Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

24 April

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2006 6:19    Onderwerp: 24 April Reageer met quote

April 24

1916 The Easter Rising begins in Dublin

Around noon on Easter Monday of 1916, some 1,600 Irish nationalists--members of the Irish Volunteers--launch the so-called Easter Rising in Dublin, seizing a number of official buildings and calling on all Irish patriots to resist the bonds of British control.

Since the outbreak of World War I, the leading Irish nationalist, Sir Roger Casement, had pressed the German government to see the potential benefit of an Irish rebellion against British rule. Consequently, on April 2, the German merchant ship Aud was sent to the Atlantic coast of Ireland, loaded with some 20,000 rifles and 1 million rounds of ammunition bound for the hands of the Easter rebels. Before the Aud reached its destination, however, a British ship intercepted it, and the crew members of the Aud scuttled the ship with all its cargo. When Casement himself traveled from Germany to Tralee Bay, also on the Atlantic coast, three weeks later, he was put ashore by the Germans on an inflatable raft. He was subsequently arrested, tried and executed for treason by the British authorities.

Meanwhile, plans for the Easter Rising had gone ahead without Casement or German help. Due to last-minute uncertainty, however, one of its leaders canceled the orders for mobilization on the Saturday before the planned uprising—because of this only 1,600 of an expected 5,000 participants gathered at Liberty Hall on April 24 to march towards the center of Dublin. There, they seized the post office, several court buildings, St. Stephen’s Green and several other locations. From the steps of the post office, the rebels declared Ireland an independent republic, stating that “We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible.”

Despite the rebels’ hopes, the public did not rise to support them, and they were quickly crushed by the police and government forces sent against them, among them some newly recruited troops bound for service in World War I. Sixty-four rebels were killed during the struggle, along with 134 troops and policeman, and at least 200 civilians were injured in the crossfire. Fifteen of the uprising’s leaders were eventually executed; a sixteenth, Eamon de Valera, was saved from a death sentence because he was an American citizen.

Even in its failure, the Easter Rising and the continued volatility of the so-called “Irish question” demonstrated the thwarted desires for self-determination that still bubbled beneath the surface in Great Britain, as in many countries in Europe, even as the larger matter of international warfare superseded them for the moment.

http://www.historychannel.com/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 6:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Mirror Headlines: The Battle of Ypres, Published 24 April 1915

Germans gain ground near Ypres by using asphyxiating gas
Berlin claims Yser Canal is forced and 1,600 prisoners taken

Allies advance in big counter-attack - 'French troops had to retire overwhelmed by fumes,' says Sir J French

Hun's Long Preparation of Forbidden Devices
By using asphyxiating gas fumes the Germans north of Ypres have forced back French troops to the Yser Canal near Boesinghe.

Though Berlin claims sweeping successes in the fighting that ensued, Sir John French last night reported that 'our front remains intact except on the extreme left' and the French communiqué states that the enemy's surprise attack 'has had no grave consequences'.

Berlin's claim is that the Germans forced a passage across the Yser Canal, that Langemarck and three other places were captured, and that 1,600 French and British prisoners with 30 guns fell into German hands.

Even in the short time at their disposal the Allies have retaliated and a vigorous counter-attack has developed successfully.

An official telegram from Berlin says: 'The Admiralty Staff states that recently the German High Sea Fleet has repeatedly been cruising in the North Sea, and has advanced into English waters, without meeting any British naval force.'

The bombardment of the Dardanelles forts has been resumed, and the transports of the Expeditionary Force have arrived in the Gulf of Saros.

Gas Fumes that Drove Back Our Ally
Sir J French Reports that British Had to Re-adjust Line to New Front

Sir John French last night communicated the following, dated yesterday: Yesterday (Thursday) evening the enemy developed an attack on the French troops on our left in the neighbourhood of Bixschoote and Langemarck, on the north east of Ypres salient. This attack was preceded by a heavy bombardment, the enemy at the same time making use of a large number of appliances for the production of asphyxiating gases. The quantity produced indicates long and deliberate preparation for the employment of devices contrary to the terms of the Hague Convention, to which the enemy subscribed.

The false statement made by the Germans a week ago to the effect that we were using such gases is now explained. It was obviously an effort to neutralise criticism in advance.

During the night the French had to retire from the gas zone, overwhelmed by the fumes. They have fallen back to the canal in the neighbourhood of Boesinghe.

Our front remains intact except on the extreme left where the troops have had to readjust their line in order to conform with the new French line. Two attacks were delivered during the night on our trenches east of Ypres and were repulsed.

Fighting still continues in the region north of Ypres.

This (Friday) morning one of our aviators, during the course of a reconnaissance which he completed successfully, damaged a German aeroplane and forced it to descend. Our Flying Corps also brought down another German machine about Messines.

Huns Claim 'Victory'
Amsterdam, April 23: The following official telegram has been received from Berlin: 'A report from main headquarters dated April 23: Where at some places the French have penetrated our advanced trenches, but have been partly driven out again, hand-to-hand fighting still continues. Embermenil, west of Avricourt, which we recently occupied, was yesterday set on fire by the French bombardment and evacuated by our vanguard.' (Reuters)

Top'No Grave Result'
Paris, April 2: Tonight's official communiqué says: In Belgium the surprise caused by the asphyxiating bombs used by the Germans to the north of Ypres has had no grave consequences. Our counter-attack, vigorously supported by the British troops on our right and also by the Belgian troops on our left, was developed with success.

The Anglo-French troops gained ground towards the north between Steenstraate and the Ypres-Poelcapelle road.

Our Allies took prisoners belonging to three different regiments.

French Progress Continued
In Champagne, at Beausejour, we demolished an enemy gun protected by a casemate which was enfilading our trenches.

On the heights of the Meuse, the enemy essayed three attacks at the Calonne trench at Les Eparges and near Combre. These were immediately stopped.

In the forest of Apremont, at the Cow's Head, our progress was continued. We found in the captured trenches about 200 German dead.

Our artillery blew up two ammunition depots and a company of German infantry in the vicinity was almost entirely annihilated.

We captured a trench mortar, a machine gun and some material. (Reuters)

Driven Back by Bomb Gas
Paris, April 23: This afternoon's official communiqué says: Yesterday evening there were fairly lively engagements in Belgium. In the bend of the Yser, to the north of Dixmude, the Belgian troops repulsed an attack directed against the Chateau of Vicoghe and inflicted heavy losses on the enemy.

To the north of Ypres the Germans, by employing a large quantity of asphyxiating bombs, the effect of which was felt for a distance of a mile and a quarter behind our lines, succeeded in forcing us to retire.

In the direction of the Yser Canal, towards the west, and in the direction of Ypres, towards the south, the enemy's attack was held up. A vigorous counter-attack enabled us to regain ground, making many prisoners.

In Ailly Wood, near St Mihiel, by an attack to the east and west of the position previously captured, we took 700 yards of trenches and made about 100 prisoners, including three officers. (Reuters)

British Hold Entire Crest of Hill 60
Sir John French's Cheerful Report of Ypres Triumph - Air Hero's Raid on Ghent

Sir John French's bi-weekly report, dated Thursday and issued yesterday, is as follows: German attacks on Hill 60 just west of Zwarteleen, which had stopped at the time of my communiqué on Monday, have since been renewed several times. These attacks have all failed, and for the time being they have ceased.

We hold the entire crest of the hill and so deny its use to the enemy who attach great importance to it. There is not, and never has been, any truth in the statement published in the German official communiqué that the enemy had re-captured the position. During the course of the operations the enemy fired shells of 17-inch diameter into Ypres.

On Wednesday, in the neighbourhood of La Bassee, the enemy exploded two mines opposite our right. They failed to damage our trenches.

Having discovered German mining operations in the neighbourhood of La Touquet, near Armentières, we forestalled their efforts this (Thursday) morning by exploding a mine, which we had prepared there.

On Monday one of our airmen carried out a very bold and successful single-handed attack on an airship shed near Ghent. He had to run the gauntlet of the fire directed from a captive balloon, as well as from the ground, in order to attack his objective. In spite of this he descended to within 200ft and effected his object, causing a large explosion in the shed.

TopWarships Shell Forts at Dardanelles
Transports with Expeditionary Force Arrive In Gulf of Saros - Turkish Panic

Athens, April 22: Information from Greek sources states that there has been a resumption of operations in the Dardanelles. A section of the Allied fleet is lying off Enos, and a number of transports are in the Gulf of Saros. A bombardment of the Dardanelles forts by Allied warships took place both yesterday and today. (Central News)

Turks Flee in Panic
Sofia, April 23: Two British warships appeared off Dedeagatch yesterday and saluted the Bulgarian flag.

Refugees from Turkish Thrace, who have arrived in Bulgaria, state that panic reigns among the inhabitants along the whole Turkish coast of the Aegean Sea, owing to the bombardment of Enos. They also report that the Allies have again landed troops at Enos, and that the garrison has been withdrawn. (Reuters)

Foe's Enormous Losses
Petrograd, April 23: A dispatch from the Headquarters Staff of the Commander-in-Chief says: In the direction of Lutovisk we made successful progress, capturing a portion of the enemy trenches on Hill 1,001 to the north east of Lubnia. We took prisoners seven officers and over 200 rank and file.

During the night of April 21-22 the enemy took the offensive on the front Lubnia Bukowetz Stanki, but the movement failed everywhere, the enemy being repulsed with enormous losses. On the rest of the front there was intermittent artillery fire.

To sum up, nothing of great consequence happened during the day, and the position remains unchanged. (Reuters)

U-Boat Shells Trawler
A thrilling story of his escape from a German submarine in the North Sea was told yesterday on his arrival at Grimsby by Captain J Hines, of the trawler St Lawrence. The Germans, he said, attacked the trawler with shell fire, which was continued for two hours.

Seeing that the pirates intended to destroy the trawler, Captain Hines launched his small boat, and seven of the crew got into it under the fire of the Germans. Two other men, the third hand and deckhand who had gone below to get life belts jumped overboard to swim to the boat. The submarine commander refused to allow the boat to pick up the two men, and they were drowned.

When the boat got clear the Germans blew up the trawler with bombs. A Blyth (Northumberland) fisherman yesterday reported that when five miles out at sea he saw a Zeppelin flying high towards the coast. About 20 minutes later he saw the airship returning seaward.

TopMediterranean Maze
Shells that Gave Queen Elizabeth Her Baptism of Fire at Dardanelles

(From a Special Correspondent)

Eastern Mediterranean, April. The importance of Malta cannot be over-estimated. Both the English and French fleets and transports are based on it - over 100 French ships and an even larger number of British.

We left Malta on Friday, April 2, in the oil-tank steamer Sunik, under ideal conditions but on Monday morning we ran into a storm of wind and rain, which continued for three days and nights. Many of our merchant captains and their crews have never traversed the waters of the Mediterranean: its currents, changing weather conditions, its lights and the innumerable islands of the archipelago are a new field of discovery to them.

Amazing as it may seem the charts are also old and very inaccurate, all of which adds to the difficulty of correct navigation.

But we are a Fleet messenger, under orders to arrive at our destination without delay; the same blood and spirit of enterprise of the Elizabethan era courses through the veins of the officers and men, and we press on, groping our way blindly and risking bumps with the archipelago.

After dawn next day we sight two little black dots a long way to port, and the captain pronounces them to be trawlers. When they come up we can make out on the tiny bridges two figures covered in oilskins, but nevertheless drenched through and looking like drowned rats.

They are two young sub lieutenants, not out of their teens who have been placed in charge of these trawlers to take them to the Dardanelles. For the last 48 hours they have been swept fore and aft by the huge waves, and their officers have not been able to leave the bridge. But both are cheerful and happy and perfectly frank. They hail us through the megaphone: 'We are quite lost, haven't an idea where we are. Where are you bound for - can we follow you in?'

Our captain gives our destination, which I am not allowed to do, and once more we get under way. Now we round a bend and come in sight of a portion of the Fleet.

The first sight which greets our eyes are the fighting-tops of the mighty Queen Elizabeth, the most powerful warship afloat in any waters. Her huge body is hidden by some low-lying land. Shades of Nelson! But suddenly we see a destroyer, dashing her way towards us and flying the French flag. We give our number and the destroyer retires satisfied and we make our way slowly in.

A pinnace takes me across to the Queen Elizabeth to visit the admiral. This, the latest of our super Dreadnoughts, is a revelation. She only carries eight great 15-inch guns, and a secondary armament of six-inches. But those eight make every other gun you have ever seen look ridiculous and contemptible.

The gunners say they can almost land on a penny at 15,000 yards even with three-quarter charges.

The great ship has in turn received her baptism of fire, and has been struck by three shells, one of which came through the gun-team, but fortunately all the midshipmen were at their stations, and no one was hurt. Another came through her unprotected side, high up but burst without doing any damage. The third, I think, hit her funnel.

A short distance from the Queen Elizabeth lies the dreadnought cruiser Inflexible. This ship has seen more fighting in the war than almost any other vessel in the Fleet.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror02_01.shtml
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 6:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: Germans take St. Julien: French and Belgians recover Lizerne: 3rd Canadian brigade withdrawn.

Eastern Front

Austrians capture Ostaij, height south-east of Kosziowa.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Fighting round Kilimanjaro (German East Africa).
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 6:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Zeppelin raid on Norfolk and Suffolk coast; 1 killed, 1 injured.

Aeroplane raid on Dover, no damage.

Political, etc.

Rebellion in Ireland; Sinn Feiners seize Dublin Post Office. Serious fighting in Dublin.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 6:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

Severe fighting from Croisilles to north of Gavrelle (Arras).

South of Bapaume-Cambrai road British advance to St. Quentin Canal near Vendhuil and capture Bithem.

Southern Front

British night attack on western side of Lake Doiran (north-west of Salonika).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Retreat of Turks up Shatt-el-Adhaim towards Jebel Hamrin.

Political, etc.

Arrival of French Mission (Marshall Joffre and M. Viviani) in New York.

Ukraine demands autonomy.

Sen. Costa (Democrat) becomes Premier in Portugal.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2010 6:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Violent attacks on junction of British and French in Amiens sector south of Somme; Villers-Bretonneux lost.

Battle very severe at Hangard; Germans finally capture village.

Attacks beaten off east of Robecq and north-east of Bailleul.

Heavy artillery fire in Woevre.

Eastern Front

Manchuria: Cossacks under Colonel Semenov defeat 500 armed Hungarian prisoners of war and drive them back towards Chita.

Southern Front

Macedonia: Lively fighting west of Doiran and in Cherna Bend.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

During past week, a 53-mile section of Hejaz railway south of Maan effectively occupied by Arab troops.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Naval aircraft over Zeebrugge and Ostend.

Political, etc.

Rectification of Anglo-Turkish agreement for exchange of prisoners announced.

French papers publish Lichnowsky memorandum in full.

Hungary: Count Serenyi tries to form Ministry; and fails next day.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 16:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1914

24 april 1914 - De gemeentetram maakt via een advertentie in de kranten de maatregelen bekend, die zondag 26 april a.s. ter gelegenheid van de voetbalwedstrijd Holland-België voor het vervoer naar het nieuwe stadion zullen worden genomen:
De lijnen 1, 2 en 17 worden versterkt.
Er zullen van 12 tot 2 uur en na de wedstrijd drie buitengewone lijnen rijden, met een “B” in de beugel, en borden op het balkon:
B-geel: Centraal Station – Stadion v.v.
B-blauw: Leidscheplein – Stadion v.v.
B-rood: Concertgebouw – Stadion v.v.
Na de wedstrijd zullen de trams als volgt opgesteld worden:
B-geel: In de Havenstraat links van de Amstelveenscheweg;
B-blauw: Op een terrein rechts van de Amstelveenscheweg;
B-rood: Op de Amstelveenscheweg, links instappen.
Instappen lijnen 1 en 17 en verdere ritten lijnen B-geel en B-blauw op de Amstelveenscheweg ten noorden van de kringlijn.
Instappen lijn 2 en verdere ritten lijn B-rood op de Koninginneweg ten oosten van de kringlijn.
Op de kringlijn zelf wordt niet gestopt.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Loe de Jong

Louis (Loe of Lou) de Jong (Amsterdam, 24 april 1914 — aldaar, 15 maart 2005) was een Nederlands historicus en journalist.

Lou de Jong is vooral bekend geworden door zijn uit veertien delen bestaande werk Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog dat - op het laatste deel na - geheel van zijn hand is en lange tijd werd beschouwd als het standaardwerk over Nederland en Nederlands-Indië in de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loe_de_Jong
Zie ook http://www.kb.nl/dossiers/dejong/dejong.html , http://www.niod.nl/ , http://www.knaw.nl/publicaties/pdf/20061074-5.pdf en http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/programmas/2899536/afleveringen/21377598/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 april 1874: Vestingwet

Minister van Oorlog A.W.Ph. Weitzel concentreert de verdediging van ons land in de westelijke provincies. Dit kerngebied, dat rond 1890 Vesting Holland gaat heten, wordt rondom beveiligd door de zee (de Noordzee en de Zuiderzee) en door sterke linies. De Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie beschermt het gebied aan de oostkant. In het zuiden wordt het afgeschermd door twee aparte stellingen, één rond Willemstad en de andere tussen Brielle en Hellevoetsluis. Aan de noordkant ten slotte komt de stelling van Amsterdam te liggen, een ring van forten en inundaties rond de hoofdstad. Met de aanleg van de Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie is op advies van luitenant-generaal C.R.Th.baron Krayenhoff al begonnen in 1816. Tussen 1840 en 1860 wordt deze linie uitgebreid en verbeterd. De Vestingwet bepaalt verder dat vestingen en linies die in onbruik zijn geraakt (vooral in de noordelijke, oostelijke en zuidelijke provincies) worden opgeheven. Voor de vestingen komt dit neer op ontmanteling.

http://www.nimh.nl/nl/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814_1914/index.aspx
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hollands Glorie in oorlogstijd, 1914-1918 - Uit de scheepsjournalen van L. Smit & Co’s Sleepdienst
Door Drs. Kees de Haas

(...) In 1916 ook had Smit haar eerste oorlogsverlies te betreuren.

Het begon allemaal met het, ter hoogte van het Galloper lichtschip op een Duitse mijn lopen van het ss Maashaven van de Rotterdamse rederij Gebrs. Van Uden. Het schip was met een lading maïs en katoenzaadmeel onderweg van New Orleans naar de Maasstad. De bemanning, bestaande ui 23 personen, verliet het schip in twee boten.

De schipbreukelingen werden opgepikt door het ss Goentoer van de Rotterdamsche Lloyd, onderweg van Rotterdam naar Java en het ss Prinses Juliana van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij Zeeland, uit de dienst tussen Vlissingen en Tilbury. Bij het aan boord klimmen van het laatstgenoemde schip viel de kapitein van de Maashaven terug in zee en verdronk. Men wist hem nog aan boord te halen waarna zijn lichaam in Vlissingen aan land werd gebracht. De Maashaven, die drijvende was gebleven strandde kort daarop bij Calais op de Franse kust en kon, twee weken later na te zijn vlotgebracht in Duinkerken worden binnengesleept.

Medio april werden de zeeslepers Noordzee en Oostzee van L. Smit & Co’s Sleepdienst naar Duinkerken gestuurd om het schip op te halen en naar Rotterdam te brengen. Maandag 24 april vertrok het transport ui de Franse haven en na het opnemen van een loodswerd, via de vuurschepen Sunk en Galloper, koers gezet naar het Nederlandse lichtschip Noord-Hinder. De Noordzee had elf man aan boord en de Oostzee had tien opvarenden. In het kleine konvooi voer nog een ander schip mee, de Dübhe van Van Nievelt, Goudriaan & Co te Rotterdam. Bij het passeren van de Noord-Galloperboei liep dit schip op een mijn maar het kon twee dagen later te Northfleet worden binnengesleept. De sleepboot Noordzee had zijn tros met de Maashaven losgegooid om hulp te bieden aan de Dübhe maar, achter de Maashaven om stomende zag met dat ook dit schip werd getroffen door een mijnontploffing in het voorschip. Blijkbaar hadden de Duitsers hier nogal royaal hun mijnen gestrooid want kort daarna was ook de sleepboot Noordzee zelf slachtoffer en verdween het na een enorme explosie binnen vijf minuten naar de diepte. De bemanning, met uitzondering van de stoker en de tweede machinist kon zich redden in een sloep en werd door de Oostzee in Hoek van Holland aan land gebracht. De twee vrachtschepen Dübhe en Maashaven bleven drijven en kregen assistentie van Engelse marinevaartuigen. De Maashaven werd in zinkende toestand in Harwich aan de grond gezet, later geborgen, hersteld en 1919 aan de rederij teruggegeven. Ook de vier runners op de Maashaven werden door de Oostzee aan boord genomen.

Lees verder op http://www.ssew.nl/hollands-glorie-oorlogstijd-1914-1918
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

TIMELINES OF THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION - YEAR 1914

April 24, 1914 - Pablo González takes Monterrey without any resistance.
US President Woodrow Wilson authorizes mobilization of the regular army 54,000 troops strong and 150,000 National Guards.
As a result, a huge anti-American wave sweeps throughout Mexico. All totalitarians, revolutionaries, and counter revolutionaries, no matter how hostile towards each other, make collectively known that they'd rather kiss Huerta on the lips than sit back and let the U.S. invade their country.
American properties are burnt everywhere. This is not a good time for American honeymoons in Cancun.

http://www.emersonkent.com/history/timelines/mexican_revolution_timeline_1914.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 17:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

History of Ireland
1893 - 1914: The Third Home Rule Bill and Ulster's Opposition


The Liberals were now obligated to introduce the Third Home Rule Bill, in 1912. They were more reluctant than they had been in the past, but the Conservatives had more Unionist support than ever before. When the Bill was discussed, the Conservatives fiercely campaigned to have the Unionist north east of Ireland treated separately from the rest of the island. They argued that the Protestants of Ulster constituted a separate Irish nation. They hoped this argument would stop Home Rule being introduced, since it would, they believed, result in a volatile Ireland containing two national identities. The two prime Unionist speakers were Sir Edward Carson (leader of the Unionists) and Sir James Craig.

In Belfast, tensions were so high over the Bill that spontaneous rioting kept breaking out between the Catholic and Protestant residents of the City. On 28 September 1912, Craig introduced the 'Ulster Covenant', which people could sign to pledge their determination to defeat the Third Home Rule Bill. It was a huge success and 450,000 Irish people signed it, some in their own blood. The week came to a climax on 28 September 1912, which was known as Ulster Day. The whole event was remarkably peaceful, considering the tension, and received huge publicity in Britain.

As the Bill was discussed, one proposition put forward was that the 4 counties with a Unionist majority (Antrim, Down, Londonderry and Armagh) could be left out of the Home Rule scheme. This was proposed as a compromise, since both sides were threatening to use force if the other got their way. At first the Unionists were horrified, since it made Home Rule much more likely, but they quickly resigned themselves to the idea. Many of them decided they would need a back up military force as 'insurance' to make certain that at least Ulster was left out of Home Rule. So in January 1913, the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) was set up. Thousands of Unionists joined, and they met in Orange Halls around Ulster. The only thing missing was weapons. On 24/25 April 1914, 25,000 rifles and 3,000,000 bullets were illegally landed by the UVF at Larne, Bangor and Donaghadee, all near Belfast. Since the police in these areas did not try to stop the landings, the Nationalists felt that the police were in league with the UVF.

Lees verder... http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/18931914.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armenian Genocide

The starting date of the genocide is conventionally held to be April 24, 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople.[18][19] Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, depriving them of food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres were indiscriminate of age or gender, with rape and other sexual abuse commonplace.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide

Achtergrond

Sinds 1454 maakte Armenië deel uit van het Ottomaanse Rijk. Dit rijk raakte in de loop van de achttiende en negentiende eeuw langzaam in verval. In de verschillende Russisch-Turkse oorlogen had het rijk steeds meer terrein verloren aan Rusland. Ook in het Middellandse Zeegebied verloor het rijk gebieden en invloed. Sinds het Verdrag van Küçük Kaynarca van 1774 stonden de Armeens orthodoxe christenen in het Ottomaanse Rijk onder bescherming van Rusland.

Eind negentiende eeuw was het rijk sterk beïnvloed door Westerse ideeën over nationalisme en patriottisme. Deze ideeën ondermijnden de structuur van millets, de verschillende geloofsgemeenschappen, van het Ottomaanse rijk. Op de Balkan vochten de verschillende christelijke groeperingen voor hun onafhankelijkheid en na de onafhankelijkheid van Bulgarije (1878) werd het duidelijk dat wellicht ook voor de Armeniërs onafhankelijkheid mogelijk was. De overwegend Armeens-orthodoxe Armeniërs kwamen in opstand tegen de islamitische Ottomanen, mede door ophitsing van de kant van Rusland. Bij pogroms, die plaats vonden met oogluikende toelating of misschien zelfs aanmoediging door sultan Abdul Hamid II, werden tussen 1894 en 1896 vele tienduizenden Armeniërs vermoord. Honderdduizenden Armeniërs vluchtten in de jaren daarop naar het buitenland, waardoor de Armeense diaspora verder toenam.

Naast buitenlandse bemoeienis woedde er ook voortdurend een binnenlandse machtsstrijd. In 1908 greep in Turkije de Jong-Turkse revolutie met een machtsovername plaats door de Unionisten of Jonge Turken. In 1913 pleegde de extremistische vleugel van de Unionisten een nieuwe staatsgreep. Een triumviraat, bestaande uit de officieren Talaat Pasja, Enver Pasja en Djemal Pasja vestigde een repressieve dictatuur, gestoeld op een agressief Turks nationalisme. De machtsovername van 1908 werd aanvankelijk door de Armeniërs gesteund. Spoedig bleek echter dat in het nieuwe Turkije, dat de Jong-Turken voor ogen stond, voor de Armeniërs geen plaats was. De Jong-Turken droomden van een groot aaneengesloten Turks rijk, dat zich uitstrekte van de Balkan tot Centraal-Azië, waarin alle Turkssprekende volkeren verenigd zouden zijn. In deze beweging, pan-Turkisme geheten, was geen plaats voor de Armeniërs en andere niet-Turkse volkeren. De Armeniërs die immers geografisch precies tussen de verschillende Turkse broedervolkeren in leefden, vormden opeens de voornaamste belemmering voor dit pan-Turkisme.

Het is dit samengaan van buitenlandse inmenging en intense binnenlandse machtsstrijd, aangewakkerd door een extreem-nationalistische ideologie, die de Armeniërs uiteindelijk de das hebben omgedaan.

Uitbreken Eerste Wereldoorlog
Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog koos het Ottomaanse Rijk de kant van de Centrale Mogendheden (Duitsland, Oostenrijk-Hongarije en Bulgarije) waardoor het in oorlog raakte met de Entente (Rusland, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en Frankrijk).

De Armeniërs wensten hun onafhankelijkheid te verwerven tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Armeense leiders sloten daartoe verdragen met de Britten en de Russen. Deze verdragen hielden in dat uit de oostelijke Ottomaanse provincies een onafhankelijk Armenië zou worden gevormd.

Rondom de frontlinie in Oost-Anatolië woonden veel Armeniërs en een deel van Armenië viel al geruime tijd onder Russisch bestuur. Het Russische leger had in 1915 in totaal zeven Armeense vrijwilligersbrigades en vocht er de Kaukasuscampagne uit met de Ottomanen.

Daarnaast waren verschillende Armeense guerrillaorganisaties actief. Ook kwamen verschillende groepen Armeniërs in opstand tijdens de Armeense Revolutie, onder andere in de steden Van en Zeytun (Süleymanli).
Historici zijn van mening dat paniek een niet te onderschatten directe drijfveer vormde voor de daders van de genocide. Bronvermelding gewenst In het voorjaar 1915 zat het Ottomaanse Rijk in de tang:

In het westen startte een offensief van de Geallieerden bij de Dardanellen om een toegang tot de Bosporus te verwerven.
In het oosten liep in januari een Ottomaanse aanval tegen de Russen bij Sarikamisj (Oost-Anatolië) op een volledige nederlaag uit.
De Britten rukten daarbij op naar Bagdad.
Het besluit tot het massaal verplaatsen van Armeniërs nam men in deze benarde omstandigheden. Het moest een snelle, grondige en "definitieve oplossing" forceren. De directe aanleiding tot het bevel was een opstand onder de Armeniërs in april 1915 in de oostelijk gelegen stad Van.

De genocide
Op 24 april 1915 werden honderden tot enkele duizenden leden van de Armeense elite zonder enkele vorm van proces vermoord in Constantinopel (Istanbul). Deze dag wordt nog altijd herdacht door de Armeniërs als het begin van de volkerenmoord.

Hierna besloot het Ottomaans regime officieel alle Armeniërs te deporteren naar de zuidelijke provincie Syrië, dat toen nog deel uitmaakte van het Ottomaanse Rijk. De deportatie had echter in wezen geen bestemming, maar was in eerste instantie georganiseerd richting de stad Aleppo in het huidige Syrië en van daar uit naar de Der el-Zor-woestijn. Er werden waarschijnlijk 25 grote concentratiekampen opgezet onder de leiding van de rechterhand van Talaat Pasja, Sükrü Kaya, waarvan de meeste lagen op de huidige Syrische en Iraakse grenzen en waarvan sommige alleen dienden als doorvoerkampen. Het grootste deel van de kampbewaarders bestond uit Armenen.

Bepaalde categorieën Armeniërs werden vrijgesteld van deportatie: katholieken, protestanten, spoorwegarbeiders en leden van de krijgsmacht werden niet gedeporteerd. Ook uit Istanbul en Izmir werden geen Armeniërs gedeporteerd.

Er was niet gezorgd voor eten of drinken voor de Armeniërs tijdens de tochten van de verschillende delen van het land naar Syrië. Volgens ooggetuigen en historische documenten bezweken Armenen op de marsen naar het hedendaagse Syrië aan dorst, honger of werden doodgeranseld of -geschoten door de begeleidende Turkse gendarmerie. Voorts werden Armeense vrouwen en meisjes onderweg regelmatig verkracht. Andere Armeniërs, volgens de Britse historicus Martin Gilbert de meerderheid van de slachtoffers, werden in of nabij hun woonplaatsen vermoord. [4] Niet het Turkse leger maar de door Behaeddin Shakir opgezette "Speciale Organisatie" - een militie binnen de Osmaanse regeringspartij - had in die massaslachtingen een centrale rol. Deze laatste bestond uit onder meer Koerdische stammen en vrijgelaten misdadigers die onder direct gezag van de partij stonden.

Volgens Akçam in zijn boek "A Shameful Act", werden deze milities gestationeerd langs de deportatieroute met het enige doel zo veel mogelijk Armeniërs om te brengen. De plaatselijke bevolking, alzo betrokken in het complot, werd daarnaast aangemoedigd om de woningen van de gedeporteerden te plunderen. Daarbij stond op helpen onderduiken van Armeniërs de dood met de strop. Plaatselijke gezagdragers en de moslimbevolking steunden allerminst unaniem de omstreden beslissing van het driemanschap. (...)

Na afloop van de Eerste Wereldoorlog
Na de wapenstilstand van 1918 en het aftreden van Talaat Pasjas regering stelden de nieuwe Turkse machthebbers een militaire rechtbank in om de daders te bestraffen. De hoofdverdachten: Talaat, Enver en Djelal waren echter al naar Duitsland gevlucht. Talaat en Djemal werden later door Armeense activisten vermoord; Envar stierf tijdens nieuwe militaire avonturen in Centraal-Azië.

In mei 1918 werd het onafhankelijke Armenië gesticht. Dit rijk vocht aan de zijde van de geallieerden. De noordoostelijke provincies van het Ottomaanse Rijk werden aan Armenië toegevoegd.

In 1920 vocht Armenië met Turkije de Turks-Armeense Oorlog uit. De Ottomanen zagen de samenwerking van de Armeniërs op Ottomaans grondgebied als verraad, te meer omdat ze eerst hadden verklaard neutraal te blijven in de oorlog. Met de overgave van de Ottomanen werden de grenzen van het nieuwe Armenië bekrachtigd in het Verdrag van Sèvres van 1920. Daar dit verdrag feitelijk het einde van een Turkse staat op Anatolië inhield [5] werd het door de Turken niet geaccepteerd. Westelijk deel Anatolië werd aan de Grieken gegeven, zuidelijke delen kwamen onder Italiaans, Brits en Frans controle. Onder leiding van Mustafa Kemal Pasja werd daarom strijd gevoerd om de heerschappij over Anatolië. Zowel de Grieken als de andere koloniale bezetters werden verslagen. In het Verdrag van Lausanne (1923) werd de Turkse souvereniteit over geheel Anatolië door andere staten erkend. Dit leidde tot de stichting van de Turkse republiek en de afschaffing van het sultanaat.

http://forum.rc-wereld.com/viewMessage260816879.html

De Armeense genocide
In de nacht van 24 op 25 april 1915 werden in Constantinopel 250 vooraanstaande Armeense intellectuelen bijeen gedreven en geëxecuteerd op bevel van de Ottomaanse machthebber Talaat Pasha, leider van de Jong-Turken.
Hun moord en de datum van 24 april wordt door Armeniërs overal op de wereld herdacht als het begin van de genocide op meer dan een miljoen Armeniërs.
Het is voor een buitenstaander ingewikkeld om snel inzicht te krijgen in de problematiek van de volkerenmoord op de Armeniërs in 1915, vooral omdat de volkerenmoord inzet is van politieke strijd.
Uitgaande van de definitie van genocide zoals vastgelegd op 9 december 1948 is de zaak echter helder: via een stapsgewijs proces werden allereerst de weerbare Armeense mannen uitgeschakeld, waarna werd overgegaan tot het uitroeien van de zwakkere leden van de groep: de vrouwen, kinderen en oude mannen en vrouwen. In les/onderwijsverband kan daarmee elke ontkenning van de genocide de kop in worden gedrukt.
Het behandelen van de Armeense genocide is in de kerndoelen niet verplicht gesteld, toch zijn er een aantal duidelijke aanknopingspunten in de schoolmethoden voor het voortgezet onderwijs waarbij kan worden aangehaakt.
De volkerenmoord vond plaats tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog in het land dat in alle schoolboeken vermeld staat als ‘de zieke man van Europa`, vanwege de vele interne spanningen tussen verschillende etnische groepen. Aan de buitengrenzen roerden met name de Russen zich en de Eerste Wereldoorlog (Turkije was bondgenoot van Duitsland) voerde de druk op de nationalistische regering van Jong-Turken naar een denkbeeldig kookpunt. De Jong-Turkse regering wentelde alle binnen- en buitenlandse druk af op de vermeend vijandige inlandse vijand, de Armeense minderheid die afweek omdat ze christelijk was.

http://www.chgs.nl/01_update_pages/documents/DeArmeensegenocidedocenten.pdf

Zie ook http://www.april24.net/ , http://www.armeniapedia.org/index.php?title=Armenian_Genocide , http://24april1915.org/ , http://www.armenian-genocide.org/ , http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLeXrPuxmp4
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 17:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Saturday 24th April 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘At last the big move which we have been awaiting has come and orderly preparations can be observed every where. Everyone has his respective kit reduced to the lowest possible amount and the rest packed away on the wagons in the ships hold, we are taking no blankets with us. Our gear consists of our great coat which is rolled bandolier fashion with a waterproof sheet rolled around it, 48 hour iron rations in our haversacks and a full water bottle which we have been warned to take. Orders have been read to us giving such details of the undertaking as are necessary, we have been informed that it is to be generally understood that what is about to be undertaken is a most difficult task and must be pushed through at any cost. There must be no thought of turning back. From our anchorage outside the harbour entrance we obtained a splendid view of the transports leaving the harbour. Several left at dawn and others left during the morning, everyone appears eager and anxious now the movement has commenced, every boat moving within hailing distance of another receives a regular outburst of cheering, which is quickly replied to. About 2pm we witnessed the Navy steam out of the harbour on its way to the scene of operations at the Dardanelles, headed by the Queen Elizabeth, the ships streamed past presenting a magnificent spectacle which to those who witnessed it will never be forgotten. During the rest of the afternoon transports have been leaving in an almost continuous stream.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second battle of Ypres, 22 April-25 May 1915

The second battle of Ypres, 22 April-25 May 1915, was a rare German offensive on the Western Front during 1915. It was launched with two aims in mind. The first was to distract attention from the movement of German troops to the eastern front in preparation for the campaign that would lead to the victory of Gorlice-Tarnow. The second was to assess the impact of poisoned gas on the western front. Gas had already been used on the eastern front, at Bolimov (3 January 1915), but the tear gas used there had frozen in the extreme cold.

At Ypres the Germans used the first lethal gas of the war, chlorine. The gas was to be released from 6,000 cylinders and would rely on the wind to blow it over the allied trenches. This method of delivery controlled the timing of the attack – the prevailing winds on the western front came from the west, so the Germans had to wait for a suitable wind from the east to launch their attack.

The line around Yrpres was held by French, Canadian and British troops. The French held the northern part of the line, with two divisions – the 87th Territorial and 45th Division, made up of Zouaves, the African Light Rifles and native Algerians. To their right was the Canadian division, and to their right were three divisions of British regulars (5th, 27th and 28th).

The attack on 22 April hit the French lines worst. Not at all surprisingly the line broke under the impact of this deadly new weapon. The gas created a gap 8,000 yards long in the Allied lines north of Ypres. The success of their gas had surprised the Germans. They didn’t have the reserves to quickly exploit the unexpected breakthrough, and General Smith-Dorrien (Second Army) had enough time to plug the gap with newly arrived Canadian troops.

No proper counter measures were available to deal with the gas. However, the chlorine gas was water soluble, so one limited answer to the threat was to use water soaked clothes as an impromptu gas mask. With this limited protection the Canadians were able to fight off a second German gas attack on 24 April.

Lees verder op http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ypres2.html

Battle of 2nd Ypres - April 23/24 1915

The lines at midnight 23/24 April, 1915. From "The History of the Canadian Forces Volume 1", Colonel A. Fortesque Duguid

Kaarten... http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/writing/maps.asp
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 18:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

En wat zegt de MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND TOURISM van Turkije zelf (in het kader van 'volledigheid voor alles...')?

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

April 24, 1915

The Ottoman government, against Armenian revolts starting from 1890's and Armenian massacres which resulted with murders of tens of thousands of Turks, informed high members of Armenian congregation and the Armenian deputies that "Government will take necessary measures, if the Armenians continue to stab back the Ottoman State and to kill Turks". The Ottoman government's efforts to stop the events could be clarified with documents.

However, it became a necessity to secure the behind lines as the army was in war more than one fronts, the events did not stop on the contrary they increased. The Armenian attacks on innocent and defenseless Turkish women and children became a vital problem.

Under these circumstances, on April 24, 1915 Armenian Committees were closed by the Ottoman Government and 2345 leaders of these committees were arrested due to their antigovernmental activities. April 24, which is commemorated annually as "Anniversary of Armenian so-called Genocide" by Armenians abroad is this date when 2345 revolutionary committee members were arrested and this day is irrelevant with the Relocation Implementation.

However, Armenian revolutionary committee members always used this a propaganda rule by distorting and exaggerating the facts. As a matter of fact, Ecmiyazin Catholicos Kevork sent a telegraph to the President of USA, stating:

"Dear President, we have been informed that in Turkish Armenia, massacres began and the lives of the Armenians are in danger. At this delicate moment, I address to the noble feelings of Excellency and the great American Nation and in the name of humanity and Christianity, I invite you to interfere Turkey by your Great Republic's diplomatic representatives and protect my people who were left to fanatic violence of the Turks.
Kevork, Archbishop and Catholicos of all Armenians."


Russian Ambassador for Washington's contacts with the US government followed Kevork's telegraphs. Thus, 24 April, the day, which the Armenian committee members were arrested for their illegal activities was begun to be referred as "the day of so-called Armenian genocide by Turks".

REFERENCE: Gürün, Kamuran, Ermeni Dosyasi, TTK Basimevi, Ankara, 1983, s.210-211
http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/Genel/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D313A781CAA92714FCE09BC6E92455B7C99B
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Proclamation of the Irish Republic, 24 April 1916

At four minutes past noon on 24 April 1916 - Easter Monday - the proclamation reproduced below was read from the steps of the General Post Office (G.P.O.) on Dublin's O'Connell Street by Patrick Pearse. It signified the start of the Easter Rising of 1916.

POBLACHT NA h-EIREANN THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE IRISH REPUBLIC TO THE PEOPLE OF IRELAND

Irishmen and Irishwomen:

In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.

Having organized and trained her manhood through her secret revolutionary organization, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and through her open military organizations, the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army, having patiently perfected her discipline, having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal itself, she now seizes that moment, and, supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe, but relying in the first on her own strength, she strikes in full confidence of victory.

We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State. And we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations.

The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the allegiance of every Irishman and Irish woman. The Republic guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities of all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien government, which have divided a minority in the past.

Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the Provision Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.

We place the cause of the Irish Republic under the protection of the Most High God, Whose blessing we invoke upon our arms, and we pray that no one who serves that cause will dishonour it by cowardice, inhumanity, or rapine. In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.

Signed on behalf of the Provisional Government,

THOMAS J. CLARKE
SEAN MAC DIERMADA
THOMAS MACDONAGH
P.H. PEARSE
EAMONN CEANNT
JAMES CONNOLLY
JOSEPH PLUNKETT

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/irishproclamation1916.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 18:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

24 april 1916 - Dat de Duitse soldaten in de laatste tijd armenkost te eten kregen kon iedereen bestatigen die manschappen ingekwartierd had - nu blijkt het dat de paarden er ook deerlijk aan toe zijn. Vandaag zag ik tussen Tiegem en Kaster soldatenpeerden die de gerskanten aan 't afweiden waren onder toezicht van soldaten.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0020.php
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 18:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dick's Diary - The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

24 April 1916 - Up early, Powell and Kenning rode over this morning. The batteries had just been bivouacking on the east bank of the canal. About five thousand New Zealand and Australian Cavalry have been pouring through on their way to Katia. The latest report we've got is that Katia is completely burnt and the Turks have annihilated two squadrons of the Worcester Yeomanry, and the Gloucester and Warwickshire Yeomanry who were also at Katia have been badly cut up. Wounded men pouring in most of the morning and several lots of Turkish prisoners. Our casualties up to this morning were reckoned at 300 and 7 dead, and 430 wounded Turks have been found (at Duedar, a post held by the 7th Royal Scots) between us and Katia.

I was busy all day striking the camp and sending it over to the East Bank.

I heard this afternoon that our battery has been asked to push on to Road End, which is the place where the engineers have got to with the road to Katia. I wonder if they will come into action at all; I do hope I can get on to them tomorrow.

Hundreds of colonial troops have been coming in here all day. I had a bathe at midday and busy striking tents and loading wagons for the rest of the day.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/entries/1916/04/monday-24-april-1916.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 18:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme geschiedenis

24 april 1916 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Berkelstroom' (1915) van de Hollandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij (HSM) onder kapitein P.J. Kalishoek, op weg van Amsterdam naar Londen, wordt op 79 zeemijl van IJmuiden door twee Duitse onderzeeboten onderschept en vervolgens door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UB 29' tot zinken gebracht. De bemanning kan aan boord worden genomen van het Britse oorlogsschip HMS 'Penelope'.

Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Nederlandse koopvaardij in de oorlogsmaanden van 1916' in: 'DBW' jrg.56 nr. 10 (2001)
http://koopvaardij.web-log.nl/koopvaardij/2010/04/24-april-1916.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+typepad/koopvaardij/koopvaardij+(Koopvaardij)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 1917 War Diary - 10th RDF

24 April - Balleul Gavrelle Sector The brigade is relieved by 188 Brigade during the night of 24/25 April. Our moving back to the Black Line in HIC. Placed at the disposal of 188 Brigade

Records show died of wounds 26187 L/Corporal William P. Butler. Born Kingstown, resided Kingstown.
Records show died of wounds 43395 Private Harry Heweston. Resided Marylebone, Middx. Enlisted Old Trafford, Manchester. Formerly 5189, 13Th London Regt.
Records show died of wounds 25982 Private Patrick Martin. Born Towniwilly, Barnesmore, Donegal. Resided Glasgow. Enlisted Barnesmore
Records show Killed in action 40331 Private Patrick Joyce Born Athlone, Westmeath. Resided Athlone. Enlisted Mountrath, Queen's Co. Formerly 5502, Connaught Rangers.

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/10-batt/10th-war-diary/1917-04-trans.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 April 1917, Commons Sitting

BLOCKADE NEGOTIATIONS (HOLLAND).


HC Deb 24 April 1917 vol 92 cc2193-4 2193

Major HUNT asked the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether Mr. Blandford has been or is to be excluded from the business of postal censor because of his former association with Mr. Oppenheimer; and, if so, can he say why Mr. Oppenheimer's own brother is still allowed to control our blockade negotiations in Holland?

The MINISTER of BLOCKADE (Lord Robert Cecil) I know nothing about the first part of the question, which should be addressed to the War Office. If the second part of the question refers to Sir 2194 Francis Oppenheimer, it is not the fact that he controls the blockade negotiations with Holland.

Major HUNT Has he nothing to do with the blockade negotiations in Holland?

Lord R. CECIL As the House is well aware, he is the Commercial Attaché at The Hague, but beyond that he has nothing to do with them.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/apr/24/blockade-negotiations-holland
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 24 April 1917.

Valkenswaard. De Duitsche deserteur R. Lieb, die alhier bij den heer B. als voerman in dienst was, werd met een kar steenen op weg gezonden. Hij had eenig geld bij zich. Ergens in de Eerselsche heide liet sinjeur paard en kar in den steek en trok er vandoor. De politie zoekt hem nu.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, 24-27 April 1918

The second battle of Villers-Bretonneux, 24-27 April 1918, took place during General Ludendorff’s great spring offensive of 1918. His first major offensive, the second battle of the Somme, had come close to creating a gap between the British and French lines. It had also reached to within ten miles of Amiens, before being stopped in the first battle of Villers-Bretonneux. After the failure of the Somme offensive, Ludendorff had turned north, launching a second offensive against the British in Flanders (battle of the Lys, 9-29 April 1918).

The second battle of Villers-Bretonneux came during the period of the battle of Lys, but was launched further south, in an attempt to break the British lines in front of Amiens (held by the 8th Division).

The German attack was supported by 13 of their A7V tanks, making it one of the biggest attacks launched by the German built tank. It would also see the first tank-vs-tank battle, a confrontation between three A7Vs and three British Mk IVs.

The German attack was preceded by a short artillery bombardment, with a mix of mustard gas and high explosive shells. The 8th Division was overwhelmed. A three mile wide gap was opened in the British lines, and Villers-Bretonneux fell to the Germans. There was a serious danger that the Germans might break through to Amiens.

General Rawlinson responded by launched an immediate counterattack. This would be a night attack, to be launched by two Australian brigades – the 13th (Brigadier Elliot) and 15th (Brigadier Glasgow). The attack, on the night of 24-25 April, was a total success. By dawn the main German line had been forced back, and the troops in Villers-Bretonneux cut off. By the end of the day the village was back in Allied hands. The Australians suffered 1,455 casualties during the battle.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_villers_bretonneuxII.html

24 April 1918 – A very critical period

That day, 24 April 1918, the Germans occupied Villers-Bretonneux but west of the town towards Amiens they made little headway. Indeed, standing in Adelaide Cemetery surrounded by the graves of so many Australian, British and Canadian soldiers and airmen, one can say that this was as far as the German Army ever advanced towards Amiens since it had, briefly, held that city in 1914. After the war the Touring Clubs of France and Belgium erected a number of markers, known as ‘Demarcation Stones’, all along the old Western Front to show the limit of the German advance. One stands on the road leading east out of Villers-Bretonneux, the N29, just before the road sign indicating the town boundary. The location of each stone was agreed to by the French General Staff and on each of them in France is the inscription ‘Here the Invader was brought to a standstill, 1918’.

At Villers-Bretonneux, the ‘Demarcation Stone’ stone seems to be in the wrong place. It might be more accurately located on the road out to the west towards Amiens where that small force of Australian and British soldiers under Lieutenant-Colonel Hill and Lieutenant John Christian fought all day long on 24 April 1918 to ensure that the Germans moved no further. The British colonel was certainly grateful to this ‘very cheery’ Australian officer recommending him for the award of the Military Cross for his bravery that day:

At a very critical period of the action at Villers-Bretonneux on 24 April 1918, this officer arrived with a patrol of 16 other ranks and reported to me in the firing line. At the time I had very few men with me and the enemy were attempting to debouch from the western outskirts of the village. This officer at once placed his men at my disposal and himself showed the greatest coolness and gallantry in getting them into positions. He rendered me the greatest assistance throughout the day and finally volunteered himself to go back and report the situation as it appeared that none of [his] messages had got through. He got back successfully and made his report.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/adelaide-cemetery/index.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij

De Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP) is een Nederlandse politieke partij van orthodox-gereformeerde signatuur en staat in de protestants-politieke traditie. De confessionele SGP is in Nederland de enige christelijke partij die een theocratie nastreeft.

De partij werd op 24 april 1918 in Middelburg opgericht uit onvrede over de toen bestaande protestants-christelijke partijen, te weten de ARP en de CHU. Het partijprogramma is naar eigen zeggen gebaseerd op Bijbelse waarden en normen zoals die in de reformatorische belijdenisgeschriften tot uiting komen. Ds. G.H. Kersten, predikant van de Gereformeerde Gemeenten, was de drijvende kracht bij de oprichting van deze partij.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staatkundig_Gereformeerde_Partij

'Knoestige eik' van Binnenhof wordt honderd

DEN HAAG (ANP) - SGP'ers zijn al even in feeststemming, maar dinsdag is het dan echt zover: de SGP viert haar honderdste verjaardag. De 'knoestige eik' van de Nederlandse politiek, opgericht op 24 april 1918, is met afstand de oudste partij van het Binnenhof.

De streng gereformeerde eeuweling krijgt al sinds zijn oprichting te horen dat de tijd er heeft stilgestaan. Zelf vatten SGP'ers die spot en kritiek maar op als compliment voor standvastigheid en gehechtheid aan tijdloze principes.

Maar ondertussen is er wel degelijk veel veranderd bij de staatkundig gereformeerden. De SGP groeide uit van domineespartij met donderpreken en scherpe oppositie tot staatsrechtelijk geweten van de Tweede Kamer en favoriete zijspan van de laatste regeringscoalities.

De SGP stelt zich de laatste jaren steevast welwillend op tegenover het kabinet, waardoor dat op zoek naar wat extra zetels al gauw bij de mannenbroeders uitkomt. Ook de huidige regering kijkt daarom ,,met extra belangstelling naar de opvattingen'' van de SGP, zei premier Rutte zaterdag.

De partij viert haar honderdste verjaardag dinsdag in de Grote Kerk in Dordrecht, met toespraken en orgelspel.

https://panorama.nl/nieuws/binnenland/knoestige-eik-van-binnenhof-wordt-honderd
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 9:19, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

INTERVIEW BY CHICHERIN ON PRESS INTERVIEW BY NOULENS, (THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR) ON RUSSO-FRENCH RELATIONS

24 April 1918 - Izvestia, 24 April 1918

I can as yet tell you nothing about the steps that will officially be taken by the Russian Government in connexion with the interview of the French Ambassador, Noulens, which appeared in the Russian press. But I can give you my own opinion of this interview in the most definite terms.

I cannot but express my deepest regret at the publication of such a completely intolerable interview, and I cannot but express the hope that the French Government will understand what unpleasant consequences it will in all probability have for the relations between Russia and France, in the event d the French Government's openly or tacitly supporting the attitude taken by M. Noulens.

However difficult the situation of the Russian people, however onerous the Brest-Litovsk peace may be, the Russian people and the Soviet Government nevertheless cannot in any circumstances allow official representatives of Powers to engage, with such cynicism, in the sharing out of its territory and in threatening the seizure by violence of Russian land, even if this is done under the cover of the usual politely diplomatic phraseology.

In the first place I cannot help being astounded at M. Noulens' complete ignorance, as shown in his statement, of the facts about which he was talking. Particularly strange is his assertion that Germany, by means of its prisoners, is trying to organize colonization centres in Siberia. American officers have just come back from Siberia, where they personally convinced themselves that no danger whatever threatens the Allies from the German prisoners of war. These officers have reported to Vologda and the results of their investigations cannot be unknown to M. Noulens. Why then does he venture to repeat assertions which have been categorically denied? In particular I cannot understand what he means by creating colonization centres in Siberia. Only those German prisoners of war will remain in Siberia, and in Russia in general, who are opposed in principle to German imperialism and who are unwilling to support it in any circumstances. It is precisely in regard to these prisoners of war, conscious internationalists, that we have received a number of protests from the German Government. These protests go so far as to demand a ban on their meetings and congresses, which is clearly contrary to the very principles of our regime.

Other assertions made by M. Noulens are equally strange; assertions by means of which he seeks tojustify theJapanese landing and the possibility of future aggressive action in Siberia by Japan and its allies. M. Noulens enlarges very eloquently upon the terrible anarchy which is said to reign in Vladivostok. In reality in Vladivostok there reigned and reigns not anarchy but the Soviet regime, the dictatorship of the working masses, which of course is not to the liking of the exploiters, whether native or foreign. This same Soviet regime rules over the entire Russian Republic and if, in the opinion of M. Noulens, it must necessarily lead to a foreign invasion in Vladivostok, then, in principle, this means that foreign conquest is demanded throughout the whole of Russia in order to restore the power of the exploiters. We must, of course, reject in the most decisive manner the justification for the Japanese landing given by M. Noulens.

Among the motives for a possible general invasion by Japan and its allies in Siberia, put forward by M. Noulens, there is the assertion that the German offensive has gone far beyond the frontiers prescribed by the Brest Treaty.

And indeed, there are serious disagreements between us and Germany on a number of particular questions relating to the execution of the Brest Treaty, and I certainly consider the German interpretation to be incorrect. Such are, for example, the questions connected with the position of the fleet and military property in the ports to be evacuated by Russia. The frontier of the Ukraine has not yet been defined, the demarcation lines have not yet been fixed everywhere; relations with the Finnish White Guards, not yet cleared up, are leading to grave unexpected incidents.

All these circumstances, inexpressibly onerous for unhappy, suffering Russia, were present in embryonic form in the Brest Treaty forced upon defenceless Russia. However, all this does not mean that any Power is free to tear out a piece of the tortured country. Russia has not yet by any means reached that state; it will fight with all its strength against such an attitude on the part of other peoples; and it must protest in the most emphatic manner against the aggressiveness of M. Noulens, which he covers up by diplomatic metaphors.

The Japanese landing is a predatory action and we have no intention of giving any satisfaction whatever to the foreign armed invaders in order to remove them. These troops have appeared on our territory by force; let them go away; no other words on this matter are possible. If, however, the invaders prove to be not one, but several Powers, this does not make it any better for us, and our attitude to all invading foreign troops will be precisely the same.

No invasion of Russia is possible by agreement with the Russian people, i.e. the working masses.

M. Noulens foresees the possibility of an invasion by agreement with so-called public opinion in Russia. It is true that the internal enemies of the working masses, the robbers and exploiters, place all their hopes on support from an invasion from without. Such an invasion would be directed against the most vital interests of the Russian people, i.e. the working masses. We know what foreign invasion has already brought with it in this respect.

In conclusion, I cannot but consider very strange M. Noulens' idea that by conquest in the east Japan and its allies can weaken the strong position now occupied by Germany in west Russia. It is only necessary to think for a moment in order to understand that actually the contrary will take place.

A true friend of the Russian people can have only one task, to help them in their hard work of building a new life on an entirely new basis, the rule of the working masses themselves; i.e. to give the Soviet Government every assistance and support in its immeasurably difficult work of reorganizing the entire life of the people.

Whoever takes advantage of the difficult transitory period through which we are passing to subjugate vast areas of Russia will sow hatred in the Russian working people who are now his victims, but who will repay him in time.

He who sows the whirlwind shall reap the storm.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/24.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Corp William Robert Thomas, Co B, 334th Infantry Regt, US Army.

Born on 29 March 1890 at Springfield, Ohio, William - a core-maker - entered service in September 1917 and was sent to Camp Taylor, Kentucky where he was assigned to 58th Company, 15th Training Battalion, 159th Depot Bde. After a transfer to the 334th Infantry Regiment, he was sent overseas on 9 April 1918, but died from a ruptured stomach ulcer at Brest, France on 24 April.

His body was returned to the US and he is now buried in the American Legion plot in Beech Grove cemetery.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1243-24-april-corp-william-robert-thomas.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 19:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 April 1918, Commons Sitting

GERMAN EXPLOSIVE SHELLS.


HC Deb 24 April 1918 vol 105 c969 969

Mr. GILBERT asked the Under-secretary of State for War, now that some wounded men have arrived in England from the recent German advance, whether the enemy has been using any new kind of explosive, or chemical shell, or bomb, and any new kind of gas; and if he can make any general statement as to the wounds received by our men from either of these causes?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Macpherson) My hon. Friend has furnished me with further information about this question, and I am having urgent inquiries made. I regret that these inquiries are not yet complete, but I will communicate with him as soon as possible.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/apr/24/german-explosive-shells
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary - World War I, R. C. Werner, 10th Australian Field Ambulance, 1916-1918

Summary: Diary of Lance Corporal R. C. Werner, full name Leslie Roy Caldwell Werner, 10th Australian Field Ambulance, AIF, #12429. The diary covers the period 25/5/1916 to 18/12/1918. It is a copy from a typed version transcribed from Mr Werner's original hand-written diary. Werner was a 24-year-old optician when he enlisted on 28 August 1915. He was shipped to Britain in May 1916, made a Lance Corporal, and by November he was in France. He avoided wounds until April 1918, when he was wounded twice in four days. He was discharged on 2 January 1919.

The diary begins on 25 May 1916, when he embarks on the transport 'Ascanius' bound for Britain.

On page 57 Werner describes how he was wounded on 23/24 April 1918. He was working in a field dressing station when shells began falling. "Major Metcalfe left me to finish bandaging the Artillery chap and went towards the door to have a look at the chap who had got knocked there; I saw him grab a stretcher and then just as he got to the door , in came another shell, right through the door and in between us. I was blown right over the man I was dressing, whom we had placed on the floor fortunately, to shelter as much as possible, and [I] was quite helpless for a few seconds an djust wondered how long the roof was going to take to fall inand finish the job off. When, after a few seconds it showed no signs of falling in, I began to think of my own immediate troubles; I felt my thigh first - the dust etc. was too thick to see - and finding it still there, which I had hardly expected as I didn't feel it there, my next thought was to get out; I tried to stand up but found R. leg no good so tried crawling and got on fairly well; at the door I came across Major Metcalfe and will never forget the sight; he lay half in and half out of the door with the R. leg blown off below the knee and the L. fearfully mutilated. I told him I was not of much use and having noted that there did not seem much bleeding crawled to the gate and yelled for the others to the best of my ability, as I found my R. lung also "somewhat out of action". The others didn't take long to turn up though my word wasn't I glad; Baker fixed me up and plastered me all over with bandages and it wasn't long before a car arrived from Franvilliers and carted the lot of us out of the place." Werner's diary entry for 25/4 says 'Major Metcalfe died of wounds after having both legs amputated.' Werner himself was taken to Lewisham Military Hospital in England, where he was treated for shrapnel wounds in his arm and thigh, and a 'severe' lung injury. His injuries were so extensive that he never returned to the front.

Werner was later secretary of the 10th Field Ambulance Association, until it ceased operation due to its members passing away.

http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/395264/diary-world-war-i-r-c-werner-10th-australian-field-ambulance-1916-1918
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alfred von Tirpitz on the Zeebrugge Raid, 24 April 1918

Reproduced below is the text of former German Naval Minister Alfred von Tirpitz's official report into the British raid upon the German-held ports of Zeebrugge and Ostend on the night of 22-23 April 1918.

The raid was originally proposed by British First Sea Lord, Sir John Jellicoe, and formulated by Dover port commander Sir Roger Keyes, after Jellicoe stated to the British cabinet his view that Britain's continuing ability to wage war depended upon blocking the exits from both ports, and thus denying German submarines convenient bases.

The main force of the attack was to be at Zeebrugge, with a smaller raid launched against Ostend. In the event the outcome of the raid upon Zeebrugge was inconclusive - while British losses were heavy an old submarine did destroy the mole connecting the bridge to the shore after it exploded containing explosives. The raid upon Ostend was however a clear failure.

Represented at the time as a tremendous British victory by Allied propaganda (with the consequence that Keyes was ennobled), and by the Germans as a demonstration of their success in holding each port, the Zeebrugge raid did not in reality hinder German operations from either port for more than a few days.

Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz's Official Report on the Zeebrugge Raid, 24 April 1918

During the night of April 22-23 an enterprise of the British naval forces against our Flanders bases, conceived on a large scale and planned regardless of sacrifice, was frustrated.

After a violent bombardment from the sea, small cruisers, escorted by numerous destroyers and motorboats, under cover of a thick veil of artificial fog, pushed forward near Ostend and Zeebrugge to quite near the coast, with the intention of destroying the locks and harbour works there.

According to the statements of prisoners, a detachment of four Companies of the Royal Marines was to occupy the Mole of Zeebrugge by a coup de main, in order to destroy all the structures, guns, and war material on it and the vessels lying in the harbour. Only about forty of them got on the Mole. These fell into our hands, some alive, some dead. On the narrow high wall of the Mole both parties fought with the utmost fierceness.

Of the English naval forces which participated in the attack the small cruisers Virginia [sic], Intrepid, Sirius and two others of similar construction, whose names are unknown, were sunk close off the coast. Moreover, three torpedo-boat destroyers and a considerable number of torpedo motor-boats were sunk by our artillery fire. Only a few men of the crews could be saved by us.

Beyond damage caused to the Mole by a torpedo [sic] hit, our harbour-works and coast batteries are quite undamaged. Of our naval forces only one torpedo-boat suffered damage of the lightest character. Our casualties are small.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/zeebrugge_tirpitz.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 24 APRIL 1919

NZ AWARDS - London 4 March
The following new awards to members of the NZEF are announced:

Belgian Croix de Guerre:
AFFLECK, E, Sgt, Wgtn Regt; ARMITAGE, H, Gnr, DSM; BLACKBURN, J J, Sgt, Otago Regt; BOSCAWEN, S, Capt; BULLICK, T, L/Cpl, MM, Wgtn Regt; CARRINGTON, A H, Major, NZSC, NZRB; COX, A R, Cpl, Otago Regt; DIBBLE, J C, Sgt, NZRB; DOOLEY, J J, Cpl NZE; FARQUHAR, G R, Pte, Wgtn Regt; FISHENDON, W T, Pte, NZMGC; FLOYD, P, L/Cpl, Otago Regt; GAMBIRAZZI, J, Pte, Cty Regt; GEARY, J H, Sgt, Pioneer Battn; GOTHARD, K B, CSM, NZRB; GUNNELL, A J, Wgtn Regt; HILL, J, Cpl, Otago Regt; HUNTER, E McG, Pte, Field Ambulance; HYLAND, F, Sgt, NZRB; KARAUTI, H, Lieut, Pioneer Battn; LUMLEY, J, Capt, Cty Rifles (attached 2nd LTMB); McMEEKING, G, Tpr, OMR; MILLER, G L, Sgt, Field Amb; MOULDING, J, Sgt, NZRB; NICHOLLS, G H, Lieut, Ak Regt; NICHOLLS, G H, Lieut, Ak Regt; PEGLER, M D, Pte, Ak Regt; PETHERICK, S H, Cpl, NZMGC; POMONA, H, Sgt, Pioneer Battn; RAMSEY, A N, Cpl, Ak Regt; REEVE, E J, CSM, NZRB; ROBERTSON, H, 2nd Lieut, Cty Regt; ROOKS, P M, Sgt, NZE; SENN, T J, Pte, NZRB; SINEL, K, Sgt, Ak Regt; SMITH, F R, Cpl, NZRB; STOW, D, Cpl, NZET Co.; THACKWELL, R G, Bdr (S.Med.TMB) NZFA; VARRALL, G, BSM, NZFA
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 24 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. Diefstal zonder inbraak. Bij P. v. Daal werd op klaarlichten dag ruim 250 gulden ontvreemd. Naar wij vernemen heeft zich de zaak op de volgende wijze toegedragen: Een der huisgenooten was van den zolder gevallen, en had daarbij een bloedige verwonding bekomen. Dit gaf in de buurt direct een oploop van volk. Geroepen werd om een doek te halen uit de kast, en hierbij heeft men deze waarschijnlijk open laten staan. Althans een weinig later werd door de inwoners opgemerkt, dat een doosje met geld, hetwelk in genoemde kast had gestaan, verdwenen was. Daders natuurlijk zoek.

- Dinsdag werden door de soldaat-kommiezen weder 2 Belgische meisjes binnengebracht, welke trachtten kwatta over de grens te voeren. Nadat zij onderzocht waren werden zij over de grenzen gezet.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oorlog:
1915 - De Armeense Genocide begint.
1916 - Easter Rising in Ierland.
Politiek:
1918 - In Middelburg wordt de Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP) opgericht
Geboren:
1908 - Józef Gosławski, Pools beeldhouwer, en medaille-ontwerper (overleden 1963)
1914 - Loe de Jong, Nederlands historicus (overleden 2005)
1914 - Li Zuopeng, Chinees politicus (overleden 2009)
1916 - Arie Addicks, Nederlands verzetsstrijder (overleden 1941)
1917 - Pieter d'Hont, Nederlands beeldhouwer (overleden 1997)
1920 - Jacques Lancelot, Frans klarinettist (overleden 2009)
Gestorven:
1923 - Willem Ernst van Saksen-Weimar-Eisenach (46), laatste groothertog
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Larne gun-running

The Larne gun-running was a major gun smuggling operation organised in Ireland by Major Frederick H. Crawford and Captain Wilfrid spender for the Ulster Unionist Council to equip the Ulster Volunteer Force. The operation involved the smuggling of almost twenty-five thousand rifles and three million rounds of ammunition from Germany, with the shipments landing in Larne, Donaghadee, and Bangor in the early hours between Friday 24 and Saturday 25 April 1914. The Larne gun-running may have been the first time in history motor-vehicles had been used "on a large scale for a military-purpose, and with striking success".

Verder lezen op http://larne-gun-running.co.tv/
Zie ook hier: http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume1/issue1/features/?id=102
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Apr 2011 21:29, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daddy's farewell kiss, one of the heart rending incidents at Galveston, April 24th, 1914
when the Fifth Brigade of the U.S. Army under Gen, Funston left for the battlefield in Mexico.


http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/digitallibrary/mexican.html
Nog véél meer foto's: http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/SearchExecXC.asp?srchtype=VCG
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 11:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vestingwet (24 april 1874)

Minister van Oorlog A.W.Ph. Weitzel concentreert de verdediging van ons land in de westelijke provincies. Dit kerngebied, dat rond 1890 Vesting Holland gaat heten, wordt rondom beveiligd door de zee (de Noordzee en de Zuiderzee) en door sterke linies.

Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie - De Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie beschermt het gebied aan de oostkant. In het zuiden wordt het afgeschermd door 2 aparte stellingen, één rond Willemstad en de andere tussen Brielle en Hellevoetsluis. Aan de noordkant ten slotte komt de stelling van Amsterdam te liggen, een ring van forten en inundaties rond de hoofdstad.

Met de aanleg van de Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie is op advies van luitenant-generaal C.R.Th.baron Krayenhoff al begonnen in 1816. Tussen 1840 en 1860 wordt deze linie uitgebreid en verbeterd.

Ontmanteling - De Vestingwet bepaalt verder dat vestingen en linies die in onbruik zijn geraakt (vooral in de noordelijke, oostelijke en zuidelijke provincies) worden opgeheven. Voor de vestingen komt dit neer op ontmanteling.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814-1914/vestingwet_(24_april_1874)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 11:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Otto Frank, 24 april 1919

http://www.annefrank.org/nl/Subsites/Tijdlijn/Interbellum-1918-1939/Een-familiebedrijf/1919/Otto-Frank-24-april-1919/#!/nl/Subsites/Tijdlijn/Interbellum-1918-1939/Een-familiebedrijf/1919/Otto-Frank-24-april-1919/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 11:40, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Where Canada Fought

http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/writing/maps.asp
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 10:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 April 1917 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage

German trench raid hits Jersey Contingent hard
Reports coming through this week indicate that the Jersey Contingent recently suffered a considerable number of casualties while serving on defensive duties in Belgium. Among those lost during an enemy attack were eight men believed seized as prisoners. Their families are anxiously awaiting news of the men’s fates.

The German trench raid struck a stretch of British front line situated below the infamous enemy-held Messines Ridge. The Jersey Contingent has been in that area since their battles on the Somme in September 1916. Under the cover of darkness and following a hurricane bombardment, the Germans entered the British trenches. In the confused fighting that followed, a number of men were killed, including 22-year-old Jersey Rifleman Clarence De Veulle. Wounded was Rifleman George Picot who died in a casualty clearing station on the following day.

Among those captured and taken back to enemy lines were Jerseymen Edward Bastin, Harold Brochet, William Hughes, Sid Kerry, Charles Lafolley, Philip Laffoley, Alf Marett and William Whiteman.

There was praise for a number who distinguished themselves in the fighting to drive the raiders back including Company Sergeant Major Christian D’Authreau, the Jersey Company’s senior NCO.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/24-april-1917
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 10:47, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 april 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

Paul Vassart is op 19 februari 1894 geboren in de Henegouwse stad Fleurus. De ongehuwde zoon van Leopold en Josephine Wauthion treedt in 1914 als milicien in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Na een ongeval wordt hij opgenomen in een infirmerie in Alveringem, waar hij op 24 april 1917 om 11 uur aan zijn verwondingen overlijdt.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 26 april 1917 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Oeren, grafnummer 53, en later herbegraven op de gemeentelijke begraafplaats van Elsene.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/24-april-1917
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 10:46, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18-pounders under Fire, Battle of Arras, 24 April 1917

A battery of 18-pounder field guns under German fire close to Monchy-le-Preux. In the foreground is an advanced dressing station.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:18pdrsUnderFireBattleofArras24April1917.jpg via http://ww1centenary.oucs.ox.ac.uk/bookmark/18-pounders-under-fire-battle-of-arras-24-april-1917-wikipedia/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 10:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 23rd and 24th April, 1916 - On Lorette - arrived comfortably at 4 am. A very nice day, but rather a sharp wind blowing, which died down towards evening. It was so light that we could not leave until after a quarter to eight. At the guns on Monday nothing much doing, except the French 105 mms being shelled heavily during the morning but, except for three children being wounded in the Corrons by shrapnel, I don't think much damage was done. A nasty accident occurred with the composite battery where a section of ours and the 50th make up the four guns. Two men were playing catchies with an old bomb, which they thought was unloaded, when someone dropped it on a steel girder and it exploded, wounding two of the 50th. Hoyland has the section at the composite battery, Wallace of the 50th is there and Bailey of the 50th is in charge.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/04/diary-entry-23rd-and-24th-april-1916.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Waging war against the brown rat - Country diary, 24 April 1918

24 April 1918 Rat-catching has quite a literature of its own which should convince anyone of the possibility of reducing this great waster in a very short time

The weather has continued favourable for both farm and garden work, and considerable progress has been made by the farmer and the allotment-holder. I don’t think we need yet despair (should favourable weather help us) of getting the great crop of potatoes that we have been called upon by the authorities to try for

The letter to farmers signed by Viscount Chaplin and Lord Lambourne again calls attention to the enormous extent of the destruction of food in the stackyards and granaries by the brown rat. They point out that Sir James C. Browne estimated the loss in 1908 at £15,000,000 per annum. “The value of that quantity of food to-day would be close on £40,000,000.” They, however, greatly underestimate their case against these omnivorous vermin. There is scarcely a building or a field, in town or country, where the rats do not, if opportunity offers, destroy food of every kind. As is pointed out, rats multiply faster than any other vermin. There is no doubt that civilisation has greatly decreased their natural enemies, and now the war has greatly reduced the number of men who waged war against them. Consequently they are now consuming food faster than ever. Rat-catching has quite a literature of its own, and even a slight study of it will convince anyone of the possibility of reducing this great waster in a very short time. Why is it not done?

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/apr/23/country-diary-waging-war-against-the-brown-rat-1918
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 9:17, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Apr 2011 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Death of a French aviator, dated 24.4.16.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/29007475@N08/3152217706/in/set-72157623452915440/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2018 9:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 24 April 1918 → Commons Sitting → WAR.

WAR MUSEUM.

Mr. PETO asked whether an opportunity will be afforded to debate the question of expenditure on a permanent war 995 museum before any scheme is adopted; and what, if any, expenditure of public money for this purpose is intended?

Mr. BONAR LAW No decision as to a permanent building has been reached, and an opportunity for discussion will certainly be given before action is taken.

https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1918/apr/24/war-museum
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2018 11:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British Attacks on Lake Dojran 24 April 1917

By 1917, the Allies badly needed a success on the Southern European front. Italy had expended large amounts of manpower and munitions in the Isonzo valley to negligible effect. Both Serbia and Romania had been overrun and virtually eliminated (albeit temporarily) as combatants. Accordingly, the British were nominated to launch an attack on Bulgarian positions on Lake Dojran, to coincide with the French-led Nivelle Offensive on the western front. This was a challenging objective; a joint Franco-British assault on the same positions in August 1916 had been firmly repulsed. Exploratory skirmishes in February 1917 revealed that the Bulgarian defences had been reinforced since the previous engagement, so the attack began with a ferocious four-day artillery bombardment. The main assault occurred on the night of 24 April. After fierce fighting with around three Bulgarian forward positions on their western flank, the British were forced to retreat.

Kaartje op https://www.themaparchive.com/collections/major-conflicts/world-war-i/british-attacks-on-lake-dojran-24-april-1917.html
Zie ook hier: http://eng.travelogues.gr/item.php?view=38652
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 24 Apr 2018 11:46, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2018 11:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frederick George Dunnett 1896 – 24 April 1917

On 24 April 1917 (...) Private Frederick George Dunnett of the 2nd Suffolk Regiment and a member of University Library staff died in the First Eastern General Hospital. He was 21 years old.

Born in Attleborough, Norfolk in 1896, Frederick was the eldest of four children born to Frederick and Anna Maria Dunnett. In 1905 Frederick’s father, a postman, began work in Cambridge and the family moved to the city. The 1911 census of England shows the family living in Richmond Road, Cambridge with fifteen year old Frederick’s occupation described as: Employed University Library.

I looked for mention of Frederick within the University Library archives in the annual reports and in the History of the Library volume covering the years 1913-1923. An entry in the Report of the Library Syndicate for the year ended 31 December 1915 states simply:

F.G. Dunnett joined the Suffolk Yeomanry on December 30

Sadly, the next mention of Frederick in the archives is found within the Report of the Library Syndicate for the year ended 31 December 1917. One hundred years on it still makes difficult reading:

The Syndicate heard with deep regret of the death of F.G. Dunnett, in the First Eastern Military Hospital, on April 24. He had been invalided home from France, and was about to rejoin his unit, when he was attacked by cerebral meningitis which proved fatal. In him the Library lost a junior member of staff of much promise, whose character and ability were highly esteemed by those with whom he worked.

Local newspaper reports published after Frederick’s death help paint a picture of his life. The Cambridge Daily News of Thursday, 26 April 1917 reported Frederick’s death. The article describes how he joined the army in December 1915, went out to France in August 1916, and was invalided home in February 1917. As well as working in the University Library he was a teacher in the King Street Wesleyan Sunday School where he was secretary of the Primary Department. The article notes that Frederick’s parents had now lost two sons in the war: Private Cecil Dunnett died in Belgium in May 1915 aged 18.

Frederick’s funeral took place at Histon Road Cemetery at 3.00pm on Saturday 28 April 1917 where his grave (photographed above) can still be found. The Cambridge Daily News of Wednesday 2 May 1917 gives a detailed description:

The body was removed from the hospital to 59, Richmond Road, where the cortege started from. Corpl. Sharpe was in charge, with Bugler H.T Smith. The coffin, which was covered with the Union Jack, was borne by Ptes. H. Smith, A. Humphreys, J. Talbot, J. Foreman, R. Moore and R. Hobday. The service in the cemetery chapel and at the graveside was conducted by the Rev. R. Winboult Harding (Wesleyan minister).

The article informs us that Frederick’s only surviving brother, 17 year old Charles Wilfred Dunnett, was ill and unable to attend the service. The University Library was represented by eight members of staff: H.G. Aldis (the Library’s first secretary, whose own son, Ralph, would be killed in action six months later), C. Sayle, H. Wakeling, A. Miller, A. Cook, A. Baldrey, W.F. Dunn and O. Johnson. Staff and scholars of the King Street Wesleyan Sunday School also attended.

Frederick and Cecil Dunnett are commemorated on three war memorials in Cambridge: in the Wesley Methodist Church, St Luke’s Church and the Cambridge Guildhall.

During the time Frederick was a member of staff, the Library was housed in the Old Schools in the centre of Cambridge. When Frederick was invalided home, he was treated and died in the First Eastern General Hospital. Today, the main University Library stands on the site of that hospital, having moved across the river in 1934. As staff, we work every day on the site where Frederick, and 70,000 other soldiers, were cared for during the First World War.

In 2014, the UL Syndicate discussed the placing of a plaque in commemoration of the First Eastern General Hospital and two engraved bronze plaques were placed on wooden benches on either side of the Library’s main entrance. In 2016, the Cardozo Kindersley Workshop engraved a commemorative inscription onto the Library-facing outer wall of Clare College’s Memorial Court.

The memorial was inaugurated by Surgeon Vice Admiral Alasdair Walker OBE, Surgeon-General of the British Armed Forces, on Wednesday 7th September 2016. A transcript of Admiral Walker’s speech accompanies Philomena Guillebaud’s From bats to beds to books.

I will always remember Frederick George Dunnett, a member of the Library staff who died, one hundred years ago today, on the site where the Library now stands.

I would like to thank Ray Humberstone who kindly shared both family information about Frederick and the wedding photograph of his wife’s parents, to enable Frederick, his wife Annie’s half-cousin, to be commemorated and remembered. And my thanks also to David Taylor, Cambridge Wesley Methodist Church archivist, who kindly took the photo of the memorial plaque in the church especially for this blog post.

https://specialcollections-blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=14328
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Apr 2018 11:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24.04.1917: Bernard Awarded the Military Cross

On the 24th April Bernard Rice and his observer 2nd Lt Archibald Cecil Heaven were awarded the Military Cross. Bernard’s award was announced in the London Gazette on 18th June 1917: “For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. While flying at a low altitude he located several enemy batteries. He was attacked by enemy machines, and although under heavy fire from the ground succeeded in driving them off. He has on numerous occasions obtained the most valuable information”.

Transcription:

April 24 4.15-5.35
Went out with Heaven to knock out
another battery. Saw 4 Hun Scouts coming up
so cleared for action. Were attacked by all four
atfirst {sic}. Two then broke off, and we set to.


Spiralling, and dodging, to keep them off my
tail. Heaven fired hard in bursts. Tracers
could be seen entering their fuselages. The poor
old Quirk shivered every time they hit us.
After 3 or 4 minutes hard work the Huns
cleared off, and appeared to have had enough.

Flew back very carefully to ‘drome and
counted our damage. One flying wire cut.
both bottom longerons holed. Rudder
frame smashed. Controls cut through.
In all 54 hits. Very fine scrap. Machine
written off. -12th Scrap- 276’20”.

Heaven, and I awarded M.C’s.


http://3p1w.eu/24-04-1917/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group