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21 April

 
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Merlijn



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2006 8:17    Onderwerp: 21 April Reageer met quote

Heftige Kämpfe im Maasgebiet
Großes Hauptquartier, 21. April 1916.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

Im Maasgebiet kam es im Zusammenhang mit großer Kraftentfaltung beider Artillerien zu heftigen Infanteriekämpfen. Westlich des Flusses griffen die Franzosen mit erheblichen Kräften gegen "Toter Mann" und östlich davon an. Der Angriff ist im allgemeinen blutig abgewiesen. Um ein kleines Grabenstück in der Gegend des Waldes Les Caurettes, in das die Franzosen eingedrungen waren, wird noch gekämpft. Rechts der Maas blieben Bemühungen des Feindes, den Steinbruch südlich des Gehöftes Haudromont wiederzunehmen, völlig ergebnislos. Südlich der Feste Douaumont sind Nahkämpfe, die sich im Laufe der Nacht an einigen französischen Gräben entwickelten, noch nicht zum Stillstand gekommen. Unser zusammengefaßtes starkes Artilleriefeuer brachte eine Wiederholung des feindlichen Infanterieangriffs gegen die deutschen Linien im Caillettewalde bereits im Entstehen zum Scheitern.
Im Abschnitt von Vaux, in der Woëvre-Ebene und auf den Höhen südöstlich von Verdun wie bisher sehr lebhafte beiderseitige Artillerietätigkeit.
Ein feindliches Flugzeug stürzte brennend in den Fuminwald (südwestlich von Vaux) ab.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/


Laatst aangepast door Merlijn op 21 Apr 2006 8:23, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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Merlijn



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2006 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marschall von der Goltz im Felde gestorben



Berlin, 21. April 1916.
Generalfeldmarschall Freiherr von der Goltz ist nach zehntägigem Krankenlager am 19. April im Hauptquartier seiner türkischen Armee am Flecktyphus gestorben.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 6:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Continued fighting for Hill 60.

French take "the Cow's Head", two lines of trenches, near St. Mihiel.

Eastern Front

Russians take Hill 1002, north-east of Lubonia (Carpathians).

Southern Front

Affair between frontier guards on the Austro-Italian frontier.

Political, etc.

Mr. Lloyd George delivers a speech on the capacity of the country for producing munitions.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 6:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

Battle of Verdun: French make progress near Mort Homme, Vaux fort and Bois de Caillette.

British retake ground lost at Langemarck-Ypres.

Southern Front

Italian progress in the Carso.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 6:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

British gain ground east of Fampoux (east of Arras).

Eastern Front

Decree of Russian War Minister re: Army.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British capture Turkish front line at Istabulat (evacuated by Turks during night).

Cossacks repulse Kurds on Diala (north-west of Kasr-i-Shirin).

Political, etc.

Premier returns from Savoy Conference.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 6:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Position at Seicheprey restored.

Local fighting round Albert, Villers Brettonneux and Robecq.

Great aerial activity and much bombing on whole front.

German airman, Captain von Richthofen, killed.

Result of 29 days' bombardment of Paris: 118 killed, 236 injured.

Political, etc.

Australian Roman Catholic Bishops protest against Government action in Ireland.

New constitution of Versailles Council announced.

The King sends message to munition workers.

Sir M. de Bunsen sent on Mission to South America.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 6:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

No news reported.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 18:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 April 1914: Woodrow Wilson invades Veracruz in his pajamas

Woodrow Wilson, who from the Mexican view, should have stayed out of his neighbor’s family feud, felt he had a moral right to intervene in Mexico in 1914. Trained as a Presbyterian minister, the former college professor, and all-round moralist, saw it as his duty to “teach them to elect good men.” He could never understand why the Mexicans rejected him as a guide. The Mexicans resented his meddling, and moreover, what had started the Constitutionalist rebellion was U.S. meddling, specifically Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson’s role in Huerta’s coup at the behest of the dominant foreign economic interests.

Wilson dispatched a friend, his campaign biographer, William Bayard Hale, to Mexico in 1914. Hale, a New York Times reporter, spoke no Spanish and had never been in Mexico before. But Wilson trusted Hale, and Hale understood Wilson’s idealistic belief in constitutional democracy. Working undercover1, Hale unsurprisingly reported that Huerta was a tyrant with no popular support. It was control of the oil fields – and the revenues from the oil fields that let him buy foreign munitions – that kept him in power.

William Bayard Hale was right: Huerta needed ammunition if he was to maintain power. Everyone knew Britain and Germany were about to go to war. The British Navy depended on Mexican oil, and the British – not caring much who controlled the country as long as they could pump oil – kept a mercenary army under their own general, Manual Perez, protecting the oil region. But Huerta’s forces controlled the ports, and the Germans were willing to supply arms to Huerta in return for blocking oil sales to Britain. Wilson, pro-British, but desperate to keep the United States out of the coming war, hoped that if neither the German nor the British had the clear advantage, the war could be avoided.

United States intelligence officers had learned that the Germans were sending several shiploads of arms to Mexico. Carrenza and Huerta had both at various times threatened to cut off oil shipments – which would have kept the British out of the war, but also would cripple the U.S. economy (which even then was dependent on foreign oil imports). Carranza’s forces were slowly taking more and more control of the country, but were unlikely to capture Veracruz in time to stop the Germans from resupplying Huerta.

On 6 April, six U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, still controlled by Huerta’s administration. The arrests were a mistake, and the sailors were returned to their ship. However, the United States was a new military power in the world, and U.S. officers had not always shown good judgment in Mexico. The United States Navy wanted respect: the ship’s captain demanded an apology from the Mexican Navy … and a 21-gun salute! The Mexicans, politely as possible, apologized for the sailors’ inconvenience, but refused the salute. The “insult to the Navy” received a fair amount of press in the United States. Given the feeling in the United States, this minor incident gave the President a plausible excuse to “avenge the national insult” – and incidentally to cut off Huerta’s arms supplies, and liberate Mexico from the tyrant. Or so it seemed.

In 1914 the President of the United States was one of the few people in the world with a bedside telephone. He was still asleep at 6 A.M. on 21 April when he received a call confirming that the German ship, Yripanga, would be docking in Veracruz later that morning. Wilson had the White House operator set up a conference call between himself, his personal secretary, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryant and Navy Secretary Josephus Daniels. The operator and the President weren’t the only ones still in their pajamas that morning.

Daniels was a pacifist, and Bryant had religious objections to warfare. Still, they agreed with Wilson that the only way to stop the Yripanga was to take over Veracruz. If the French had once invaded the city over unpaid doughnuts in Mexico City, the United States could take the Customs’ House in Veracruz to avenge an insult to its navy’s honor in Tampico. Daniels had orders sent by radio (a very recent technology) to naval ships in the Gulf of Mexico.

Nothing went as planned. As the Spanish found out in 1828, the French in 183, Winfield Scott in 1847, and Maximiliano von Hapsburg in 1863, the “jarochas” do not welcome foreign invasions. In 1848, army cadets had defended Mexico City from United States marines. In 1914, the Naval Academy defended Veracruz. To protect the Marines, the Navy bombarded the city. Citizens joined the cadets. There were casualties on both sides, something a visably shaken and pale Wilson announced to the press the next day. Bryant, who felt personally responsible for the disaster, later resigned. The marines did complete their mission – occupying the Custom’s House. The Yripanga was an unarmed merchant freighter. Its captain was not about to enter a war zone. He turned his ship around. Mission accomplished. 2.

Although meant to assist Carranza, even that plan went sour. What Wilson forgot was that Carranza was a very prickly nationalist and had never gotten over his boyhood meeting with Benito Juarez, who had struggled to keep all foreign governments out. Wilson, during his pajama conference, had not consulted the “legitimate” Consitituional Chief of Mexico before sending troops into the country. If the United States did not immediately evacuate Veracruz, the Constitutional Chief threatened to invade the United States, even if it meant joining forces with Huerta! He was bluffing, of course. Wilson was furious, but Carranza had made his point. He – not Huerta – was Mexico’s legitimate leader, and only he had the right to determine Mexico’s foreign policy.


Henry Lane Wilson, who was still in Mexico City, was finally recalled. The United States sent a representative (not an ambassador3) to the Constitutionalist government, and other countries withdrew their recognition of Huerta’s government. The Marines took their time leaving Veracruz (they didn’t withdraw until November), by which time the whole occupation was pointless. Huerta was gone. The Revolution had gone on to a new phase by then. Worse yet for the Wilson administration, the Latin American nations had all sided with Carranza, and the United States was again seen as the aggressor in Mexico. Veracruz’s official name was changed after the invasion to “Three Times Heroic Veracruz” – its citizens had risen against invaders from Spain once, and from the United States twice. Harry S. Truman laid a wreath at the memorial to the Boy Heroes of Chapultepec in 1948. Truman was applauded at the time, but no one expected an apology for what had been a tragedy of war. The Veracruz invasion was seen differently. Mexico and the United States were not at war, and the intervention was simply for Woodrow Wilson’s political benefit. Bill Clinton offered an official apology in 1998.

1 Hale was an undercover agent for more than Wilson. He was also a German agent.
2 Sort of. The Yripanga unloaded down the coast in Huerta controlled Puerto Mexico.
3 To legalists like Wilson and Carranza, the terms used in foreign relations were important. Not being president, the constitutional chief could not receive an “ambassador”, but he could receive a “representative”.


http://mexfiles.net/2007/04/22/21-april-1914-woodrow-wilson-invades-veracruz-in-his-pajamas/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 21 April 1914.

Dommelen. Dezer dagen geraakte bij het spoelen der wasch vrouw v. Weert alhier te water in den Dommel, die daar ter plaatse zeer diep is. Op haar hulpgeroep kwam zekere v. Och toesnellen die de drenkelinge op ’t droge wist te brengen. Een woord van hulde den kranige redder.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ypres 1915

A shallow collection of holes
Trenches had been dug, but these were not the formidable systems of 1916 that we think of when the phrase Trench System is used. The water table in Flanders is very high and this prohibited anything other than shallow trenches which then had to be reinforced upwards by means of sand bags and emplacements. In places the French front line was nothing but a series of discontinuous sections of shallow trenches.

When the Canadians took over their section of the line (From the French at the beginning of April) they found, according to the Official History that:

They consisted of isolated groups of shallow fire and support trenches, with parapets in some cases only four feet thick at the base, and not bullet proof; they had good machine gun posts, but few traverses, no parados, and only flimsy built dug outs which afforded little more than shelter from the weather.

When one of the Tirailleur Officers arrived on the evening of 21st April to take over his section of the line on the Canadian left he described it as a cemetery. They couldn't dig down even if they wanted to because of the water level, and there were bodies everywhere still unburied from the winter battles. The more used a footpath was, the more likely it was to suddenly reveal a red trousered or feldgrau coated body.

The French army had gone to war in 1914 in their famous red trousers which were totally unsuited to modern warfare. Long before they became known as the Poilus the French soldier was known as a pantalon rouge.

http://www.webmatters.net/belgium/ww1_ieper2_1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albania during the First World War (1914-1920)

Essad's provisional government (1915)
Essad Pasha* returned to Albania and, with the help of Serbia, occupied Durrës and reconquered Tirana and central Albania, forming a new government, which again used the flag without the eagle, showing the Muslim preponderance (April 1915). This flag was adopted as the official flag of Albania by Essad's provisional government, following a decision of the Albanian Senate. The German ambassador was informed of this decision on 21 April 1915. Essad called himself in this note "President of Albania" and "General Commander-in-Chief".

http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/Flags/al_w1914.html

* Esad Pashë Toptani (ca. 1863 – June 13, 1920), primarily known as Essad Pasha, was Albanian politician in the early twentieth century.

He was collaborating with the Balkan League during the occupation of Albania. He created a puppet state based in Durrës, called the Republic of Central Albania and fought against the Provisional Government of Albania led by Ismail Qemali.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essad_Pasha
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Suid-Afrikaanse Krygshistoriese Vereniging: Gallipoli: The Landings of 25 April 1915

(...) Embarkation of the repacked and reorganized army at Alexandria had commenced on 10 April, and it arrived uneventfully at Lemnos during the following eight days. At this point in time, when the last shipping had returned to an enormously overcrowded Mudros Harbour, the deadline of 14 April had, of course, been abandoned. In addition to the problems involved in the reorganization of the invasion force at Alexandria elucidated above, the weather now occasioned further delays. The climate of the Aegean in spring is unpredictable, and during most of March and April storms had been capriciously alternating with fine days. On 21 April, when de Robeck hesitantly gave the signal to prepare to leave harbour and set sail for the beaches to launch the attack of 23 April, a gale descended upon the invasion fleet. Doubtful of the weather-resistant qualities of the miscellany of vessels involved (the fleet involved a motley collection of 200 warships, tramp and pleasure steamers, caiques, trawlers, liners; in short, any vessel that could be pressed into service as a troopship) de Robeck countermanded the signal. The attack was to be launched on 24 April.

Duidelijk artikel... http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol064sm.html Mooie site trouwens!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Famous Speeches Of Gandhiji: Reception In Madras (April 21, 1915)

In reply to the Welcome address read by Mr. G. A. Natesan on behalf of the Indian South African League, at a meeting at the Victoria Public Hall, Madras, on the 21st April 1915, with Dr. Sir Subramania Iyar in the Chair, Mr. Gandhi said - Mr. Chairman and Friends, - On behalf of my wife and myself I am deeply grateful for the great honour this you here in Madras, and may I say, this Presidency, have done to us and the affection that has been lavished upon us in this great and enlightened - not benighted - Presidency.

If there is anything that we have deserved, as has been stated in this beautiful address, I can only say I lay it at the feet of my Master under whose inspiration I have been working all this time under exile in South Africa. (Hear, hear). In so far as the sentiments expressed in this address are merely prophetic. Sir, I accept them as a blessing and as a prayer from you and from this great meeting that both my wife and I myself may possess the power, the inclination, and the life to dedicate whatever we may develop in this sacred land of ours to the service of the Motherland. (Cheers). It is no wonder that we have come to Madras. As my Friend, Mr. Natesan, will perhaps tell you, e have been overdue and we have neglected Madras. But we have done nothing of the kind. We know that we had a corner in your hearts and we knew that you will not misjudge us if we did not hasten to Madras before going to the other presidencies and to other towns. But, Sir, if one-tenth of the language that has been used in this address is deserved by us, what language do you propose to use for those who have lost their lives, and therefore finished their work on behalf of your suffering countrymen in South Africa? What language do you propose to use for Magappan and Narayansawmy, lads of seventeen or eighteen years, who braved in simple faith all the trials, all the sufferings, and all the indignities for the sake of the honour of the Motherland (Cheers.). What language do you propose to use with reference to Valliamma, that sweet girl of seventeen years who was discharged from Maritzburg prison, skin and bone suffering from fever to which she succumbed after about a month's time (Cries of shame).

It was the Madrassis who of all the Indians were singled out by the great Divinity that rules over us for this great work. Do you know that in the great city of Johannesburg, the Madarasis look on a Madrasis as dishonored if he has not passed through the jails once or twice during this terrible crisis that your countrymen in South Africa went through during these eight long years? You have said that I inspired these great men and women, but I cannot accept that proposition. It was they, the simple-minded folk, who worked away in faith, never expecting the slightest reward, who inspired me, who kept me to the proper level , and who inspired me by their great sacrifice, by their great faith, by their great trust in the great God, to do the work that I was able to do. (Cheers). It is my misfortune that my wife and I have been obliged to work in the lime-light, and you have magnified out of all proportion (crisis of 'No ? No ?') this little work we have been able to do. Believe me, my dear friends, that if you consider, whether in India or in South Africa, it is possible for us, poor mortals-the same individuals, the same stuff of which you are made if you consider that it is possible for us to do anything whatsoever without your assistance and without your doing the same thing that we would be prepared to do, you are lost, and we are also lost, and our services will be in vain, I do not for one moment believe that the inspiration was given by us. The inspiration was given by them to us, and we were able to be interpreters between the powers who called themselves the Governors and those men for whom redress was so necessary. We were simply links between those two parties and nothing more. It was my duty, having received the education that was given to me by my parents to interpret what was going on in our midst to those simple folk, and they rose to the occasion. They realised the might of religious force, and it was they who inspired us, and let them who have finished their work, and who have died for you and me, let them inspire you and us. We are still living and who knows whether the devil will not possess us tomorrow and we shall not forsake the post of duty before any new danger that may face us, But these three have gone for ever.
An old man of 75 from the United Provinces, Harbart Singh, has also joined the majority and died in jail in South Africa; and he deserved the crown that you would seek to impose upon us. These young men deserve all the adjectives that you have so affectionately, but blindly lavished upon us. It was not only the Hindus who struggled, but there were Mohamedans, Parsis and Christians, and almost every part of India was represented in the struggled. They realised the common danger, and they realised also what their destiny was an Indians, and it was they, and they alone, who matched the soul-forces against the physical forces. (Loud applause.)

Source : Speeches and Writings of Gandhi, http://www.gandhi-manibhavan.org/gandhicomesalive/speech1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verdun 1916

De verschrikkingen van Verdun
’Misschien waren de moedigste van allen wel degenen die niet op moed waren voorbereid, de boodschappers, de mannen van de voedselvoorziening, de ziekendragers. 'Velen leden liever honger dan die gevaarlijke tochten te maken om voedsel te krijgen,' schreef een Duitse soldaat in april. De Franse 'hommes-soupe' die bij het aanbreken van de dag terugkeerden dwars door het mitrailleurvuur, verklaarden eveneens dat zij het nooit meer wilden doen, toch 'zag men ze 's avonds weer gaan op hun onzekere tocht door velden en greppels'.

Aan de rechteroever bleef het vechten ten zuiden van Fort Douaumont en rondom de nabijgelegen steengroeven van Haudromont aanhouden. Het front verschoof hier nooit meer dan een kilometer en het dichte gordijnvuur van de artillerie aan beide zijden ging onophoudelijk door. Op 1 mei hadden de Duitsers bij Verdun 120.000 man verloren, de Fransen 133.000. Op 21 april kwam de Kroonprins tot de slotsom dat 'een beslissend succes bij Verdun slechts verkregen kon worden ten koste van zware offers die absoluut niet opwogen tegen de gewenste doelen'. Knobelsdorf was echter resoluter dan ooit en haalde Falkenhayn over het 5e leger toe te staan om een nieuwe massale aanval aan de rechteroever te ondernemen. Knobelsdorfs ijzeren wil had het gewonnen van de veranderde inzichten van de Kroonprins.

http://www.verdun.nl/La%20Bataille%20de%2016.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division

Narrative
The Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division was formed in Egypt in March 1916 from the four Australian and New Zealand mounted brigades assigned to ANZAC. These brigades had fought at Gallipoli as infantry. After the formation of the Australian Mounted Division in June 1917, the division became known as the Anzac Mounted Division.

Even before the division had finished forming, the 1st Light Horse Brigade was sent to the Western Desert to fight the Senussi while the rest of the division moved to the Suez Canal, relieving the 1st Division, which moved to the Western Front. The division soon became involved in raiding the Turkish positions.

An attempt by the Turks to attack the Suez Canal in August 1916 resulted in it being intercepted and defeated by the Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division in the Battle of Romani. The division followed up its victory, pursuing the Turks to the Palestine frontier, capturing major Turkish positions at Magdhaba in December 1916 and Rafah in January 1917.

In March 1917 the division captured Gaza in the First Battle of Gaza but was ordered to withdraw. It played a minor role in the Second Battle of Gaza before participating in the Third, successful Battle of Gaza in October 1917. Afterward it pursued the enemy as far as Jaffa.

In March and again in April 1918, the division made major raids across the Jordan River.

In August 1918, the Anzac Mounted Division participated in the final breakthrough and captured Amman in September 1918, capturing 10,300 prisoners in just nine days.

Units of this division reoccupied Gallipoli in December 1918.

Commanders
Major General Harry G. Chauvel 16 March 1916 to 20 April 1917
Major General E.W.C. Chaytor 21 April 1917 to past November 1918

http://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/~rmallett/Anzac_Mounted_Division.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aanloop naar de Ierse Easter Rising van 1916

Weapons were supplied by Germany under the auspices of a leading human rights campaigner, Sir Roger Casement—including over 20,000 rifles and 10 machineguns. However, the plot was discovered on 21 April 1916 and the weapons were lost when the ship carrying them, the Aud, was scuttled to prevent the arms from falling into the hands of the British.

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090328115505AAVhAjk
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Trotter, Bernard Freeman, Letter, 21 April 1917

21/4/17 Dear Mother, A great feast of letters reached me yesterday -- Marjorie's of March 16, Frances's of the 18th, Father's of the 19th, yours of the 22nd; also one from Rex at Ottawa; and one from Dorothy Harrington accompanied by a box of toffee. The little parcel from the church came to-day. Marjorie's news budget was full of interest as usual. I see the Chairman of the music committee still finds scope for his tact and patience, and will, I expect, to the end of the story.
I am so sorry to hear of the O'Briens' trouble. I shall drop Chester a line at his office. I suppose it will reach him. It is lovely for them to be able to go south. Hope Mrs. Grimshaw is well and away north with the girls when this reaches you. Come to think of it, I suppose Kate will have been and gone and graduated when this arrives. Wish I could be there to congratulate her; but Marjorie will have to do it for me. I was much interested in Frances's account of her day in the world of labour. Reminds me of my boot-salesmanship at Simpson's. Stamping letters would hardly be worthy [of] her intellectual qualities as a permanent occupation; but it would be good for her to get a glimpse of how a great many girls earn their living. Most of her letters must have come, I think. I seem to have had them fairly often; and I do appreciate them, for I know just how hard it is to write letters when you're full up with study, and haven't much surplus fat to come and go on. Bless her heart! I think I must have mentioned how much Alf likes her letters. I send most of my home letters to Leicester -- if there'snothing really private in them. Louie loves to see them, and of course she keeps them for me, which I couldn't do out here. Father's speculations as to my whereabouts were rather amusingly inaccurate, making me feel as though I must have overdone myself in strict adherence to the censorship regulations. As you know by this time I've really been away from the line altogether most of the time since the push began. The less you trouble yourselves as to my movements, the better. it could not matter in the least if I told you everywhere I'd been; but rules are rules, and I can't see my way to treating them so loosely as I know some people do. When I am away from my unit of course, I needn't be so particular. Our course here really is ended. We may get orders to report to the R.T.O. to-morrow or they may be delayed. It has been a very pleasant and profitable three weeks, even if I am never called on for transport duties. We have had a good deal of rain; but it has not been unduly cold, considering our comfortable quarters. Spring is very late, though; only here and there do the buds show any sign of life. I saw the first leaves coming out to-day.
Have seen few birds except magpies and sparrows of the John Bull variety. Yesterday, however, I saw some little birds on the ground which I guessed to be gold-finches. They didn't fly, so I couldn't be sure. Speaking of birds -- what a charming interpretation of the mocking-bird and his song was that quoted in the "Globe" book-review Father sent! I always enjoy the little clippings -- even the "keeping up with the Joneses." They seem to bring a bit of home; though I must confess that the picture they bring is of our little cubby-hole dining-room at 71 Bismarck, and the couch decorated with some airing underwear and the "Star" and "Globe." Quite away from the reality I dare say but a pleasant picture none the less. It is about as difficult, I believe, for me to make a picture of the actual lay of things at Kendal Ave., as it is for you to image my surroundings. I had a dear letter from Dorothy Harrington -- not as slangy as usual; but full of her whimsical individuality. What a brave little soul she is! trying to put the best face on life, and not getting much encouragement I fancy. Things must loom a bit depressingly at times to one with her nurture and upbringing. She's always been a favorite of mine, you know, since the Wolfville days. If there weren't so many fundamental -- but then there are. But in spite of her (as I think) warped standards of life, as a friend she is a true-blue, born-to-the-purple. I know Marj. will agree. Well this has been quite a ramble, hasn't it? But I've rather shirked writing this week, until your batch of letters set me going. Don't know where I'll be at next writing; but wherever it is, I'll be after loving you every minute of the time and every foot of the way, as I do now. Till then, and forever, Bun. P.S. I enclose a bit of a "pome" evolved by spasms extending over a considerable period, though for poetic reasons we call it an hour.

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/trotter-bernard-freeman-letter-21-april-1917-4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10th Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers - 1917

21 April - Balleul Gavrelle Sector
The Battalion relieved the 7th Royal Fusiliers on the front and support trenches. Heavy shelling during relief. Relief completed at 5am on 22nd.

•2nd Lt AS Wilson killed
•2nd Lt J S Ferguson killed
•5 other casualties.

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/10-batt/10th-war-diary/1917-04-trans.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 21 April 1917.

Valkenswaard. Gisteravond overleed op 45-jarigen leeftijd de WelEd. heer L. Pijnenburg, in leven Directeur Van Gend & Loos, H. Colignon & Cie., te dezer plaatse. Ruim 28 jaar in dienst der Maatschappij, was de heer Pijnenburg sedert de oprichting van het kantoor Valkenswaard (1901) hier werkzaam. In deze periode heeft hij zich doen kennen als een plichtvol nauwgezet ambtenaar, die op prettige, vriendelijke, hartelijk welwillende en humane wijze wist om te gaan met publiek en personeel. Zeer zeker mocht onze directeur dan ook aanspraak maken op de volle sympathie van elkeen; inderdaad genoot hij deze welverdiende en ook welbestede sympathie en hoogachting van geheel Valkenswaard en iedereen daarbuiten, die den overledene gekend hebben. En met zeer groot leedwezen zullen allen het zoo vroegtijdig verscheiden van den heer Pijnenburg vernemen.
De Maatschappij Van Gend & Loos verliest in den heer Pijnenburg een bekwaam en hoogst ijverig lid der plaatselijke directie; onze gemeente mét haren "Van Gend & Loos"-directeur een zeer gezien burger, wiens nagedachtenis steeds in hooge eere zal blijven.
Hij ruste in vrede!

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Dover Strait (1917)

The Battle of Dover Strait was a naval battle of World War I, fought in the Dover Strait on the night of 20 April 1917, which carried on into early 21 April.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dover_Strait_(1917)

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 1917

21 April 1917
G85, German, V25 class Destroyer
G42, German, V25 class Destroyer
Whilst part of a six destroyer raid on the Dover Straights they were intercepted by the British destroyer leaders Swift and Broke. In the ensuing battle G85 was torpedoed and sunk and Broke rammed G42 and sank.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk17.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 20 Apr 2010 22:56, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manfred von Richthofen

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen, tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog bekend als de Rode Baron (Breslau, 2 mei 1892 – bij Cappy, Frankrijk, 21 april 1918) was een Duits gevechtspiloot. In de Eerste Wereldoorlog heeft Von Richthofen tachtig vijandelijke vliegtuigen neergeschoten, waardoor hij de beroemdste gevechtspiloot van zijn tijd werd. (...)

Op 20 april 1918 maakte hij zijn tachtigste en laatste slachtoffer; een Sopwith Camel van de Royal Air Force. Een dag later vond Von Richthofen zelf de dood boven het slagveld toen hij de Canadees Wilfrid May laagvliegend achtervolgde. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat hij door één kogel in het hart werd getroffen, waarschijnlijk afkomstig van een mitrailleur op de grond. Een aantal soldaten beweerden hem neergeschoten te hebben, Captain Roy Brown (vanuit een vliegtuig), Gunner Robert Buie (vanaf de grond), Sergeant Popkin (vanaf de grond) of Evans (vanaf de grond). Volgens een onderzoek uitgevoerd door The Discovery Channel voor een documentaire over Von Richthofen bleek dat Evans het dodelijk schot heeft gevuurd. Over Evans is verder weinig bekend. Hij heeft geen familie meer en verdere beelden zijn niet bekend. Het verlies van Von Richthofen was een verpletterende slag voor het Duitse moreel. In zijn tijd heeft Von Richthofen een reeks onderscheidingen ontvangen, waaronder het IJzeren Kruis (1e en 2de klasse), de militaire Heinrichsorden, de Roter Adlerorden de drie Hanseatenkruisen en de Orden Pour le Mérite. Turkije schonk hem de IJzeren Halve Maan.

Zijn score van 80 overwinningen is door geen enkele gevechtspiloot in de Eerste Wereldoorlog overtroffen. Het graf van Von Richthofen ligt in het Südfriedhof te Wiesbaden in Duitsland.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manfred_von_Richthofen
Zie ook http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/redbaron/mind.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 20 Apr 2010 23:01, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Naval Association of Australia

21 April 1917 - Foundation of the Imperial War Graves Commission. The Imperial War Graves Commission was later renamed the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. It is responsible for erecting and maintaining war Memorials and cemeteries.

http://www.navalassoc.org.au/History%20-%20April.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 23:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eddy Christiani

Eddy Christiani (Den Haag, 21 april 1918) is een Nederlands gitarist en zanger, componist en tekstschrijver. Christiani is nog steeds actief als zanger, al treedt hij sedert 2008 niet meer in zalen op.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddy_Christiani

Met zijn lied Ouwe Taaie (Yippy Yippy Yay) krijgt Eddy problemen met de Duitse censuur, het lied wordt verboden. Christiani weigert lid te worden van de Kultuurkamer en duikt onder in België.

http://www.pmouse.nl/christiani/

"Ouwe taaie"

Er was eens een cowboy
Vol levensvreugd en vuur
Hij had er aan centen geen gebrek
Hij leefde voor vrouwen
Voor drank en avontuur
En de zon die scheen hem in zijn nek

Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
En de zon die scheen hem in zijn nek

Toen kwam er een meisje
Dat bracht zijn hoofd op hol
Zij maakte zijn leven tot een hel
Zij verbraste zijn centen
En verkocht op laatst zijn knol
En de cowboy belandde in de cel

Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
En de cowboy belandde in de cel

Hij kwam voor de rechter
De eis was lang niet mild
Men dreigde met vele jaren straf
Zijn zucht naar avontuur
Die was meteen gestild
Voor die Taaie was toen de lol eraf

Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
Voor die Taaie was toen de lol eraf

Toen ging er die cowboy
Terug weer naar zijn land
Hij was er zo arrem als een mier
Hij ging naar zijn blokhut
En maakte zich van kant
En nu is hij zo doo-hood als een pier

Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee
Ouwe Taaie
Yippie yippie yee hee hee
En nu is hij zo doo-hood als een pier...

http://www.musicfrom.nl/songteksten/christiani,_eddy/ouwe_taaie.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A7V Sturmpanzerwagen

A7V - Allegmeine-Kriegs-Department 7, Abteilung Verkehrswesen (General War Department 7, Traffic Section) was designed in January of 1917 by Reserve Captain and Engineer Joseph Vollmer.General War Department 7, Traffic Section was raised in September of 1916, after first British tanks appeared on the battlefield. On November 13th of 1916, the German Army decided to build tanks and overall project was under direction of Joseph Vollmer.New tank was to be a universal platform to be used as a base for both a tank and cargo carrier.It was based on Holt tractor of which parts were obtained from Austria, where it was produced under licence.Vehicle was powered by two centrally mounted 100hp Daimler engines with commander’s cupola / compartment above them. First prototype was completed by Daimler-Benz and tested in April of 1917. The wooden mock-up of a final version was ready in May of 1917. First pre-production A7V was produced in September of 1917, followed by production model in October of 1917. All tanks received nicknames (e.g. Mephisto, Wotan, Isolde etc.) and were grouped in 1st, 2nd and 3rd Abteilung.It had its tank vs. tank debut against British tanks on March 21st of 1918 at St. Quentin and on April 21st at Villers-Bretonneux / Cachy. Only 20 out of 100 ordered (in December of 1917) were produced due to the steel shortages and overall low priority of the project. A7V was unstable and had a very poor trench-crossing performance due to its track design and minimal ground clearance.Two production types existed, early type with hull sides made of number of pieces (with large number of rivets) and late type with one piece hull sides.There were other numerous differences between individual tanks since all parts were handmade and made to fit given tank.In addition, its poor quality armor plates offered little protection for 18 men (in some cases 22 men) crew composed of artillerymen, infantrymen and mechanics.The main armament consisted of 57mm (Russian Sokol or Belgian Maxim Nordenfeld) gun and six heavy machine guns. Additional weapons were carried by the crew of whom some fought alongside the tank during combat.Along with A7V tanks, 30 to 75 unarmored cargo carriers - Uberlandwagen / Gelandewagen were produced. Some cargo carriers were fitted with ditch digging machinesFollowing the WWI, few (5?) tanks were received as reparations from Germany by Poland and pressed into limited service from 1919 to 1922, during the Polish-Soviet War but it has not been proven if Poland really received any A7V tanks.Today, original A7V Mephisto captured by Australian troops in 1918, can be seen in the museum in Brisbane, Queensland in Australia.Full scale replica build modelled after the original Mephisto can be seen at Panzermuseum at Munster, Germany.

http://www.achtungpanzer.com/first-panzers-1917-1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 23:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Warsaw (1920)

The Treaty of Warsaw (also the Polish-Ukrainian or Petlura-Piłsudski Alliance or Agreement) of April 1920 was an alliance between the Second Polish Republic, represented by Józef Piłsudski, and the Ukrainian People's Republic, represented by Symon Petlura, against Bolshevik Russia. The treaty was signed on April 21, 1920, with a military addendum on April 24.

The alliance was signed during the Polish-Soviet War, just before the Polish Kiev Offensive. Piłsudski was looking for allies against the Bolsheviks and hoped to create a Międzymorze alliance; Petlura saw the alliance as the last chance to create independent Ukraine.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Warsaw_(1920)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 April 1920, Commons Sitting

SELF-DETERMINATION (GERMAN STATES).


HC Deb 21 April 1920 vol 128 cc389-90 389

Mr. LYLE asked the Prime Minister if he will inform the House of the progress and results of the self-determination of various peoples included in the former German Empire as stipulated by the Peace Treaty?

Mr. BONAR LAW The only plébiscite which has yet ben held under the Treaty of Versailles is that of Schleswig. There 390 the result of the vote in the Northern Plébiscite Zone was in favour of Denmark, and that in the Southern Plebiscite Zone was in favour of Germany. The International Commission charged with administering the vote will presumably shortly submit their Report to the Ambassadors' Conference, by whom the final decision as to the disposal of this area will be taken. Arrangements for holding the other plebiscites necessitated by the Treaty are making progress.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/21/self-determination-german-states
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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Apr 2010 23:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Imperator

Maandag 21 april [1913] - Het grootste passagiersvaartuig ter wereld, de Duitse Imperator, vertrekt voor een proefvaart uit Hamburg naar Amerika, maar loopt in de Elbe meteen al aan de grond.

http://www.terugblik.com/1910-1919/1913/1913.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tandorini @ 21 Apr 2009 19:44 schreef:
1916 - Brits-Indische troepen lijden een zware nederlaag tegen de Turken bij Bagdad.

1917 - Einde van het Brits-Canadees offensief in Artois.

1918 - De duitse toppiloot Manfred von Richthofen wordt nabij Cappy in Frankrijk neergeschoten en komt daarbij om het leven.

Op 20 april 1918 maakte hij zijn tachtigste en laatste slachtoffer; een Sopwith Camel van de Royal Air Force. Een dag later vond Von Richthofen zelf de dood boven het slagveld toen hij de Canadees Wilfrid May achtervolgde. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat hij door één kogel werd getroffen, waarschijnlijk afkomstig van een mitrailleur op de grond. Een aantal soldaten beweerde hem neergeschoten te hebben, Captain Roy Brown (vanuit een vliegtuig), Gunner Robert Buie (vanaf de grond), Sergeant Popkin (vanaf de grond) of Evans (vanaf de grond). Volgens een onderzoek uitgevoerd door The Discovery Channel voor een documentaire over Von Richthofen bleek dat Evans het dodelijk schot heeft gevuurd. Over Evans is verder weinig bekend. Hij heeft geen familie meer en verdere beelden zijn niet bekend. Het verlies van Von Richthofen was een verpletterende slag voor het Duitse moreel. In zijn tijd heeft Von Richthofen een reeks onderscheidingen ontvangen, waaronder het IJzeren Kruis, de militaire Heinrichsorden, de Roter Adlerorden en de Orden Pour le Mérite, beter gekend onder zijn bijnaam: blauwe max.

Zijn score van 80 overwinningen is door geen enkele gevechtspiloot in de Eerste Wereldoorlog overtroffen. Het graf van Von Richthofen ligt in het Südfriedhof te Wiesbaden in Duitsland. Zijn Flying Circus werd overgenomen door de latere nazi-leider Hermann Göring.

_________________
Wars begin where you will, But they do not end where you please.
"All Wars Arise For The Possesion Of Wealth" (Plato)

http://www.ahwk.fr
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2011 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ST QUENTIN ON FIRE DURING GERMAN RETREAT, 8.15PM 21 APRIL 1917

A sketch view across a flat landscape with a tree in the centre foreground, looking towards the buildings of Saint-Quentin ablaze after being set on fire by retreating German forces. A large cloud of smoke drifts skywards.

Schets... https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/23204
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2018 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pitirim Sorokin -- 21 april 1917

Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968) was een Russische (later Amerikaanse) socioloog. Selecties uit zijn dagboeken zijn in het Nederlands verschenen als Bladen uit een dagboek (vertaald door Tinke Davids).

21 april 1917
Vandaag hebben we een echt voorproefje gekregen van wat de opstand van het gepeupel inhoudt. De nota van het ministerie van buitenlandse zaken waarin werd meegedeeld dat de Voorlopige Regering alle verdragen en verplichtingen van Rusland met de geallieerden gestand zou doen, werd fel aangevallen door de sovjets en door de Bolsjeviki, die hierin een verklaring zagen ten gunste van 'annexaties en brandschatting' en van oude imperialistische ambities. Voor ieder redelijk denkend mens is het absurd te spreken van 'annexaties' door een Rusland dat al halfdood is. De ware bedoeling van de aanval was natuurlijk de 'bourgeois'-regering ten val te brengen. Honderden propagandisten houden redevoeringen, overal in de stad, ze protesteren en roepen op tot demonstraties. Honderdduizenden proclamaties die vragen om opstand en het ontslag eisen van Miljoekov en andere 'kapitalistische' ministers, hangen in fabrieken, kantoren, kazernes en op de muren. Overal worden vergaderingen gehouden, in de open lucht en binnenshuis. Behalve bolsjevistische sprekers zijn er anderen die het beleid van de Regering verdedigen. Gewelddadige toespraken worden vaak gevolgd door vechtpartijen. Vandaag kwam omstreeks het middaguur het gerucht dat twee regimenten, in volle wapenrusting, uit hun kazernes waren vertrokken om de relschoppers bij te staan. Er werd geschoten. Overal plunderden misdadigers de winkels. Die situatie leek op die van de eerste dagen van de antitsaristische revolte, maar destijds waren burgers nog in staat geweest de massa onder controle te houden. Gisteravond laat zijn de relschoppers voor een tijdje verjaagd, maar hun doel hadden ze al bereikt. De Regering heeft meegedeeld dat Miljoekov wordt ontslagen.
Dat betekent in feite dat de Regering is gevallen, want deze' eerste concessie aan het gepeupel en de Bolsjeviki is het begin van het einde van de Voorlopige Regering. "We leven allemaal op een vulkaan, en elk moment kan er een eruptie komen. Geen aangenaam idee, maar stap voor stap slagen we erin ons aan te passen. In elk geval is het hoogst interessant. [...]

http://sotobed.blogspot.nl/2017/04/pitirim-sorokin-21-april-1917.html?m=0
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2018 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 20 Apr 2010 22:51 schreef:
Battle of Dover Strait (1917)

The Battle of Dover Strait was a naval battle of World War I, fought in the Dover Strait on the night of 20 April 1917, which carried on into early 21 April.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dover_Strait_(1917)


German Attack on the Dover Straits 20-21 April 1917

Following the German attack of 17-18 March 1917 on the anti-submarine net barrage in the Dover Straits, the Admiralty told Vice Admiral Sir Reginald Bacon, C.-in-C. Dover, that his forces should be more concentrated on nights when enemy attack appeared to be likely. The night of 20 April appeared to be such a night, as it was there was a new moon the next day and high water was at 2230.[1]

The British had two flotilla leaders (large destroyers) on the western part of the barrage and four destroyers to the east. There was a light cruiser, a flotilla leader and three destroyers and a monitor protecting shipping in the Downs, off the east coast of Kent and six destroyers at Dover.[2]

The Germans had strengthened their destroyer force at Zeebrugge by transferring Korvettenkapitän Kahle’s 3rd Flotilla from the High Seas Fleet. The operation on 20-21 April was to be controlled by Kahle. He would not be at sea but instead would command from Bruges, where the Germans collected and deciphered intercepted British orders. According to the British Official History, two groups would again attack the net barrage, but this time there would be no raid on the Downs.[3]

The force on the Dover side of the straits consisted of six destroyers from the 3rd Flotilla (822-960 tons, three 10.5 cm (4.1 inch) guns, six 50 cm (19.7 inch) torpedo tubes, 33.5-34 knots). That on the Calais side comprised four from the Zeebrugge Flotilla and two from the 3rd (852-990 tons, three 105 cm guns, six 50 cm torpedo tubes, 32-34 knots).[4]

However, Mark Karau’s history of the German naval forces in Flanders during the First World War says, based on German archives, that the Calais force included only three destroyers, with the other three operating in the Downs.[5]

A bombardment of Calais started at 2310 and one of Dover at 2330. Little damage was done to either town but the armed trawler Sabreur was damaged at Dover. British batteries returned fire but without hitting the enemy. However, the bombardment caused Bacon to keep his Dover destroyers in port until 2355, by when the Germans had gone.[6]

At 0038 on 21 April, the Dover raiders sighted the flotilla leaders HMS Broke (1,610 tons, six 4 inch and one 1.5 pounder (20mm) guns, two .303 inch MGs, four 21 inch torpedo tubes, 31 knots) and Swift (2,170 tons, one 6 inch and two 4 inch guns, two 18 inch torpedo tubes, 35 knots). Broke was named after Sir Philip Broke, a successful frigate captain from the War of 1812.[7]

Firing commenced at 0044. Swift, which was ahead of Broke, turned towards the German line with the intention of ramming one of the smaller German ships. She missed and was hit by several shells, but one of her torpedoes hit SMS G85. Swift then pursued the Germans as far as the barrage but then had to give up because a shell hole had caused flooding in one of her forward compartments.[8]

Broke also fired torpedoes and attempted to ram a German destroyer. She missed first time but struck SMS G42 with her second attempt. She took several minutes to extricate herself, during when she came under fire from two other German destroyers. She tried to pursue the Germans but was too badly damaged to keep up with them. She therefore returned to G42, which was sinking by the stern but fired on Broke, which replied until the German guns fell silent about 0120. Broke’s engines then broke down and she began to drift towards G42. Some other British destroyers then arrived and took Broke under tow.[9]

G42 and G85 both eventually sank. The British picked up about 100 survivors from crews of 87 and 85 respectively. British losses were 40 killed or wounded on Broke and one killed and four wounded on Swift. The British casualties are listed on Naval-History.net.[10]

The two British captains, Commander Ambrose Peck of Swift and Commander Edward Evans of Broke, were awarded the Distinguished Service Order and promoted to Captain. Evans became a national hero as ‘Evans of the Broke‘ and reached the rank of Admiral, serving in the 1940 Norwegian Campaign. He had previously been second in command of Captain Robert Scott’s ill fated 1911-13 Antarctic Expedition.

The losses from this operation caused a change in German strategy. Future attacks would be aimed at the Netherlands to UK convoys rather than the Channel patrols and barrage.[11]

[1] Naval Staff Monograph (Historical) 1922 vol. vi, The Dover Patrol i. p. 97.
[2] J. S. Corbett, H. Newbolt, Naval Operations, 5 vols. vol. iv, , pp. 373-74..
[3] Ibid. vol. iv, p. 372,
[4] Ibid. vol. iv, p. 378; R. Gray, Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships, 1906-1921, pp. 168-69.
[5] M. D. Karau, The Naval Flank of the Western Front : The German Marinekorps Flandern, 1914-1918, p. 124.
[6] Naval Staff vol. vi. p. 98; Corbett, Newbolt, Naval, p. 375; Karau, Naval, p. 125.
[7] Gray, Conway’s 1906-1921, pp. 73, 77-78; Karau, Naval, p. 125.Karau gives German times that were an hour ahead of British time. All times quoted have been adjusted to British time.
[8] Naval Staff vol. vi. p. 99; Karau, Naval, p. 125.
[9] Corbett, Newbolt, Naval. vol. iv, pp. 377-78.
[10] Ibid. vol. iv. p. 378; Gray, Conway’s 1906-1921, pp. 168-69.
[11] Karau, Naval, p. 126.


https://warandsecurity.com/2018/03/10/german-attack-on-the-dover-straits-20-21-april-1917/
Ook hier: http://www.naval-history.net/WW1Battle1704Dover.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2018 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meerle tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog - De dagboeken van burgemeester Lodewijk Van Nueten (1914-1918)

Zaterdag 21 april 1917
Beter weder.

Wij hooren veel schieten, geen verder nieuws. Te Meir zijn over eenige dagen juffers Beylen en van Cees Mertens en vingerhoutje op weg Zundert aangehouden als vroegere smokkelaars en valsche namen voor 3 maanden Parapluie te Breda.

In de week was in Breda geen brood, de broodkarren rijden niet meer uit, men plunderd ze leeg en werpt het geld in de kar, misschien allen niet. Zoo Breda lijdt ook honger.

http://www.meerle14-18.be/2017/04/21/zaterdag-21-april-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2018 22:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Noel Harris - Died 21 April 1917 | Hereford Cathedral School

Rank: Second Lieutenant
Number: Unknown
Regiment: 123rd Outram's Rifles attached 125th Napier's Rifles
Born: 1897
Died: 21st April 1917
Age: 19
Cause of Death: Killed in Action
Place of Commemoration: Basra Memorial, Iraq

Foto op https://www.herefordcs.com/about/about-hcs/history/ww1-remembered-ww1-fallen-timeline/ww1-fallen-timeline/charles-noel-harris
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Apr 2018 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 APRIL, 1917: ANARCHY IN THE UKRAINE

You couldn’t say it was exactly world-shattering news at the time. It couldn’t really compete for headlines with the monstrous Allied offensives in full cry on the Western Front, accompanied by the crowd-pleasing dogfights of Bloody April and the Red Baron’s surge to fame. From anywhere West of the Rhine, it hardly seemed important compared with the rising crescendo of submarine warfare, the exotic dramas of British advances through the Middle East, the diplomatic fallout from Washington’s momentous move to war, or reports of mayhem in St. Petersburg as Lenin joined the crowded ranks of revolutionaries returned from exile. What with all that and more kicking off at around the same time, it’s hardly surprising nobody in the West made too much fuss about the successful conclusion, on 21 April 1917, of the first Ukrainian National Congress. A century on, nothing’s changed.

What little attention Western academics have paid to the Eastern Front over the decades has tended to view it from the perspective of the major empires involved, understandably enough given that most available source material comes from imperial bureaucracies, especially the German bureaucracy. So our standard Western view of the First World War skates over its enormous importance to those countries – Georgia, Ukraine, Poland, Belarus and the Baltic states – that stood on the western frontiers of the Russian Empire and would one day form an inner ring of Soviet satellites. In the Ukraine, for instance, the Great War was on one hand a social and environmental catastrophe, as the country became a battlefield under military occupation and conscripted Ukrainians fought for both sides, but was on the other hand a golden opportunity that transformed the idea of national independence into fleeting reality.

Ignoring the current battle for its eastern territories, modern Ukraine comprises the western majority of what was, in 1914, the Russian imperial province of Kiev, along with parts of what was then southern Poland, some of it under Austro-Hungarian control. Nationalist ideas and organisations had taken hold among academics, businessmen and politicians in pre-War Kiev, aiming at greater regional autonomy and promotion of the Ukrainian language, but they were efficiently suppressed in one of the most militarily controlled sectors of the Russian Empire and had little impact on the rest of the country. Controls were tightened further under wartime conditions, but everything changed when the February Revolution of March 1917 toppled the Russian Tsar (8 March, 1917: False Start).

News travelled fast by telegraph in March 1917, and views moved like lightning through the conduit of a Russian Army consumed by revolutionary turmoil at every level. On 17 March, only five days after proclamation of the new Provisional Government in St. Petersburg, Ukrainian politicians, workers, military agitators, businessmen, students, bureaucrats and churchmen came together in Kiev to found the Central Council of Ukraine. More commonly known as the Central Rada, it was led as chairman by historian and nationalist activist Mikhailo Hrushevsky, and wasted no time testing the St. Petersburg government’s avowed liberal principles.

After issuing a declaration of support for the Provisional Government on 22 March, the Rada began establishing itself as St. Petersburg’s rival for authority over the Russian Ukraine. Hrushevsky, essentially a social democrat, guided the Rada in pursuit of autonomy as a prelude to full independence, and spent his first weeks in office building a wider mandate for its authority, organising delegates from the many elements represented by the Rada, and anyone else willing to participate, into a national congress.

Seven hundred voting delegates – along with 200 non-voting observers and some 600 guests – attended the National Congress that convened in Kiev on 19 April. The Congress elected 150 delegates to form a new Rada that was in effect a governing parliament, and confirmed Hrushevsky as its chairman, with leaders of the two main Ukrainian political parties as his deputies. Most significantly, the new Rada included representatives from provincial authorities, and from the socialist workers’ organisations and soviets that were surging into life in every urban area of any size, extending its writ beyond the Kiev region for the first time. By the time the Congress dissolved on 21 April, it had transformed the Central Council into a provisional government that would lead the Ukraine towards tentative and short-lived independence.

During the next few weeks, the Rada worked to establish its bona fides as a legitimate national government. It elected a ‘small council’ of thirty members, including representatives of most political groupings, to serve as a cabinet, and on 10 June it declared national autonomy for the Ukraine. Later that month, in an attempt to widen its influence beyond Kiev, the Rada was expanded to include 130 representatives from soldiers’ councils and 133 from the peasantry.

Peasants made up the vast majority of the Ukraine’s 30 million people. Principally concerned with peaceful subsistence, they gave the Rada important if somewhat uncommitted support, and presented no serious threat to its authority. Soldiers’ councils, or soviets, were much more dangerous to the Rada. In control of most Russian Army units in the Ukraine, they were inclined to preach socialist revolution and generally looked to St. Petersburg for authority, as did many socialist groups in urban areas. The Rada’s attempt to incorporate the soviets, which was only partly successful and had little impact outside the north of the country, reflected its greatest challenge in the months after the Tsar’s demise – how to achieve peaceful co-existence with a Russian Provisional Government that still claimed political control over the Ukraine.

A compromise was reached in July, when the Russian government agreed to recognise the Rada and defer any binding decisions concerning the Ukraine’s autonomy or sovereignty. The deal prevented any immediate, mutually unproductive conflict but otherwise solved nothing. With Kerensky’s Russian regime being forced further and further to the left in order to survive, Ukrainian soviets becoming more radical with every passing day and the Central Powers waiting in the wings if the Russian Army collapsed, the Rada government could do little more than survive through a summer of rising instability, maintaining an appearance of cohesion in its Kiev power base amid seismic socio-political shifts on all sides.

For all its rapid reaction to events, impressive attempts to promote unity and efficient creation of ‘national’ institutions, the Rada’s provisional government was not long for this world. Viewed by revolutionary socialists as a liberal, bourgeois enemy of the workers, and dismissed as such by the Bolshevik regime after Russia’s October Revolution, it was effectively overthrown in January 1918 by a rival soviet government based in Kharkov. The Rada responded by declaring Ukrainian independence from the new Soviet Union on 22 January and making a separate peace with the Central Powers, which had been providing diplomatic and financial support since the spring. This treaty, signed on 9 February and known in Germany as the Brotfrieden (‘bread peace’), left the Rada as a powerless puppet government and ushered in a long period of violent misery for the Ukrainian people.

On the positive side, the Central Powers granted Ukrainian control of the Cholm region, a northern province that was also claimed by an independent Poland. The concession ruined Vienna’s hopes of getting Poland to accept an Austro-Hungarian protectorate, but the urgent need for Ukrainian food supplies was seen as more important. In return, the Rada invited the German and Austro-Hungarian Armies to occupy Russian Ukraine, authorised their immediate seizure of grain and other supplies on a vast scale, and accepted German Field Marshal Eichhorn as effective military dictator of Ukraine and the Crimea.

Eichhorn’s ruthless attempts to meet the colossal demands for food laid down by the Third Supreme Command in Berlin brought severe hardship to rural Ukrainians, while his imposition of forced labour programmes to increase agricultural production fed rising nationalist unrest in the countryside. By the time Eichhorn was assassinated by nationalists in Kiev, on 30 July 1918, military occupation was the only force keeping a lid on a chaotic cauldron of revolutionary turmoil, and the collapse of Germany in November brought anarchy in the Ukraine.

During the next three years fourteen different governments claimed to represent the Ukraine, and a state of civil war was only calmed by a fairly secure Bolshevik takeover in 1921. From the that point the Ukraine became part of the USSR, and though the new Soviet Republic permitted some nationalist and peasant representation, no echo of the Rada’s legacy survived the brutal repression of Stalinism in the 1930s.

So why bother commemorating the birth of something that can only be described as a short-lived failure? Because the Ukraine is now a sovereign state, in part constructed from the blueprints laid down by the Rada in 1917 and under severe pressure a century later. These days I think we can all agree that its future matters to ours, so on the grounds that it’s good to understand things that matter, here’s to the flawed godfathers of Ukrainian nationhood, and here’s to sneaking a bit of the Ukraine’s history, however sketchy and blind to its many controversies, into our heritage.

http://poppycockww1.com/eastern-front/21-april-1917-anarchy-in-the-ukraine/
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