New Age, 30 April 1914.

Scripture tells us in a very notable passage about the danger of putting new wine into old bottles. I propose to say a few words about the equally suicidal folly of putting old wine into new bottles. For I humbly submit that the experiment spoken of is very popular just now in the industrial world, has engaged the most earnest attention of most of the leaders of the working class, and received the practically unanimous endorsement of the Labour and Socialist Press. I have waited in vain for a word of protest.

THE IDEA BEHIND INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM

In the year of grace 1905 a convention of American Labour bodies was held in Chicago for the purpose of promoting a new working-class organisation on more militant and scientific lines. The result of that convention was the establishment of the Industrial Workers of the World – the first Labour organisation to organise itself with the definite ideal of taking over and holding the economic machinery of society. The means proposed to that end – and it is necessary to remember that the form of organisation adopted was primarily intended to accomplish that end, and only in the second degree as a means of industrial warfare under capitalism – was the enrolment of the working class in Unions built upon the lines of the great industries. It was the idea of the promoters of the new organisation that craft interests and technical requirements should be met by the creation of branches, that all such branches should be represented in a common executive, that all united should be members of an industrial Union, which should embrace all branches and be co-extensive with the industry, that all industrial Unions should be linked as members of one great Union, and that one membership card should cover the whole working-class organisation. Thus was to be built up a working-class administration which should be capable of the revolutionary act of taking over society, and whose organisers and officers should in the preliminary stages of organising and fighting constantly remember, and remembering, teach, that no new order can replace the old until it is capable of performing the work of the old, and performing it more efficiently for human needs.

FIGHTING SPIRIT MORE THAN MASS ORGANIZATION

As one of the earliest organisers of that body, I desire to emphasise also that as a means of creating in the working class the frame of mind necessary to the upbuilding of this new order within the old, we taught, and I have yet seen no reason to reconsider our attitude upon this matter, that the interests of one were the interests of all, and that no consideration of a contract with a section of the capitalist class absolved any section of us from the duty of taking instant action to protect other sections when said sections were in danger from the capitalist enemy. Our attitude always was that in the swiftness and unexpectedness of our action lay our chief hopes of temporary victory, and since permanent peace was an illusory hope until permanent victory was secured, temporary victories were all that need concern us. We realised that every victory gained by the working class would be followed by some capitalist development that in course of time would tend to nullify it, but that until that development was perfect the fruits of our victory would be ours to enjoy, and the resultant moral effect would be of incalculable value to the character and to the mental attitude of our class towards their rulers. It will thus be seen that in our view – and now that I am about to point the moral I may personally appropriate it and call it my point of view – the spirit, the character, the militant spirit, the fighting character of the organisation, was of the first importance. I believe that the development of the fighting spirit is of more importance than the creation of the theoretically perfect organisation; that, indeed, the most theoretically perfect organisation may, because of its very perfection and vastness, be of the greatest possible danger to the revolutionary movement if it tends, or is used, to repress and curb the fighting spirit of comradeship in the rank and file.

SUCCESS OF THE SYMPATHETIC STRIKE IN 1911

Since the establishment in America of the organisation I have just sketched, and the initiation of propaganda on the lines necessary for its purpose, we have seen in all capitalist countries, and notably in Great Britain, great efforts being made to abolish sectional division, and to unite or amalgamate kindred Unions. Many instances will arise in the minds of my readers, but I propose to take as a concrete example the National Transport Workers’ Federation. Previous to the formation of this body, Great Britain was the scene of the propagandist activities of a great number of irregular and unorthodox bodies, which, taking their cue in the main from the Industrial Workers of the World, made great campaigns in favour of the new idea. Naturally their arguments were in the main directed towards emphasising the absurdity implied in one body of workers remaining at work whilst another body of workers were on strike in the same employment. As a result of this campaign, frowned upon by leading officials in Great Britain, the Seamen’s strike of 1911 was conducted on, and resulted in, entirely new lines of action. The sympathetic strike sprang into being; every group of workers stood by every allied group of workers; and a great wave of effective solidarity caught the workers in its grasp and beat and terrified the masters. Let me emphasise the point that the greatest weapon against capital was proven in those days to be the sporadic strike. It was its very sporadic nature, its swiftness and unexpectedness, that won. It was ambush, the surprise attack of our industrial army, before which the well-trained battalions of the capitalist crumpled up in panic, against which no precautions were available.

WEAKNESS OF THE NATIONAL TRANSPORT WORKERS’ FEDERATION

Since that time we have had all over these countries a great wave of enthusiasm for amalgamations, for more cohesion in the working-class organisations. In the transport industry all Unions are being linked up until the numbers now affiliated have become imposing enough to awe the casual reader and silence the cavilling objector at Trade Union meetings. But I humbly submit that, side by side with that enlargement and affiliation of organisations, there has proceeded a freezing up of the fraternal spirit of 1911; there is now, despite the amalgamations, less solidarity in the ranks of Labour than was exhibited in that year of conflict and victory.

If I could venture an analysis of the reason for this falling-off in solidarity, I would have to point out that the amalgamations and federations are being carried out in the main by officials absolutely destitute of the revolutionary spirit, and that as a consequence the methods of what should be militant organisations having the broad working-class outlook are conceived and enforced in the temper and spirit of the sectionalism those organisations were meant to destroy.

Into the new bottles of industrial organisation is being poured the old, cold wine of Craft Unionism.

The much-condemned small Unions of the past had at least this to recommend them, viz., that they were susceptible to pressure from the sudden fraternal impulses of their small membership. If their members worked side by side with scabs, or received tainted goods from places where scabs were employed, the shame was all their own, and proved frequently too great to be borne. When it did so we had the sympathetic strike and the fraternisation of the working class. But when the workers handling tainted goods, or working vessels loaded by scabs, are members of a nation-wide organisation, with branches in all great centres or ports, the sense of the personal responsibility is taken off the shoulders of each member and local officials, and the spirit of solidarity destroyed. The local official can conscientiously order the local member to remain at work with the scab, or to handle the tainted goods, ‘pending action by the General Executive’.

RECENT EVENTS FORETOLD IN 1914
As the General Executive cannot take action pending a meeting of delegates, and as the delegates at that meeting have to report back to their bodies, and these bodies again to meet, discuss, and then report back to the General Executive, which must meet, hear their reports, and then, perhaps, order a ballot vote of the entire membership, after which another meeting must be held to tabulate the result of the vote and transmit it to the local branches, which must meet again to receive it, the chances are, of course, a million to one that the body of workers in distress will be starved into subjection, bankrupted, or disrupted, before the leviathan organisation will allow their brothers on the spot to lift a finger or drop a tool in their aid. Readers may, perhaps, think that I am exaggerating the danger. But who will think so that remembers the vindictive fine imposed by the NUR upon its members in the North of England for taking swift action on behalf of a persecuted comrade instead of going through all this red tape whilst he was suffering? Or who will think so that knows that Dublin and Belfast members of the Irish Transport Workers’ Union have been victimised ever since the end of the lock-out by the Head Line Company, whose steamers have been and are regularly coaled in British ports, and manned by Belfast and British members of the Seamen’s and Firemen’s Union?

TACTICS THAT WILL WIN

The amalgamations and federations that are being built up today are, without exception, being used in the old spirit of the worst type of sectionalism; each local Union or branch finds in the greater organisation of which it is a part a shield and excuse for refusing to respond to the call of brothers and sisters in distress, for the handling of tainted goods, for the working of scab boats. A main reason for this shameful distortion of the Greater Unionism from its true purpose is to be found in the campaign against ‘sporadic strikes’.

I have no doubt but that Robert Williams, of the National Transport Workers’ Federation, is fully convinced that his articles and speeches against such strikes are and were wise; I have just a little doubt that they were the best service performed for the capitalist by any Labour leader of late years. The big strike, the vast massed battalions of Labour against the massed battalions of capital on a field every inch of which has been explored and mapped out beforehand, is seldom successful, for very obvious reasons. The sudden strike, and the sudden threat to strike suddenly, has won more for Labour than all the great Labour conflicts in history. In the Boer war the long line of communications was the weak point of the British army; in a Labour war the ground to be covered by the goods of the capitalist is his line of communication. The larger it is the better for the attacking forces of Labour. But these forces must be free to attack or refuse to attack, just as their local knowledge guides them. But, it will be argued, their action might imperil the whole organisation. Exactly so, and their inaction might imperil that working-class spirit which is more important than any organisation. Between the horns of that dilemma what can be done? In my opinion, we must recognise that the only solution of that problem is the choice of officers, local or national, from the standpoint of their responsiveness to the call for solidarity, and, having got such officials, to retain them only as long as they can show results in the amelioration of the condition of their members and the development of their Union as a weapon of class warfare.

ADVANCE OR RETREAT

If we develop on those lines, then the creation of a great Industrial Union, such as I have rudely sketched in my opening reminiscence, or the creation of those much more clumsy federations and amalgamations now being formed, will be of immense revolutionary value to the working class; if, on the contrary, we allow officialism of the old, narrow sectional kind to infuse their spirit into the new organisations, and to strangle these with rules suited only to a somnolent working class, then the Greater Unionism will but serve to load us with great fetters. It will but be to real Industrial Unionism what the Servile State would be to our ideal Co-operative Commonwealth.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1914/04/oldwine.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Ypres, 30th April 1915



http://www.webmatters.net/maps/ww1_map_stjuliaan_3.htm

"Current History" (New York Times) map showing reported positions during the Second Battle of Ypres, as at about 30 April 1915



On 1 May the British withdrew to shorten their lines, with the final front line running through Hooge, Frenzenberg (not shown, but 1 3/4 mile sw of Zonnebeke) and west to Mouse Trap farm and Turco farms (not shown, but 1 mile sw of St Julien).
The map is largely correct. By the end of the battle German forces had in fact captured St Julien and Zonnebeke.
NYT caption : "The German rush across the Yser-Ypres Canal was checked at Lizerne and opposite Boesinghe. The shaded area on the map marks the scene of the battle. Within this area are Steenstraate, Het Sast, Pilkem, St. Julien, and Langemarck, all of which the Germans claimed to have captured."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NYTMap2ndBattleOfYpres1915.png
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 29 Apr 2011 20:00, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 19:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (30-04-1915)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1915/0430
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paleis Het Loo, 30 april 1915



http://beeldbank.nationaalarchief.nl/nl/afbeeldingen/start/81/trefwoord/Geografisch_trefwoord/Apeldoorn/trefwoord/Serie_Collectie/Fotocollectie%20Elsevier
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ECONOMIC INTERESTS INVOLVED IN THE PRESENT WAR.
BY PROFESSOR C. H. OLDHAM.

[Read, Friday, April 30th, 1915.]

Adam Smith, in his final chapter, treats of Pub! ic Debts ;
he points out why the sudden and great expenditure on
warfare is always met by borrowing instead of by increased
taxation: "By means of borrowing/' he says, "the
governments are enabled, with a very moderate increase
of taxes, to raise, from year to year, money sufficient for
carrying on the war ; and by the practice of perpetual
funding, they are enabled, with the smallest possible in
crease of taxes, to raise annually the largest possible sum
of money." He proceeds to give his well-known argument
that it would, in the long run, be much more
economical to the community to meet war expenditure by
taxes raised within the year rather than by funding. I
do not now enter on that argument. War expenditure
has always been met by borrowing, and during the continuance
of the war the system of funding has great immediate
advantages. It is only after the war—after the money
has been expended—that we discover, when it is too late,
the greater economy of the other system. " Were the
expense of war to be defrayed always by a revenue raised
within the year, the taxes from which that extraordinary
revenue was drawn would last no longer than the war.
. . . . War would not necessarily have occasioned the
destruction of any old capitals, and peace would have occasioned
the accumulation of many more new. Wars would,
in general, be more speedily concluded, and less wantonly
undertaken. The people feeling, during continuance of
war, the complete burden of it, would soon grow weary of
i t ; and government, in order to humour them, would not
be under the necessity of carrying it on longer than it was
necessary to do so. The foresight of the heavy and unavoidable
burdens of war would hinder the people from
wantonly calling for it when there was no real and solid
interest to fight for."

Lees verder op http://www.tara.tcd.ie/jspui/bitstream/2262/7942/1/jssisiVolXIII269_280.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

APRIL 1915: FIVE FUTURE NOBEL PRIZE-WINNERS INAUGURATE WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND THE ACADEMIC–INDUSTRIAL–MILITARY COMPLEX
by WILLIAM VAN DER KLOOT

SUMMARY
Poison gas warfare was initiated in the Great War by a German military unit that included
five future Nobel laureates: James Franck, Fritz Haber, Otto Hahn, Gustav Hertz and
Walther Nernst. It was Haber’s idea to use poison gas. To implement gas warfare he
devised an organization that meshed the academy into the military–industrial complex.
Later three other Nobel laureates, Emil Fischer, Heinrich Wieland and Richard
Willstätter, contributed to the enterprise. Huge quantities of poisons were used by both
sides during the war, because they were well adapted to static trench warfare, even
though—which is a surprise to many—they were substantially less deadly than explosives.

_-0-_

(...) The Royal Society Chemical Committee was first chaired by Sir William Ramsay
FRS, who had won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904. The Committee had been initially
charged to see to the replacement of drugs that could no longer be imported; the
Admiralty was especially concerned about the supply of salvarsan, for the treatment of
syphilis.11 The Committee arranged for the production of needed substances, and
deployed the 1851 Exhibitioners to work on these projects. At their meeting on 30 April
1915 they considered the poison gas attack and forwarded some ideas on protection to
the War Office. At their next meeting they dismissed a proposal to recommend amyl
nitrate as a poison gas. After this they seem to have had little interest in weapons. (...)

Lees verder op http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/58/2/149.full.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 28th, 29th and 30th April, 1916 - I was at the guns on the 28th. That night, the wind being in the east, the gas alert was on. I rose at four thirty and, on going to the Mess at five for breakfast, tried to stop a man on a horse galloping down the road. He simply shouted, 'Gas', waved a helmet in my face and tore on. Well, I could not smell gas, so went on with breakfast, but saw two more men on horses pass. They had their helmets on. At about five twenty, the OP party, consisting of two grooms, two signallers and myself, set out. It was a beautiful, still, warm morning, with a haze hanging about. Just as we got to the centre of Noulette and were coming up to the wood, we smelled a peculiar sweet sort of smell but never took much notice of it, as thought it was the usual French village odour. On reaching the OP, I had a slight pain and also noticed all the buttons of my signaller's tunic and my own, which were polished when I left, were now black and realised that we had had a whiff of gas. The 15th got a fair amount of it and it made a number of them ill. No rounds were fired all day. On Sunday, I went to Béthune to have a haircut but, as most of the shops were shut, returned early in the afternoon.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/04/diary-entry-28th-29th-and-30th-april.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der türkische Heeresbericht: Der türkische Bericht über den Fall von Kut el Amara


Bei Kut el Amara (Irak) gefangene Engländer werden abtransportiert

Konstantinopel, 30. April. Nachdem die in Kut el Amara eingeschlossene englische Armee sich ungefähr fünf Monate unter dem Druck unserer heldenhaften Truppen befunden hat, hat sie sich schließlich der siegreichen Kaiserlichen Armee ergeben müssen. Dieses Ereignis, das eine der ruhmreichsten und glänzendsten Seiten in den militärischen Annalen der ottomanischen Armee darstellt, hat sich folgendermaßen abgespielt:
Nachdem die englische Armee in Kut el Amara ihre Lebensmittelvorräte aufgebraucht hatte, erwartete sie, daß entweder ihre Landsleute oder ihre Verbündeten ihr zur Hilfe kommen würden. Das englische Kabinett, das die Lage der Belagerten sehr genau kannte, sandte dem Führer des englischen Expeditionskorps im Irak Befehl über Befehl, um ihn zur Eile anzutreiben, damit er die Stellung unserer Truppen bei Felahie, koste es, was es wolle, angreife und durchbreche, um der Armee des Generals Townshend Hilfe zu bringen. Die in unseren letzten amtlichen Berichten gemeldeten englischen Angriffe, die unter ungeheuren Verlusten an dem heldenhaften Widerstande unserer Truppen scheiterten, zielten sämtlich auf eine Befreiung Townshends hin. Da die Engländer merkten, daß sie den Widerstand der Türken nicht brechen und ihnen ihre Beute nicht streitig machen könnten, stellten sie ihre Angriffe auf Felahie ein. Sie versuchten dann mit allen möglichen Mitteln den belagerten Platz mit Lebensmitteln zu versehen. Sie warfen zuerst Säcke mit Mehl aus den Flugzeugen herab. Aber unsere Waffen zerstörten auch diese Hoffnung der Engländer. Unsere Kampfflugzeuge begannen diese alten feindlichen Flugzeuge eins nach dem anderen abzuschießen. Der Feind griff zu einem anderen Mittel. Er versuchte unter dem Schutze der Nacht ein mit Lebensmitteln beladenes Schiff in die Festung zu bringen. Aber unsere allzeit aufmerksamen Truppen bemächtigten sich dieses Schiffes, das Hunderte Tonnen von Lebensmitteln barg. Dem General Townshend blieb keine Hoffnung. Er war ebenso überzeugt, daß das Versprechen des russischen, in Persien kämpfenden Generals, ihm in Kut el Amara binnen kurzem die Hand zu reichen, nichtig sei. Am 26. April wandte sich General Townshend an den Oberbefehlshaber unserer Irakarmee und ließ ihm wissen, daß er bereit sei, Kut el Amara zu übergeben, falls ihm und seiner Armee freier Abzug gewährt würde. Es wurde ihm geantwortet, daß ihm kein anderer Ausweg als der der bedingungslosen Übergabe bliebe. Der englische Oberbefehlshaber machte dann neue Vorschläge. Sei es, daß er nicht die günstige Lage unserer Armee kannte, oder daß er glaubte, die türkischen Führer mit Geld gewinnen zu können, bot er uns an, alle seine Geschütze und eine Million Pfund Sterling zu übergeben. Man wiederholte ihm, was man zuerst geantwortet hatte. Townshend ließ darauf wissen, daß er dies dem Oberbefehlshaber der englischen Irakarmee melden würde. Dieser befand sich aber zu weit entfernt, um ihm helfen zu können. Da schließlich Townshend alle Hoffnung verloren hatte, so übergab er sich mit der gesamten englischen Armee von Kut el Amara dem Befehlshaber der siegreichen türkischen Armee. Die bisherige Zählung ergibt, daß 5 Generale, 277 britische und 274 indische Offiziere und 13300 Soldaten zu Gefangenen gemacht worden sind. Die Aufgabe unserer Truppen bestand auf der einen Seite darin, die Ausfallsversuche zu verhindern, auf die man seitens des belagerten Feindes jeden Augenblick gefaßt war, der sich in mit allen Mitteln der modernen Technik furchtbar verschanzten Stellungen befand, anderseits sollten sie ebenso die wiederholten heftigen Angriffe des Feindes abweisen, die jeden Tag im Hinblick auf den Entsatz von Kut el Amara stärker wurden. Den Leib bis zur Hälfte im Sumpf und im Kampf mit allen Schwierigkeiten der Jahreszeit und des Klimas, so haben unsere Soldaten ihre Aufgabe erfüllt. Sie können aber auch mit vollem Recht auf ihren glänzenden Sieg stolz sein, den sie soeben über die britischen Waffen davongetragen haben.
Ein feindliches Torpedoboot, das sich am 28. April einem Teil der Küste zwischen Ari Burun und Sed ül Bahr zu nähern versuchte, wurde von einem Geschoß unserer Artillerie, die auf sein Feuer antwortete, getroffen. Es entfernte sich in der Richtung auf Imbros, von Rauch und Flammen eingehüllt. Feindliche Schiffe, die sich von Zeit zu Zeit der Küste von Smyrna genähert hatten, beschossen wirkungslos einige Örtlichkeiten und entfernten sich alsdann.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_30.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Significance of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland's struggle for independence
Matthew Hoff

"The fools, the fools, the fools! they have left us our Fenian dead, and, while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree shall never be at peace."-Patrick Pearse

The Easter Rebellion in Dublin during the week of 24 to 30 April 1916 succeeded where previous rebellions had failed. It revived the dream of Irish independence, manifesting itself in the Anglo-Irish War of 1918-1921 which created a separate Irish state with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Easter Week was the moment that Irish nationalism began its phoenix-like rebirth from its decline during the last decade of the nineteenth century. The great achievement of the Uprising was that it accelerated a change in public opinion. The 1916 Easter Rebellion differed from earlier Irish uprisings because it indirectly led to a separate state by serving as the catalyst to a tellingly harsh British response that inspired the nation to fight for self-determination. To say that Easter Week alone altered popular opinion is inaccurate; the British government's response and Irish nationalists' propaganda created the base of popular support that the Fenians, the group of militant nationalists that fought in the Rebellion, needed for a successful war with Britain. The vast majority of Irishmeneven among nationalistsbefore, during, and immediately after the Uprising opposed the use of violence to win independence. From the countryside pulpits to the United Irish League, the rebellion was wholly condemned as not reflecting the true sentiment of the island. The harsh British reaction, especially that of General Sir John Maxwell, the officer commanding all forces in Ireland, changed Irish perceptions on the acceptability of force for freedom.

Lees verder op http://www.helium.com/items/587370-significance-of-the-1916-easter-rising-in-irelands-struggle-for-independence
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Another ‘Surrender Letter, Easter 1916′



” In order to prevent further slaughter of the civil population and in the hope of saving the lives of our followers, the members of the Provisional Government present at headquarters have decided on an unconditional surrender, and commandants or officers commanding districts will order their commands to lay down arms.
P.H.Pearse, Dublin, 30th April 1916 “

http://saoirse32.blogsome.com/2006/01/10/surrender-letter-easter-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1916

30 April 1916 - Cyril, 19, and Horace Hill, 22, died whilst serving with the 24th Battalion Canadian Infantry, Canadian Expeditionary Force. According to the diary of the local priest, Pastoor A. van Walleghem, the brothers together with other Canadian soldiers took shelter from a German artillery bombardment in a shelter in the garden of a local estaminet in the vilage of Dickebusch (now called Dikkebus). A shell landed outside the entrance of the dugout and 12 soldiers died, 1 was wounded (possibly dying of his wounds afterwards) and only one got away unscathed. The two brothers were among the dead. Van Walleghem surprisingly writes that they were twins and were 17 years old. Sons of Thomas and Hannah Maria Hill, of 159 Ville Marie Avenue, Maisonneuve, Montreal, they are buried in adjacent graves in Dickebusch New Military Cemetery.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ramp te Zierikzee in den nacht van 29 op 30 april 1917. Uit een vliegmachine werden 6 bommen op de stad geworpen



http://www.catawiki.com/catalog/postcards/place-name/zierikzee/474461-totaal-verwoeste-woningen-in-de-st-domusstraat-ramp-te-zierikzee-in-den-nacht-van-29-op-30-april-1917-uit-een-vliegmachine-werden-6-bommen-op-de-stad-geworpen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Koningin Wilhelmina neemt het defilé af op 30 april 1917



http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/wilhelmina-in-oorlogstijd/wilhelmina-1917/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORLD WAR 1 at SEA: ROYAL NAVY - AWARDS of the VICTORIA CROSS



30 April-1 May 1915 - Lance Corporal Walter PARKER RMLI, Gallipoli

The London Gazette 22 June 1917 (from the Admiralty, S.W.1)

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: —

Lce.-Corpl. Walter Richard Parker R.M.L.I., No. Po./S. 229, Royal Naval Division.

In recognition of his most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in the course of the Dardanelles operations.

On the night of 30th April/1st May, 1915, a, message asking for ammunition, water and medical stores was received from an isolated fire trench at Gaba Tepe.

A party of Non-commissioned Officers and men were detailed to carry water and ammunition, and, in response to a call for a volunteer from among the stretcher bearers, Parker at once came forward; he had during the previous three days displayed conspicuous bravery and energy under fire whilst in charge of the Battalion stretcher bearers.

Several men had already been killed in a previous attempt to bring assistance to the men holding the fire trench. To reach this trench it was necessary to traverse an area at least four hundred yards wide, which was completely exposed and swept by rifle fire. It was already daylight when the party emerged from shelter and at once one of the men was wounded: Parker organised a stretcher party and then going on alone succeeded in reaching the fire trench, all the water and ammunition carriers being either killed or wounded.

After his arrival he rendered assistance to the wounded in the trench, displaying extreme courage and remaining cool and collected in very trying circumstances. The trench had finally to be evacuated and Parker helped to remove and attend the wounded, although he himself was seriously wounded during, this operation.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1MedalsBr-VC.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Francis to Lansing on staying in Russia and request for cruiser at Archangel for emergencies

File No. 861.00/1818 [Telegram]

Vologda, April 30, 1918, 8 p.m.
[Received May 18, 7 p.m.]

[First paragraph not yet transcribed]

I am resolved not to quit Russia and will not [accept] order from Soviet to leave unless you so instruct. Plan to proceed eastward if possible, otherwise go Archangel where could ignore Soviet government if protected by American cruiser. Pleased to hear Olympia en route Murman. Urgently request you send cruiser Archangel immediately to provide for emergencies. Consul wires ice there broken and cruiser of twenty-foot draft sufficient. Furthermore think unwise to relinquish to British absolute control that port which is outlet for immense territory rich in resources. If impossible to send cruiser to Archangel, please order Olympia go Archangel on my request. Please answer.

FRANCIS

http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/government/foreign-relations/1918/april/30.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

30 April 1918 → Commons Sitting

HOLLAND (EXPORT SPIRIT TRADE).


HC Deb 30 April 1918 vol 105 cc1388-9 1389

Sir GEORGE TOULMIN asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies whether the Government has since January, 1917, made any arrangement with Holland relative to the export of trade spirits to West Africa; whether the views of the Colonial Office as to the policy of providing such spirits for the native races were asked; if any such arrangement has been discussed or made, will he say to what class of spirit it refers; what amount in total, and for each Colony separately; and what is the reason or consideration for the arrangement?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for the COLONIES (Mr. Hewins) The answer to the first part of the question is in the negative. The Foreign Office are aware of the views of the Colonial Office on the subject, but there has been no change in the policy of the West African Governments in regard to the importation of spirits, although the Import Duties have been considerably increased since the beginning of the War.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/30/holland-export-spirit-trade
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter - Australian Red Cross to Mrs Kemp, Killed in Action, 30 Apr 1918



Summary:
Single-page letter dated 30 April 1918 from the Australian Red Cross, Victorian Division, to the widow of Private Albert Edward Kemp, who was killed in action in Belgium in 1917. It includes Private A. Meekoms' account of Kemp's death:

'I saw him killed by a German bomb whilst we were holding our first objective at Glencross [ie Glencorse] Wood. He was not buried as far as I know. I knew him in the Co. I could not say what he came over with. He came from Melbourne. He was about 30 years of age, 5ft. 7ins. dark complexion, and well built.'

Albert Edward Kemp was a 32-year-old butcher living in Caulfield and married to Annie Josephine, when he enlisted. He and Annie had a daughter, Ethel Mavis, and a baby son, George Percival. Albert enlisted at Royal Park on 4 October 1916, and was assigned to the 22nd Reinforcements, 6th Battalion - regimental number 6800. His battalion left Melbourne 25 October 1916 - just 21 days after he enlisted. He was shipped to France on 27 March, and probably went into action in the trenches. On 21 September 1917, Albert died in the trenches in Glencorse Wood, Belgium. He is buried at 29 The Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial, Belgium.

Inscriptions:
Text: INFORMATION BUREAU./AUSTRALIAN RED CROSS SOCIETY/VICTORIAN DIVISION/Mrs. A.J. Kemp,/8 Normandy Avenue/Malvern/Dear Madam,/re Pte. A.E. Kemp, No. 6800a, 6th Battalion./Our London Agents have forwarded us the following report/in regard to the above named soldier who was killed in action on/the /Pte. A. Meekoms, No. 6319, 6th Battalion, on the 18th/February stated - "I saw him killed by a German bomb whilst we were/holding our first objective at Glencross [ie Glencorse] Wood. He was not buried/as far as I know. I knew him in the Co. I could not say what he came/over with. He came from Melbourne. He was about 30 years of age,/5ft. 7ins. dark complexion, and well built."/Should any further reports come to hand we will again/communicate with you.

The letter is signed by Beacham Kiddle, Hon Secretary.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/1243228/letter-australian-red-cross-to-mrs-kemp-killed-in-action-30-apr-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eric Harper



Eric Tristram Harper (1 December 1877 - 30 April 1918) was a New Zealand sportsman, who is most notable for playing rugby union for the New Zealand national rugby union team and in 1905 became one of the Original All Blacks when he toured Britain and Ireland with Dave Gallaher's team.

A keen athlete, Harper was a hurdler at national level, and also played cricket representing Canterbury. In 1918, while serving in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force during World War I, he was killed in action in Jerusalem; becoming one of 11 New Zealand rugby internationals to die during the conflict.

(...) With the outbreak of the First World War, Harper joined the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, a military unit sent from New Zealand to fight for the British. Reaching the rank of Sargent Major he served in the Canterbury Mounted Rifles division and was posted to Palestine. On 30 April 1918, while his unit was coming under artillery bombardment in Jerusalem, he attempted to quiet horses and was killed in the attack. He is commemorated at the Jerusalem Memorial in Israel.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Harper



http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/cenotaph/6396.detail
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fragment of a letter from Anne Morgan to her mother, Frances Tracy Morgan - Blérancourt, 30 April 1919

From the time she arrived in Blérancourt in 1917 to organize civilian relief efforts in the devastated regions of France, Anne Morgan wrote long letters home describing the extraordinary efforts that clearly fired her with a sense of purpose. "With all my heart I wish I had some kind of gift of giving the real picture of our field over here" she told her mother.

. . . situation with our farmers of the north, here they only ask to be given the chance of starting work again, and the politicians are so occupied with these other questions that all their rights are woefully neglected.

It is hard at times to go on being optimistic when one sees what six months delay in the signing of peace has brought about, and at the same time to have the desperate need for immediate action one eyes.

Our own work grows more and more interesting, and more full of color. The other day our doctor at Blérancourt had a hurry call for a baby that she had heard nothing of at St. Paul [aux Bois], one of our most destroyed villages; there are about three hundred people back and practically not a house standing; the baby was born in a trench with a corrugated roof, five people living together and no light unless one left the door open, poor Dr. McLoughlin [Dr. Mary MacLachlan] said she had never thought to bring a baby into the world under such conditions. Fortunately her sense of humor runs strong, for when she asked who the father was, she was told he had died two years ago!

We are now starting in on the educational campaign of typhoid vaccination in all the villages, and it is a big job. The doctors are very depressed if they only get forty or fifty victims to a village for the first attack, but we think that is a wonderful success. The sanitary conditions are beyond words as there are still so many bodies of men and horses that are barely below the surface of the ground. We had proudly repaired a room to be used for the school at Camelin, when the Mayor came in and told us that in the brook just outside the door of the school house the head of a Boche had appeared in the water, as the brook had washed away the covering of soil that was over the body.

Tomorrow is our May Day festival at Boullay-Thierry and we are preparing a wonderful celebration. The weather is a trifle against us as it has been as cold as winter with rain almost every day. However the sun is now out, and it is so much warmer that we are no longer in agonies about the paper dresses that all our kids have had prepared. The Y.M.C.A. is sending us a jazz band, which with the ice cream that we are sending down in the morning by our own camion, will fill their hearts with joy. We are expecting Préfets, educational celebrities of all descriptions, and mean to have a real party.

Our tractors are the great excitement this week, for twenty five Fordsons are arriving for us at Soissons. They are the very first to be delivered in France except the two that Mr F. [Henry Ford] gave us as a present last year. The new agents are now getting more orders than our friend Leucheur will let them deliver for many a long day, for in the concours [competition] that was held the other day at St. Germain they were the most successful of any mark. The government goes on promising state tractors in our region, but they do not materialize; the only ones that have appeared are two German Konninck that look like large spiders are not at all suitable for our region, so you can imagine what it means to have these actually on hand.

Our first American Holstein cows are also arriving this week, the ones that Mrs. Hewitt put through for us; of course it was rather a sorrow when we heard that put of the hundred cows that had been promised only two bulls and two cows had gotten off by this ship. However we have made arrangements with the [André] Tardieu Mission who do everything they can for us, to send us a whole wagon out of this ship full, and we will give them ours in exchange when they arrive. It will be a busy week for livestock for we are also receiving a wagon of one thousand rabbits and two hundred chickens. . . .

http://www.themorgan.org/exhibitions/online/annemorgan/letter?date=4301919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919 - English/Australian Wedding Group Photo

Margaret Wright, a site visitor from Australia, sent me this old wedding photo. The wedding took place on 30 April 1919 in St John's Parish Church, Yeovil, Somerset, England. Margaret's father was Australian and her mother English.



Lees meer op http://www.fashion-era.com/Weddings/1919_old_wedding_photos.htm
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