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13 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Apr 2006 7:27    Onderwerp: 13 April Reageer met quote

April 13

1918 Germans capture Helsinki, Finland

As part of Germany’s support of Finland and its newly declared parliamentary government, German troops wrest control of Helsingfors (Helsinki) from the Red Guard, an army of Finnish supporters of the Russian Bolsheviks, on April 13, 1918.

Finland, under Russian control since 1809, took the opportunity of the upheaval in Russia in 1917 (including the abdication of Czar Nicholas II in March and the rise to power of Vladimir Lenin and his radical socialist followers, the Bolsheviks, in November) to declare its independence in December of that year. Almost immediately, however, conflict broke out within Finland between radical socialists—supporters of the Bolsheviks in Russia—and anti-socialists within the government. In late January 1918, the radical socialist Red Guard launched a rebellion, terrorizing and killing civilians in their attempt to spark a Bolshevik-style revolution. A bitter struggle ensued as the Whites (as government troops were known) under the command of Baron Karl Gustav Mannerheim sought to drive the Reds out of Finland.

On April 3, 1918, German troops sent by Kaiser Wilhelm I landed in Finland to aid Mannerheim’s White army. Ten days later, the Germans captured Helsinki alongside Mannerheim and his force of 16,000 men; they did the same in Viborg by the end of the month. A major victory by the Germans and the White Finns at Lahti on May 7 ended the Finnish civil war.

Germany’s close ties with the nascent Finnish government reached a new level in October 1918, when conservative forces in Finland decided to establish monarchal rule in the country, giving the throne to Frederick, a German prince, in the waning weeks of World War I. By the time the Central Powers appealed for an armistice one month later, however, Kaiser Wilhelm himself had abdicated and it seemed certain that the victorious Allies would not look kindly upon a German prince on the Finnish throne. Frederick abdicated on December 14. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in June 1919, recognized Finland’s hard-won independence; that July, the Finnish parliament adopted a new republican constitution, and Kaarlo J. Stahlberg, a liberal, was elected as the country’s first president.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 13 Apr 2006 7:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Lebhafte Artillerietätigkeit bei Verdun

Großes Hauptquartier, 13. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Im allgemeinen konnte sich bei den meist ungünstigen Beobachtungsverhältnissen des gestrigen Tages keine besondere Gefechtstätigkeit entwickeln, jedoch blieben beiderseits der Maas, in der Woëvre-Ebene und auf den Côtes südöstlich von Verdun die Artillerien lebhaft tätig.
Südöstlich von Albert nahm eine deutsche Patrouille im englischen Graben 17 Mann gefangen.
Ein französischer Gasangriff in Gegend von Puisaleine (nordöstlich von Compiegne) blieb ergebnislos.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südlich des Naroczsees verstärkte sich das russische Artilleriefeuer gestern nachmittag merklich. Östlich von Baranowitschi wurden Vorstöße feindlicher Abteilungen von unseren Vorposten zurückgewiesen.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Keine wesentlichen Ereignisse.
http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_13.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 10:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

French progress near Berry-au-Bac.

Failure of French attacks near Maizeray.

Eastern Front

Russians capture heights near Uzsok Pass.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks beaten north of Basra and retreat from Shaiba (south-west of Basra).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Publication of Rear-Admiral Hon. H. Hood's despatch on patrol action on Belgian coast, 17 October-9 November 1914.

Political, etc.

M. Radoslavov, Bulgarian premier, orders disarmament of Turco-Bulgarians on Serbian frontier.

Italy presses Austria for an answer to the Note of 8 April.

Munitions Committee meets under the chairmanship of Mr. Lloyd George.
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1916
Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Australian troops break up Turkish camp at Jifjaffa (Sinai Peninsula).

Russians repulse Turks after six days fighting west of Erzerum.

Political, etc.

Resignation of Portuguese Cabinet withdrawn.
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1917
Western Front

South of Bapume-Cambrai road, British capture village and wood of Gouzeaucourt.

North of Scarpe, British capture Vimy, Givenchy-en-Gohelle, Angres and two other villages.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British drive Turks from Seraijik (on Deli-Abbas-Mosul road).

Political, etc.

Russian Provisional Government receives representatives of British Labour and French Socialists.

All-Russian Conference of workmen and soldiers' delegates at Petrograd.

Bolivia severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
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1918
Western Front

British re-occupy Neuve Eglise and repel further attack.

Continuous fighting round Wulverghem, Bailleul and Meteren, and at Festubert.

Lys river front remains firm.

Sir Douglas Haig issues special Order of the Day.

Meuse river, Americans north-west of Toul are twice attacked.

Long-range gun shells Paris by night.

Zeppelin Works near Friedrichshafen burnt out.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks occupy Batum.

Sir A. A. Barrett's Gazette on Mahsud operations of 1917 published.

Transcaucasian Council break off peace negotiations with Turks.

Political, etc.

Irish Convention Report published.

South Africa: Mr. Hertzog's seditious speech, demanding separation.

National Assembly of Yugo-Slavs, Croats and Slovenes at Agram take oath of solidarity.
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1919
Aftermath of War

Bolsheviks retire on Ural front.

Britain: Over two million men demobilised by this date.

Bavarian Soviet Government gains upper hand again.
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1919 - Britse en Gurkha troepen vermoorden in Amritsar, India tenminste 379 ongewapende deelnemers aan demonstratie in het kader van de geweldloos-verzet-campagne van Gandhi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 10:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 april 1915
Politiek, Duitsland
Keizer Wilhelm II aanvaardt de stelling van zijn militaire plannenmakers dat de Duitse militaire inspanningen zich moeten concentreren op het oostfront, vooral in verband met de recente Oostenrijks-Hongaarse tekortkomingen bij offensieven. Acht divisies worden per trein overgebracht van het westfront naar het zuiden van Krakau en op de 16de wordt een nieuw Duits Elfde Leger opgericht onder generaal August von Mackensen. Generaal Erich von Falkenhayn reist oostwaarts om het algemene bevel te voeren over de komende aanval, hoewel hij meent dat de overwinning alleen echt kan worden behaald op het westfront.
Bij het offensief lanceren de troepen van veldmaarschalk Paul von Hindenburg ten noorden van Warschau beperkte aanvallen om de Russen tegenover hen bezig te houden. De belangrijkste aanval vindt echter plaats in het zuiden en wordt uitgevoerd door Mackensens Elfde Leger. Dat zal een breedfrontoffensief lanceren op de stenden Gorlice en Tarnow. Ook de Oostenrijks-Hongaarse troepen zullen deelnemen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 14:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Zeppelin Airships - Part One: The First Zeppelin Airships 1910 - 1914

LZ-19
Tactical*: Z I (third ship to bear this designation)
Usage: military
First Flight: 6 June 1913
LZ-19 was damaged beyond repair in a thunderstorm on 13 April 1914 and subsequently scrapped.

* NOTE: Tactical refers to the airship's tactical designation(s). The Z designation indicates an airship operated by the German army, whereas the L designation indicates an airship operated by the German navy. During the war, the army changed their scheme twice: following Z XII, they switched to using the LZ numbers, later adding 30 to obscure the total number in production.

http://www.pugetairship.org/zeppelins/list_1.html
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Aims of the German Supreme Command

From early 1915 the Chief of German General Staff, General Erich von Falkenhayn, had decided that, for the foreseeable future, it was not going to be possible to force a decision against the enemy on his western battle front. By early April he had focused his attention on the possibility of striking a blow against Russia, with the aim of permanently crippling her offensive powers.

On 13 April 1915 General von Falkenhayn sent a telegram (1) from his headquarters in Charleville-Mézières to General von Conrad at Teschen on the Eastern Front. It was a plan of operations for a breakthrough of the Russian line on the Galician front. The plan was shrouded in secrecy and would involve German and Austro-Hungarian troops.

Studying Allied Troop Strength on the Western Front
According to the German official military history 'Der Weltkrieg' (2) at the end of March 1915 German Supreme Command had been examining intelligence documents about the forecasted growth of the Allied troop strength during the coming summer of 1915.

British Army: The German consideration was that the British First Kitchener's Army would not be in a position to take to the field until early April, with the Second and Third Kitchener's Armies following on after the summer. It was considered that there would be a minimum of four Kitchener's Armies with six divisions. It was anticipated that during the summer months Canadian and Indian troops were likely to be added to the British contingent in France.

French Army: German Supreme Command reckoned that in France about 180,000 men, who had come of age, could be called to arms from the beginning of April. After training they would be ready for active service in 1916. It was considered that the French could call up three new army corps using every available man who was eligible or capable of fighting from April 1915.

Belgian Army: The Germans did not believe that the Belgian Army was in a position to strengthen its numbers.

Maintaining an 'Active' Defence on the Western Front
Although he had decided to concentrate his effort on the Eastern Front for the spring of 1915, Falkenhayn was not prepared to let the enemy gain the upper hand in any way on his western battle front. Neither was he content to allow the German troops to simply sit quietly on the defensive. Orders were issued to the German Armies on the western front to make small attacks to keep the enemy on his guard, to build up the trenches and generally to maintain a certain amount of activity opposite the enemy lines.

Maintaining activity on the Western Front would also serve to disguise the removal of any troops who would be moved out of the line to be transported to the Eastern Front. In his book 'General Headquarters and its Critical Decisions' General Falkenhayn wrote:

"Lively activity in the positions along the whole Western Front, combined with attacks, in so far as the modest numbers remaining there permitted, were to cloak the transportation of the troops to Galicia." (3)

Two Aims for the Attack at Ypres
The possible capture of Ypres and a shortening of the German line were not the objectives of the operation at Ypres for German Supreme Command. As far as General von Falkenhayn was concerned, an attack by the 4th Army on the Allied Ypres Salient had two aims:

- to test the first use of poisonous gas by the German Army.
- to divert attention away from his proposed offensive on the Eastern Front.

Acknowledgements
(1) General Headquarters 1914-1916 and its Critical Decisions, p. 83
(2) Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918, Band 8, pp. 34-49
(3) General Headquarters 1914-1916 and its Critical Decisions, p. 84


http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/germanaims.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 14:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A German deserter reveals the plan to attack with gas

On Tuesday 13 April [1915] an incident occurred which gave a warning to the Allies of an imminent German attack on their line with a new deadly weapon at Ypres. Had the Allies taken this fortuitous warning more seriously, the course of events of the next few weeks might have been very different.

Private August Jaeger Deserts his Post
On 13 April a German soldier climbed out of his front-line trench and scrambled across the few hundred metres of no-man's-land, making for the French front line. The soldier's name was Private August Jaeger. He had been called up on 4 August 1914. On 9 November he was attached as an Automobile Driver to the 234. Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment (51. Reserve-Division). For whatever reason, he decided to desert his post on 13 April. (1)

Desertion was not uncommon in this sector; the German and French soldiers had frequently fraternized with one another in this quiet sector during the winter months of 1914/1915. It was a serious concern to senior German commanders that a deserter might indeed give away the secret of the new gas weapon before wind conditions were favourable enough to carry out the first trial attack. (2)

Jaeger got to the French line successfully without being seen and clambered over the parapet into the French front line trench near Langemarck. At that time this sector of the line was held by the 4th Battalion of Chasseurs of the French 11th Division. The divisional commander was General Edmond Ferry.

Jaeger is Interrogated
During his subsequent interrogation at the French 11th Division headquarters August Jaeger readily gave details about German troop strength in the trenches, daily routines and German gun batteries in the vicinity:

"During the day 1st line trenches are occupied by one Section per Company. At night the strength is doubled and from 4 to 6 in the morning, the whole Company is in position. Each Company has three machine guns in the 1st line, flanking each other, while the fourth gun is in reserve in rear.

Companies spend 8 days on the front and 8 days at rest. One battalion is always at rest in huts constructed in the small wood CALVAIRE ... to the East of WEST ROOSEBEKE. Two other battalions rest at OOSTNIEUWKERKE.

The 380 mm. gun has just been mounted on a cemented platform in the S.W. of d'HOUTHULST forest. This gun has not yet fired. A battery of 210 mm. mortars, another of 155 mm. guns and several others of 77 mm. are approximately 1 kilometre WEST of POELCAPPELLE railway station."
(3)

He also told the French exactly which house was being used by his commanding officer as a forward headquarters on the road leading north from Poelcappelle:

"The report centre of the Colonel Commanding the 234th Regiment is at the Northern exit from POELCAPPELLE, and is the last house in red brick on the left of the exit." (4)

Jaeger Reveals a New Secret Weapon: Asphyxiating Gas
The most important information that Jaeger brought with him from the German side was about an impending attack planned against the French front line. He revealed that 80 bottles of asphyxiating gas had been installed in the German front-line trenches. He was referring to the 80 cylinders in four F-Batteries located in the trench held by his company. On a given signal Jaeger claimed that the bottles of gas would be uncorked and the gas would be released. The plan was for the gas to be carried by the wind towards the French trenches.

The intention was to asphyxiate the French soldiers in their trenches, enabling the advancing German infantry to take the enemy's trenches without sustaining casualties of their own. Jaeger informed his interrogators that in order to prevent German troops from being intoxicated by the gas, each soldier had been provided with a packet of gauze steeped in oxygen to cover his mouth and nose.

Jaeger's statement was given as follows by the French Officer interpreter of the French 11th Division:

"An attack is planned for the near future against the French trenches of the above mentioned sector. With this object in view four batteries have been placed in position in the first line trenches [i.e. in the section held by Jaeger's company]; these batteries each have 20 bottles of asphyxiating gas. Each Company has 4 such batteries. Each battery has 5 gunners. At a given signal - 3 red rockets fired by the artillery - the bottles are uncorked, and the gas on escaping, is carried by a favourable wind towards the French trenches. This gas is intended to asphyxiate the men who occupy the trenches and to allow the Germans to occupy them without losses. In order to prevent the men being themselves intoxicated by the gas, each man is provided with a packet of tow steeped in oxygen.

Since yesterday (13th inst.), all trains and convoys in position at ROULERS and RUMBEKE have been warned to be ready.

Companies are about 160 strong on an average and are mostly commanded by active Army Lieutenants."
(5)

Acknowledgements
(1) Gas! The Battle for Ypres, 1915, p. 11-12
(2) Gas! The Battle for Ypres, 1915, p. 25
(3) Official History of the Canadian Forces in The Great War 1914-1919, Volume I, Chronology, Appendices and Maps, Appendix no. 320, p. 228-229
(4) Official History of the Canadian Forces in The Great War 1914-1919, Volume I, Chronology, Appendices and Maps, Appendix no. 320, p. 228-229
(5) Official History of the Canadian Forces in The Great War 1914-1919, Volume I, Chronology, Appendices and Maps, Appendix no. 320, p. 228-229


http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/ypsalient/secondypres/prelude/deserter.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

13 April 1916 - Department of Education’s magazine — The School Gazette — advised that a medallion commemorating the landing at Anzac on 25 April 1915 was available for school children to buy at a price of six pence. The medallion was of bronze. On one side was the head of the King, George V, surrounded by the inscription ‘For King and Country’. The other side featured the word ANZAC surrounded by a wreath below which were the words ‘Lest We Forget - 25 Ap. 15’.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/1916-2000.html#13-april-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTALION WAR DIARY FOR 22nd (SERVICE) BATTALION ROYAL FUSILIERS
Operations in the Battle of Arras, and near Oppy Wood

The 22nd (Service) Battalion (Kensington) Royal Fusiliers was raised on 11th September 1914. It moved to Roffey Camp in Horsham, Sussex, in October 1914 and then to Clipstone Camp (near Mansfield) in June 1915 to join and serve with the 99th Brigade, which was a part of 33rd Division. In August 1915 the battalion moved to Tidworth and finally to France, landing in Boulogne in November 1915. On 25th November 1915, the 99th Brigade joined the 2nd Division. In April 1917 the battalion was commanded by Lt Col R Barnett Barker D.S.O. It's battalion war diary (WO/95/1372) was compiled by Capt C R Stone M.C. (Adjutant), who subsequently wrote a battalion history.

13 April 1917 - The Battalion moved in the morning to B20 a and b, and in the night 13/14th relieved the 1/KRRC in (the) front line opposite GAVRELLES, having the BEDFORDS (63rd DIV) on the right and 1/R.BERKS on the left.

http://ww1research.wetpaint.com/page/22nd+Bn+Royal+Fusiliers+April+1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Excerpten uit het Salland's Volksblad - 1917

1917-04-13 - Vergadering van den raad der gem. Avereest op dinsdag 10 april 1917. Afwezig de heer E. ten Kate, wegens ongesteldheid. Dankbetuigingen van A. ter Brugge en J. de Vries voor verleende gratificatien. Idem van mej. Koopmans en mej. Zoete wegens hare benoeming als onderwijzeressen; idem van K. Keizer, wegens zijn benoeming als concierge ten gemeentehuis. Verzoek van J.F. Pluim te Balkbrug om afstand van een perceeltje gemeentegrond aan de Provincie voor den bouw van een brugwachterswoning; de provincie toch is voornemens om voor de bestaande loods aldaar een brugwachterswoning te plaatsen, waardoor voor zijn in veiling te brengen perceelen de toegang zal zijn ontnomen en voor alle verdere opbloei van Balkbrug in die richting de kans zou zijn benomen, met een ingesloten schrijven van Ged. St. Etc. Verzoek van den Ambtenaarsbond Balkbrug en omstr. om evenals in andere gemeenten den prijs der rijst te brengen van 14 op 10 cts en van aardappels van 6,5 op 5,5 ct. per pond. Etc. Schrijven van het gemeentebestuur van Zuidwolde over de wegverharding over het Bergje om een brug in de Hokkendijk over de waterleiding van het Waterschap Drogteropslagen voor rekening en onderhoud van beide gemeenten te nemen, aangezien het waterschapsbestuur zich niet, zooals eerder was toegezegd, met het onderhoud wil belasten, maar aanbiedt f. 300 ineens te storten. De raad besluit hierop niet in te gaan, tenzij dat kan worden volstaan met een duiker, die dan hogenaamd geen onderhoud meer zal vragen. In dien geest zal de Raad van Zuidwolde worden geantwoord. Op een verzoek van den heer ter Beeke besluit de raad om een helpster te benoemen voor de nuttige handwerken aan de school wijk F. Voorstel van de heeren Roesink, v.d. Elst en Balkema om de salarissen van het onderwijzend personeel te herzien. B. en W. bieden een concept-verordening aan ter beteugeling van het rooken door kinderen, waarbij de leeftijdsgrens is gesteld op 16 jaar. Den heer Mol gaat dit te ver, hij wil dit vastgesteld zien niet hooger dan 14 jaar. Tot onderwijzer aan de school voor m.u.l.o. werd benoemd de heer J. Koelma alhier. Verhoging salaris veldwachters.

1917-04-13 - Bergentheim. Donderdagmiddag werd in de bijzondere school alhier de eindles van den landbouwwintercursus aldaar gehouden in tegenwoordigheid van den Rijkslandbouwleeraar den heer Lankwerden te Meppel, de heeren H.H. Weitkamp en A.A. Oostenbrink, respectievelijk burgemeester en wethouder dezer gemeente. Etc.

1917-04-13 - Bergentheim. Met ingang van 16 april a.s. is benoemd tot postbode alhier A. Kamphuis van Den Ham.

1917-04-13 - Dedemsvaart. Maandagavond vervoegde zich een viertal personen om en bij de woning van den landbouwer Johannes P. aan het Ommerkanaal. Toen P. daarop naar buiten ging, had een der personen den moed om P., die van geen bekwaad bewust was, met een mes of ander scherp voorwerp een wonde over de pols van de linkerhand toe te brengen. P. was genoodzaakt zich daardoor onder behandeling van den geneesheer te stellen. Van de dader is niets bekend.

1917-04-13 - Hardenberg. Jaarlijksche bijeenkomst van de collectanten der Zendingsvereeniging 'het Mosterdzaadje'. Ds. Westhoff. De heer Fredriks.

1917-04-13 - Hardenberg. Terwijl hedenmiddag de winkelier Runhaar van Radewijk zijn paard alhier uitspande, kwam er eensklaps een auto in woeste vaart aanrijden, men zegt van Van Wely uit Coevorden, die met zoo'n vaart achter tegen het paard aanreed, dat het dier zoo zwaar verwond werd, dat het moest worden afgemaakt. De marechaussees alhier zijn met dit voorval in kennis gesteld en het is te hopen dat het paard zal worden vergoed.

1917-04-13 - Hardenberg. Dezer dagen geraakte de landbouwer K. te Baalder met paard en wagen op hol, met het ongelukkig gevolg dat hji ernstig gewond werd aan het hoofd, zoodat geneeskundige hulp moest worden ingeroepen.

1917-04-13 - Hardenberg. Maandagmorgen is in de Vecht bij Diffelen het lijk gevonden van den onlangs hier vermisten H.J. Zweers.

1917-04-13 - Hiermede geven wij kennis van het overlijden van onzen geliefden vader, behuwd- en grootvader Hendrik Jan Zweers, in den ouderdom van 83 jaar. Hardenberg, april 1917.

1917-04-13 - Heden overleed in de hope des eeuwigen levens onze geliefde moeder, grootmoeder en overgrootmoeder Alberta Woelders, weduwe van J. Zwitser, in den ouderdom van bijna 89 jaar. Uit aller naam, wed. Z. Zwitser. Bruchterveld, 8 april 1917.

1917-04-13 - Gevraagd: een flinke dienstbode. Zich aan te melden bij den Directeur van het Distributiebureau te Hardenberg.

1917-04-13 - Te koop: 10.000 pond roggestroo en 2 drachtige motten bij E. van de Poll op 't Holt

1917-04-13 - De commissie van het Onderlinge Veefonds te Stad Hardenberg maakt bekend dat de schatting is bepaald op dinsdag e.k. den 17 april te Stad Hardenberg beneden het kanaal, Hoogenweg en Oude Veen. De commissie, S. Baarslag (voorz.) en G.J. Meilink (secr.)

1917-04-13 - Het bestuur van het Waterschap Radewijk-Baalder zal bij inschrijving aanbesteden: het schoonmaken der Radewijkerbeek (2 maal) en waterleidingen in de volgende perceelen: etc.

1917-04-13 - Notaris Berendsen te Dedemsvaart, donderdag 19 april, ten huize en verzoeke van W.A. Prins bij Sluis 7 publiek verkoopen: 3 koeien etc.

1917-04-13 - Inboedel en boerenvoortvaring. Notaris Berensen. Ten huiz en verzoeke van J. Kisteman, boven Sluis 6 te Dedemsvaart.

1917-04-13 - Notaris Berendsen. Ten huize en verzoeke van H. v.d. Berg Tzn aan de Kalkwijk te Dedemsvaart, publieke verkoop: een kar op veeren etc.

http://www.hardenberg.nl/smartsite.shtml?id=69615
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The Pride of Seattle", the USS Nebraska BB-14

Nebraska (BB-14), ex-Pennsylvania, was laid down by Moran Brothers, Seattle, Washington, 4 July 1902; launched 7 October 1904; sponsored by Miss Mary N. Mickey, daughter of Governor John H. Mickey of Nebraska; and commissioned 1 July 1907, Captain Reginald F. Nicholson in command.

After shakedown and alterations, the new battleship joined the "Great White Fleet" at San Francisco after 6 May 1908, replacing Alabama (BB-8).

Departing San Francisco 7 July 1908, the Fleet visited Honolulu, Hawaii; Auckland, New Zealand; Sydney and Melbourne, Australia; Manila, Philippine Islands; Yokohama, Japan; and Colombo, Ceylon, arriving Suez, Egypt, 3 January 1909. Departing Messina, Italy, on the 9th, the Fleet visited Naples, Italy, then Gibraltar, arriving Hampton Roads 22 February where President Theodore Roosevelt reviewed the fleet as it passed into the roadstead.

Nebraska continued duty with the Atlantic Fleet. She attended the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in 1910 and the Louisiana Centennial during 1912. She earned the Mexican Service Medal for operations at Vera Cruz, Mexico, from 1 May to 21 June 1914 and 1 June to 13 October 1916. After a period of reduced commissioned service, she was again placed in full commission 3 April 1917.

When war was declared 6 April 1917, Nebraska was undergoing repairs at the Boston Navy Yard, attached to the 3d Division, Battleship Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. On 13 April 1917, she departed Boston to engage in maneuvers and battle practice with the fleet in the Chesapeake Bay area. She operated along the east coast; primarily training armed guard crews for American merchantmen, until entering the Norfolk Navy Yard 15 April 1918 for repairs

At Hampton Roads 16 May, she received on board the body of the late Carlos M. DePena, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from Uruguay, with full honors, departing Hampton Roads the same day and arriving Montevideo 10 June in company withPittsburg (ACR-4), flagship of the Pacific Fleet. The Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, came on board for the ceremonies and the body of the late Uruguyan Minister to the United States was transferred with full honors. Nebraska departed Montevideo 15 June for home, arriving Hampton Roads 26 July.

The battleship departed New York 17 September as principal escort for a fast merchant convoy of 18 ships to an eastern Atlantic rendezvous, returning to Hampton Roads 3 October. Nebraska made two more convoy voyages in the Atlantic, returning from the latter 2 December to prepare for service in returning American troops from France.

Nebraska made for voyages from the United States to Brest, France, transporting 4,540 troops to and from the United States. On the first trip, she departed Hampton Roads 30 December 1918, arrived Brest 11 January 1919, and returned Newport News 28 January. The final voyage to return veterans from France ended when she arrived Newport News, Virginia, 21 June with 1,279 troops.

On 22 June 1919 Nebraska was detached from the transport service and shortly thereafter sailed to join Division 2, Squadron 1, U.S. Pacific Fleet, for operations along the west coast under command of Captain P. N. Olmstead until she decommissioned 2 July 1920.

In accordance with the Washington Treaty limiting naval armament, Nebraska was rendered incapable of further warlike service 9 November 1923 and sold for scrap a few weeks later.

http://www.greatwhitefleet.info/USS_Nebraska.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lenteoffensief 1918

Een van de Duitse lenteoffensieven: "Georgette" startte op 9 april 1918 net over de Franse grens. Na de overrompeling van Portugese linies bij La Bassee en de ontreddering die dat over een breder front veroorzaakte, kwam het vanaf de oude slagvelden bij Aubers (1915), en Fromelles (1916) tot een doorbraak in noordwestelijke richting. Tegen de avond hadden de Duitsers, ten westen van Armentières, de Leie bereikt over de breedte van een tiental kilometers. Twee dagen later was Armentières bezet , en dit voor de eerste keer sinds de stellingoorlog begon (20 oktober 1914), was Ploegsteertbos in Duitse handen gevallen en hadden die Duitsers zich opnieuw genesteld in ruines van Mesen. De hoofddoel van hun offensief gaat in de richting Hazebrouck. Vooral op 13 april moeten de Britten veel terrein prijs geven. Maar doordat die Britten daarentegen goed standhouden op de zuidelijke flank worden de Duitsers ongenadig beschoten vanuit het tot vesting uitgebouwde, roemrucht geworden plaatsjes Festubert en Givenchy. De Duitsers kunnen nog oprukken naar de rand van het duistere Nieppewoud (zowat de geallieerde tegenhanger van wat het bos van Houthulst was voor de Duitsers) maar veroveren is voor de Duitsers een onmogelijke opdracht waardoor ook de inname van het spoorwegknooppunt Hazebrouck ijdele hoop blijft.

Lees verder op http://users.telenet.be/blindganger/lenteoffensief_1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 15:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 April 1918, Written Answers (Commons)

DEAD SOLDIER'S EFFECTS.


HC Deb 13 April 1918 vol 104 cc2011-2W 2011W

Sir H. GREENWOOD asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that the effects of T. E. Owen, No. 290052, late Royal Welsh Fusiliers, lance-sergeant, have not been received by his dependants; that this man died in November, 1916; that all inquiries as to what has become of his effects have produced no result; and whether he will take steps to have the matter inquired into?

Mr. FORSTER This man died at Angora, Turkey, while a prisoner of war in the hands of the Turks. Information in these cases takes a long time to reach this country and to be confirmed. No personal effects have been received, and, in view of the circumstances of his death, I can hardly hope that they will be forthcoming. A sum of money will be due when the accounts are closed, but the necessary inquiries have not yet been completed. The usual form of application has been forwarded to the mother, with a view to the legal distribution of such amount as is already available for issue.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1918/apr/13/dead-soldiers-effects
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 16:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flight 100 - History 1909-1918

AEROPLANE TRIALS

On 13 April 1912 the Royal Flying Corps was constituted, comprising a Naval Wing (later the Royal Naval Air Service, RNAS), a Military Wing and a Central Flying School. That August British and foreign aircraft participated in the Military Aeroplane Trials on Salisbury Plain. Cody's biplane won, although it was inferior to other entrants, but all were outshone by the B.E.2, designed and flown by Geoffrey de Havilland, which, being a product of the Royal Aircraft Factory and ineligible to compete, flew hors concours.

Early in 1913 the Royal Aircraft Factory completed the BS 1/SE 2, the world's first single-seat scout. Others soon followed suit, Sopwith producing its Tabloid, Bristol its Scout and Martinsyde its S.1, all of which entered service in 1914.

On 1 April, the Daily Mail announced a £10,000 prize for non-stop transatlantic flight, but none of the intended entrants was completed before the outbreak of war. At Hendon in north London in September the Avro 504 made its public debut. It became a classic trainer, serving in large numbers worldwide well into the 1930s.

Lees verder op http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/01/02/320372/flight-100-history-1909-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 16:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

April 13, 1918 -- Orders to move again. Packed up the gun stores and the right section moved away to relieve an RIA battery near Roslincourt. Pretty fair gun pits and we slept in a deep dugout. On guard at night from 1 a.m. to 3 a.m. Went to bed. Fritz was shelling with gas and HE during the night.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm/n/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/bottomley/april1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 16:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Week In Military/Aviation History

13 April 1918 - Teniente Luis C. Candelaria of the Argentinean Army makes the first aerial crossing of the Andes. He flies the 120 miles from Zapala, Argentina to Cunço in Chile in a Morane-Saulnier Parasol monoplane, reaching an altitude of 13,000 feet to clear the higher peaks.

13 April 1919 - Lieutenant Roget arrives in Rome after a 9 hour 40 minute flight from Paris.

http://www.warbirds-online.org/2010/04/11/this-week-in-militaryaviation-history-12-18-april/
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April 13, 1919: The Amritsar Massacre

In Amritsar, India's holy city of the Sikh religion, British and Gurkha troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, a city park. Most of those killed were Indian nationalists meeting to protest the British government's forced conscription of Indian soldiers and the heavy war tax imposed against the Indian people.

A few days earlier, in reaction to a recent escalation in protests, Amritsar was placed under martial law and handed over to British Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, who banned all meetings and gatherings in the city. On April 13, the day of the Sikh Baisakhi festival, tens of thousands of people came to Amritsar from surrounding villages to attend the city's traditional fairs. Thousands of these people, many unaware of Dyer's recent ban on public assemblies, convened at Jallianwala Bagh, where a nationalist demonstration was being held. Dyer's troops surrounded the park and without warning opened fire on the crowd, killing several hundred and wounding more than a thousand. Dyer, who in a subsequent investigation admitted to ordering the attack for its "moral effect" on the people of the region, had his troops continue the murderous barrage until all their artillery was exhausted. British authorities later removed him from his post.

The massacre stirred nationalist feelings across India and had a profound effect on one of the movement's leaders, Mohandas Gandhi. During World War I, Gandhi had actively supported the British in the hope of winning partial autonomy for India, but after the Amritsar Massacre he became convinced that India should accept nothing less than full independence. To achieve this end, Gandhi began organizing his first campaign of mass civil disobedience against Britain's oppressive rule.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/4/13?catId=6

AMRITSAR MASSACRE APRIL 13,1919 -INDIA- HUNDREDS KILLED BY BRITISH SOLDIERS AT A PEACEFUL PROTEST

A little over a year before the events of “BLOODY SUNDAY” 1920 in Ireland took place a similar event occurred in India which at the time was part of the British Empire. This was The Amritsar Massacre perpetrated by the British which took place on April 13,1919. As with “BLOODY SUNDAY” the crowd fired upon were unarmed civilians & in both cases the repercussions were damaging to Britain’s reputation & led to an increase of opposition to British rule & would ultimately be their undoing in both Ireland & India respectively.

“Politically , as well as economically, the years after World War 1 proved depressing to India's high expectations. Indian soldiers returned from battlefronts to find that back home they were no longer treated as invaluable allies but reverted immediately to the status of "natives." Most of the soldiers recruited during the war had come from Punjab, which, with only 7 percent of India's population, had supplied over 50 percent of the combatant troops
shipped abroad. It is thus hardly surprising that the flash-point of the postwar violence that shook India in the spring of 1919 was Punjab province.

April 13, British General R. E. H. Dyer marched 50 armed soldiers into the Jallianwallah Bagh (a small park surrounded by high walls) that afternoon and ordered them to open fire on a protest meeting attended by some 10,000 unarmed men, women, and children. Dyer gave no warning of his intention to open fire. It was a Sunday, and many neighboring peasants had come to Amritsar to celebrate a Hindu festival, gathering in the Bagh, which was a place for holding cattle fairs and other festivities.

Dyer kept his troops firing for about ten minutes, until they had shot 1650 rounds of ammunition into the terror-stricken crowd. The crowd had no way of escaping the Bagh, since the soldiers blocked the only exit. About 400 civilians were killed and some 1200 wounded. They were left without medical attention by Dyer, who hastily removed his troops to the camp. Sir Michael O'Dwyer fully approved of and supported the Jallianwallah Bagh massacre, and on April 15, 1919, issued a martial law decree for the entire Punjab.

Dyer was relieved of his command, but he returned to England as a hero to many British admirers, who presented him with a collected purse of thousands of pounds and a jeweled sword inscribed "Saviour of the Punjab."

Lees verder op http://gordspoetryfactory.blogspot.com/2005/06/amritsar-massacre-april-13-1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 13 APRIL 1916

MARTINEUX, Lieutenant H R, V.C., (Boer War), died in Dunedin Hospital on Saturday, aged 42, Otago Infantry Battalion. He had been invalided home on the Maheno. His widow and child reside at Hwopstad, Orange Free State.

McLEOD, Private Robert Clarence of Tuapeka Mouth, received the Distinguished Conduct Medal at a public meeting in the Lawrence Town Hall last week, for gallantry and devotion to duty at Cape Helles.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn13apr1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Execution of the day

13 April 1920 – Frederick Rothwell Holt

An ex-World War I soldier put his crime down to post-traumatic stress disorder, but he still ended up on the gallows. Lieutenant Frederick Rothwell Holt had murdered his girlfriend, then tried to plead insanity. But there was a huge question of a £5,000 life insurance policy hanging over the case…

Point Breaks
An invalid following the war, Holt retired from the army and shacked up Kitty Breaks in Lancashire, who’d split up from her husband. They had a tidy £500 income per year, which Holt had inherited and things were seemingly going well. So it was a bit of shocker that, on Christmas 1919, when everyone should be preparing for the wintery festivities, Breaks’ body turned up on the beach at Lytham St Annes, near Blackpool. She’d been shot three times.

Footprints nearby matched his boots and his gun and a bloodied glove were also found buried near the corpse.

On this evidence, Holt was hauled in for questioning and it transpired that just a month before the murder, Breaks had taken out life insurance to the tune of £5,000, and guess who was the sole beneficiary? Holt: and that formed the basis of the prosecution. He stood accused of living beyond his means and killing his girlfriend so he could pocket the payout.

A lad insane
Holt, on the other hand, accused the police of setting mad dogs on him and trying to kill him with germ-ridden flies and poison him with gas. In other words, he was claiming post-traumatic stress and depression. However his plea of insanity fell on deaf ears and the jury found in favour of the prosecution.

He then appealed asserting that he’d caught syphilis while serving in Malaya and this had tipped him over the edge. But the Home Office refused to entertain the idea after he was checked over by psychiatrists.

Holt was executed, aged 32, at Strangeways in Manchester by John Ellis.

http://eotd.wordpress.com/2008/04/13/13-april-1920-frederick-rothwell-holt/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13 April 1920, Commons Sitting

GOVERNMENT WAR STORES (SURPLUS).


HC Deb 13 April 1920 vol 127 cc1498-9

Commander Viscount CURZON asked the Secretary of State for War what are the number and calibre of artillery sold to Allied and other Powers and the names of the Powers to whom this artillery has been sold or is in process of negotiation for sale; and what is the total amount so realised.

Sir A. WILLIAMSON I regret it is not in the public interest to give the information asked for by the Noble Lord.

Mr. BILLING Has the League of Nations been consulted as to the desirability of disposing of these guns, or do the Government propose to consult it?

Sir A. WILLIAMSON I am not able to answer that question.

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY Is it the policy of the Government for which the right hon. Gentleman speaks to sell cheap this artillery so that minor Powers may be encouraged to keep up armaments which we ourselves will have to meet by corresponding armaments?

Sir A. WILLIAMSON It is the policy to realise certain armaments which they do not require and they are doing so in the interests of the taxpayer.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/13/government-war-stores-surplus
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wireless Age, April 1914



The Wireless Age is one of the very earliest radio communication magazines, running monthly from 1913 to 1930. The magazine was initially published by the Marconi Publishing Corporation, with early mastheads listing it as "incorporating the Marconigraph." By 1920 it was being published by Wireless Press, Inc., in New York, London, and Sydney.

http://www.g-books.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=222
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Dauermarkenserie Germania, Erstausgabetag: 13. April 1915



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:DR_1915_85_II_Germania.jpg
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The German submarine U 36 seen going round the bows of the merchent ship Batavia V, circa 13 April 1915.



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U_36_in_Apr_1915.jpeg
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Aims of the German Supreme Command - 13 April 1915

From early 1915 the Chief of German General Staff, General Erich von Falkenhayn, had decided that, for the foreseeable future, it was not going to be possible to force a decision against the enemy on his western battle front. By early April he had focused his attention on the possibility of striking a blow against Russia, with the aim of permanently crippling her offensive powers.

General Erich von Falkenhayn, Chief of the German General Staff.
On 13th April 1915 General von Falkenhayn sent a telegram(1) from his headquarters in Charleville-Mézières to General von Conrad at Teschen on the Eastern Front. It was a plan of operations for a breakthrough of the Russian line on the Galician front. The plan was shrouded in secrecy and would involve German and Austro-Hungarian troops.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/german-aims.htm
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Battle of Celaya

The Battle of Celaya, which occurred near Celaya, Guanajuato on 13 April 1915, was a battle of the Mexican Revolution.

The Conventionist forces under Pancho Villa were badly defeated by forces under the command of Álvaro Obregón, who supported the presidency of Venustiano Carranza. Villa lost around 4,000 men killed in frontal attacks. He also lost 1,000 horses, 5,000 rifles, and 32 cannons. Approximately 6,000 of his men were taken prisoner. Of those captured, 120 of Villa's officers were executed.

In this battle, Obregón developed a defense "in depth" that proved very effective against the offense-heavy cavalry charges and artillery techniques used at that time, and was based on his study of the trench conflict (World War I) then raging in Europe. Although Obregón's lines weakened at times, he had sufficient reserves to bolster it at any point.

Villa had committed all his men to the attack and was unable to exploit any area of weakness or to protect his flanks which were enveloped by Obregón's cavalry.

The battle was a turning point in the future of Villa, the Revolution and Mexican history in the 20th century. Villa was never able to recover his losses, and with that lost most of his political and social influence.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Celaya
Zie ook http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/army/p/panchovilla.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 19:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Memorandum on the enlistment of Negroes in Canadian Expeditionary Force, 13 April 1916
Sir Willoughby Garnons Gwatkin, KCMG, CB - Chief of the General Staff

1. Nothing is to be gained by blinking facts. The civilized negro is vain and imitative; in Canada he is not being impelled to enlist by a high sense of duty; in the trenches he is not likely to make a good fighter; and the average white man will not associate with him on terms of equality. Not a single commanding officer in Military District No. 2 is willing to accept a coloured platoon as part of his battalion (H.Q. 297-1-29); and it would be humiliating to the coloured men themselves to serve in a battalion where they were not wanted.

2. In France, in the firing line, there is no place for a black battalion, C.E.F. It would be eyed askance; it would crowd out a white battalion; and it would be difficult to re-inforce.

3. Nor could it be left in England and used as a draft-giving depot; for there would be trouble if negroes were sent to the front for the purpose of reinforcing white battalions; and, if they are any good at all, they would resent being kept in Canada for the purpose of finding guards, etc.

4. It seems, therefore, that three courses are practicable:

(a) As at present, to allow Negroes to enlist, individually, into white battalions at the discretion of commanding officers.

(b) To allow them to form one or more labour battalions. Negroes from Nova Scotia, for example, would not be unsuitable for the purpose.

(c) To ask the British Government if it can make use of a black battalion, C.E.F., on special duty overseas (e.g. in Egypt): but the battalion will not be ready before the fall, and, if only on account of its relatively extravagant rates of pay, it will not mix well with other troops.

5. I recommend courses (a) and (b).

W. GWatkin
Major-General
Chief of the General Staff

13.4.16

Note: Lt-Gen. Sir Willoughby Garnons Gwatkin, KCMG, CB, was Chief of the General Staff 1913-1920. The Chief of the General Staff was the senior officer in the Canadian Army at that time. (In 1920, the government decided to create a Canadian Air Force. The first step in this process was the appointment of an Inspector-General. Major-General Sir Willoughby Gwatkin, who had served as Chief of the General Staff in Ottawa during World War One, was appointed to the position in 1920 with the rank of Air Vice Marshal.)

http://www.alts.net/ns1625/conbat2b.html
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9th Australian Light Horse bring in Turkish prisoners in the Sinai, 13 April 1916



http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/ww1.asp
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1916 April 13: Woodrow Wilson, A Jefferson Day Address

"The immortality of Thomas Jefferson does not lie in any one of his achievements, or in the series of his achievements, but in his attitude towards mankind and the conception which he sought to realize in action of the service owed by America to the rest of the world...Thomas Jefferson was a great leader of men because he understood and interpreted the spirits of men...It is not a circumstance without significance that Jefferson felt, perhaps more than any other American of his time, except Benjamin Franklin, his close kinship with like thinking spirits everywhere else in the civilized world. His comradeship was as intimate with the thinkers of France as with the frontiersmen of America, and this rather awkward, rather different man carried about with him a sort of type of what all men should with to be who love liberty and seek to lead their fellow men along those difficult paths of achievement. The only way we can honor Thomas Jefferson is by illumining his spirit and following his example. His example was an example of organization and concerted action for the rights of men, first in America and then, by America's example, everywhere in the world. And the thing that interested Jefferson is the only thing that ought to interest us...If you are ready, you have inherited the spirit of Jefferson, who recognized the men in France and the men in Germany who were doing the liberal thinking of their day as just as much citizens of the great work of liberty as he was himself, and who was ready in every conception he had to join hands across the water or across any other barrier with those who held those high conceptions of liberty which had brought the United States into existence."

http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/notable-comments-jefferson-20th-century
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Lt. Archibald Herbert Horner, East Ontario Regiment, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry



Killed in Action 13th April 1916
Buried Menin Road Cemetery, Ypres

Archibald Horner was a career soldier who entered the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst in 1899, having been at the school from 1890 to 1898. His parents, Edward and Blanche were landowners in Suffolk and resided on a massive farm at Pebmarsh, just outside Ipswich.

Horner was commissioned into Pagets Horse as a 2nd Lt. in 1899 and he fought in the South African War. He resigned his commission in 1907 and emigrated to Canada, where he worked in the timber industry.

A giant of a man, standing at well over 6'7", and weighing more than 20 stone, he was an exceptional heavyweight boxer, and throughout 1916 was the All Services heavyweight champion.

He rejoined the Army in January 1915 and soon obtained a commission, first as a 2nd Lt. and then as a Lieutenant. He was killed in action on the 13th April 1916 in the trenches near Hooge. He was killed by a single shot to the throat from a German sniper.

His commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel HC Buller wrote to his father and stated: "Your son was killed in the trenches by a sniper. Sniping by the Germans has been very active in this part of the line, and it is believed that he may have exposed himself above the parapet. He was standing at the time he was hit near the dugout he used as his company headquarters. In the absence of Captain Jones, your son was commanding 1 Company. His loss will be deeply felt by us all, he always proved himself to be a most cheery and capable officer and was liked by all."

http://www.bloxhamschoolwardead.co.uk/id4.html
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AMRITSAR MASSACRE APRIL 13, 1919 - THE BRUTALITY OF BRITISH TYRANNY IN INDIA



http://gordspoetryfactory.blogspot.com/2005/06/amritsar-massacre-april-13-1919.html
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"The Pride of Seattle", the USS Nebraska BB-14



When war was declared 6 April 1917, Nebraska was undergoing repairs at the Boston Navy Yard, attached to the 3d Division, Battleship Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. On 13 April 1917, she departed Boston to engage in maneuvers and battle practice with the fleet in the Chesapeake Bay area. She operated along the east coast; primarily training armed guard crews for American merchantmen, until entering the Norfolk Navy Yard 15 April 1918 for repairs.

http://www.greatwhitefleet.info/USS_Nebraska.html
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Operation Order 66, 13 April 1917



http://www.therooms.ca/regiment/part2_the_battle_of_arras.asp
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Late Lieut. Col. M. J. Whitty, M. D.-Local Associations
The Waterford News - 13th of April 1917, Page 8



LATE LIEUT.COL. M. J. WHITTY, M.D.-LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS.

The late Lieutenant-Colonel M. J. Whitty, M.D., who died recently in Liverpool, was born in Carrick-on-Suir about 54 years ago. He was a brother of the late Dr. P. J. Whitty, who was one of the best known and most respected medical men in Waterford a quarter of a century ago, and of Mrs. Cleary, Carrick-on-Suir. Two other brothers of the deceased joined the Church, and one of them was a very popular member of the Vincentian Order and was stationed at Castleknock for some years. The late Lieutenant-Colonel Whitty studied medicine first at the Queen's College, Cork, and took out his M.D. degree in Dublin. He joined the R.A.M.C. at the age of 23, and saw service in Hong Kong, Capetown, and Egypt and was for a number of years stationed at the military barracks at Cahir, where he was very popular. For some years past he was stationed at Liverpool, and his name appeared a short time ago in the " Gazette" among those who had done valuable service during the war. Deceased was a gentleman of a very quiet and unassuming disposition. and his skill as a medical man and thorough devotion to duty won for him the respect and esteem of all who knew him. He had five sons, four of whom have been in the war. One of them, who got the Military Cross, was killed in action.
The interment took place at Yew Tree Cemetery, Liverpool, after Requiem Mass a t the Church of St. Philip Neri, and the military funeral was very largely attended. The chief mourners were Captain R. Whitty, Welsh Regiment; Captain H. M. Whitty A.S.C. ; Master Bryan Whitty, Mr. Richard Cleary, Carrick-on-Suir; Rev. Father Nolan, C.M.: and Dr. Ryan, Plymouth.


http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/history-heritage/pages-in-history/newspaper-digitisation-pi/1917/late-lieut.-col.-m.-j.-wh/
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Killed in Action
The Waterford News - 13th of April 1917



KILLED I N ACTION.

Mrs. McGuire, 89 Lower Yellow Road, Waterford, has received official notification from the War Office that her son, Private William McGuire, who joined the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers eighteen months ago, was killed on 14th March. He fell in action, and was laid to rest in the British cemetery at Belloy. Lieut. F. G. Hayes has written to Mrs. McGuire saying that by his Majesty’s command he forwards a messsage of sympathy from the King and Queen
.

http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/history-heritage/pages-in-history/newspaper-digitisation-pi/1917/killed-in-action/
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LENIN, ON TACTICS
Written between 8 and 13 April 1917

On 4 April 1917, I had occasion to make a report on the subject indicated in the title, first, at a meeting of Bolsheviks in Petrograd. Marxism requires of us a strictly exact and objectively verifiable analysis of the relations of classes and of the concrete features peculiar to each historical situation. I define �the specific feature of the present situation in Russia� as a period of transition from the first stage of the revolution to the second. What, then, is the first stage? It is the passing of State power to the bourgeoisie. Before the February-March revolution of 1917, State power in Russia was in the hands of one old class, namely, the feudal landed nobility, headed by Nicholas Romanov. After the revolution, the power is in the hands of a different class, a new class, namely, the bourgeoisie. The passing of State power from one class to another is the first, the principal, the basic sign of a revolution, both in the strictly scientific and in the practical political meaning of that term.

According to the old way of thinking, the rule of the bourgeoisie could and should be followed by the rule of the proletariat and the peasantry, by their dictatorship. In real life, however, things have already turned out differently; there has been an extremely original, novel and unprecedented interlacing of the one with the other. We have side by side, both the rule of the bourgeoisie (the government of Lvov and Guchkov) and a revolutionary-democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry, which is voluntarily ceding power to the bourgeoisie.

Possibly the peasantry may seize all the land and all the power. But there is also another possibility; it is possible that the peasants will take the advice of the petty bourgeois party of the Socialist-Revolutionaries, which has yielded to the influence of the bourgeoisie and has adopted a defencist stand.

To separate the proletarian elements of the Soviets from the petty bourgeois elements right now, immediately and irrevocably, is to give correct expression to the interests of the movement in either of two possible events: in the event that Russia will yet experience a special �dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry� independent of the bourgeoisie, and in the event that the petty bourgeoisie will not be able to tear itself away from the bourgeoisie and will oscillate eternally (that is, until socialism is established) between us and it.

I am deeply convinced that the Soviets will make the independent activity of the masses a reality more quickly and effectively than will a parliamentary republic. They will more effectively, more practically and more correctly decide what steps can be taken towards socialism and how these steps should be taken. Control over a bank, the merging of all banks into one, is not yet socialism, but it is a step towards socialism. What compels such steps? Famine. Economic disorganisation. Imminent collapse. The horrors of the wounds inflicted on mankind by the war.

http://www.thesundayindian.com/article.php?category_id=14&article_id=320
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Captain Roy Goldrick, 33rd Battalion, of Parramattta, New South Wales, letter, 13 April 1917

"One of our men … went suddenly demented. The s.s. [shell shock] had an electrifying effect upon him … [he] dropped his rifle and rushed out over the front line trench into no mans land, the Germans blazing away at him: then he turned and ran down between the lines of the two armies; no one seemed able to bring him down. Then he turned again and raced into our system, down overland through the support trenches … where men from the Battalion pursued him, overpowered him, and forcibly rolled him in blankets and tied him up with rope … he was unwounded but evacuated raving mad."

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/zivy-crater/index.html
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Thomas Tannatt Pryce

Thomas Tannatt Pryce VC MC & Bar (17 January 1886 – 13 April 1918) was a Welsh recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

He was born at The Hague and educated at Shrewsbury School. He was a married man, originally from Montgomeryshire. He originally served with the Gloucestershire Regiment and transferred to the Grenadier Guards.

Pryce was 32 years old and an acting captain in the 4th Battalion, Grenadier Guards, British Army, (S.R.) during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11 April 1918 at Vieux-Berquin, France, Captain Pryce led two platoons in a successful attack on a village. Early next day he was occupying a position with some 40 men, the rest having become casualties. He beat off four enemy attacks during the day, but by evening the enemy were within 60 yards of his trench. A bayonet charge led by Captain Pryce drove them back some 100 yards, but he had only 17 men left with no ammunition when yet another attack came. He again led a bayonet charge and was last seen engaged in a fierce hand-to-hand struggle against overwhelming odds.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Guards Regimental Headquarters (Grenadier Guards RHQ), London, England.

Pryce's name is recorded on the Ploegsteert Memorial to the Missing in Berks Cemetery Extension near Ploegsteert in Hainaut, Belgium. He has no known grave.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Tannatt_Pryce

War Office, 22nd May, 1918.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously
pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria
Cross to the undermentioned Officers, Non-commissioned
Officer, and Men:—

Lt. (A./Capt.) Thomas Tannatt Pryce, M.C.,
G. Gds.
For most conspicuous bravery, devotion to
duty, and self-sacrifice when in command of
a flank on the left of the Grenadier Guards.
Having been ordered to attack a -village,
he personally led forward two platoons, working
from house to house, killing some thirty
of the enemy, seven of whom he killed himself.
The next day he was occupying a position
with some thirty to forty men, the remainder
of his company having become casualties. As
early as 8.15 a.m. his left flank was surrounded
and the enemy was enfilading him.
He was attacked no less than four times
during the day, and each time beat off the
hostile attack, killing many of the enemy.
Meanwhile, the enemy brought up three
field guns to within 300 yards of hisiine, and
were firing over open sights and knocking
his trench in. At 6.15 p.m. the enemy had
worked to within sixty yards of his trench.
He then called on his men, telling them to
cheer and charge the enemy and fight to the
last. Led by Captain Pryce, they left their
trench and drove back the enemy, with the
bayonet, some 100 yards. Half an hour later
the enemy had again approached in stronger
force. By this time Captain Pryce had only
17 men left, and every round of his ammunition
had been fired. Determined that there
should be no surrender, he once again led his
men forward in a bayonet charge, and was
last seen engaged in a fierce hand-to-hand
struggle with overwhelming numbers of the
enemy.
With some forty men he had held back at
least one enemy battalion for over ten hours.
His company undoubtedly stopped the advance
through the British line, and thus had
great influence on the battle.

http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/30697/supplements/6057 &
http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/30697/supplements/6058
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Army Telegram 13/04/1918



This telegram informs the family that Charles was Killed in Action on 22nd March 1918, the second day of the German Spring Offensive. The main thrust of the German advance was in the area south of Saint Quentin, where the allied defences were at their weakest, and it was here that Charles' regiment was stationed and working as a dismounted unit in support of the infantry.

The German attack began on March 21st and resulted in heavy casualties; on the 22nd the Regimental War Diary records that the 20th Hussars retreated across the Crozat Canal, marched to Faillouel, then to sand-pits between there and Jussy, which the Germens entered later in the day. There is no mention of any action that day by the 20th Hussars but the casualty list records three Other Ranks KIA, one of whom must have been Charles Ringham.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/linjohnpics/4932617478/
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Message in a matchbox



George Cavan was a Company Sergeant Major in the 9th (Glasgow Highlanders) Battalion Highland Light Infantry. He lived with his family, his wife Jean and three daughters, in the Drill Hall in Carluke, Scotland. While away at training camp the orders came through to dispatch to France. The train he was on with his troops went through his home station but did not stop there. He threw out onto the platform a matchbox containing a note to his family. On one side was the name of his wife and on the other the message to the family. Someone picked up the matchbox and delivered it to the family. George was killed just a few days after arriving at the front in France on the 13th April, 1918. He lies in an unmarked grave but is commemorated on the Ploegsteert Memorial.

http://thegreatwararchive.blogspot.com/2008/05/message-in-matchbox.html
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George Thomas Sydney Rumball



George Thomas Sydney Rumball was born in Colchester on 18th February 1896.

As his father’s first name was also George, he was known as Sydney. His was a military family; George in 1896 being a Sergeant in the 1st Battalion Kings Dragoon Guards, later also winning an M.C. and rising to the rank of “Quarter Master & Honorary Captain” in the 24th Battalion The Welsh Regiment before the war ended.

During his early teenage years the family lived in Earls Court, London. Sydney worked as a clerk for the newly nationalised General Post Office’s telephone engineering and manufacturing facility at the Mount Pleasant factory. Initially, he joined the Civil Service Army Cadets (March to July 1914), but left due to “lack of time for drills due to studies”. The studies took the form of working to successfully obtain a “Certificate Of Civil Service Commission”; something roughly equivalent to today’s secondary education.

In March 1915 aged 19 Sydney enlisted as a private in the RAMC, serving in France from August 1915 based at the 33rd Casualty Clearing Station in France.

A year later in August 1916 he applied for a regular army commission; being accepted as an officer cadet in October 1916; passing-out and being gazetted as a temporary 2nd Lieutenant on 2nd April 1917.

Aged 21, he joined the 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers near Arras on 26th May 1917. He would probably have been drafted in as a part of a batch of replacements to cover recent losses; in April 1917 the 29th Division had fought in the Battle of Arras; in particular at Monchy le Preux on 14th April 1917.

In early August 1917 within three months of joining his battalion and still aged only 21, he was awarded a Military Cross “for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He led patrols on four consecutive nights, returning on each occasion with valuable and accurate information. The consistent example of courage and determination which he set inspired all his men to exert themselves to the utmost. Boesinghe sector (Belgium) 7th to 10th August 1917”.

The site of this action was a small salient in the German lines to the north west of Ypres; a feature clearly visible on trench maps and marked as Caesar’s Nose. The site is next to the present day small 68-grave CWWG “Welsh Cemetery (Caesar’s Nose)”. Nowadays there is a useful map orientation board at the site, on the track that leads to the Welsh Cemetery. This orientation board points out the location of the Caesar’s Nose salient.

During the next eight months leading up to his death on 13th April 1918, Sydney took part in the following major actions:

■Third Ypres: Battle Of Langemarck – 15th & 16th August 1917.
■Third Ypres: Battle Of Poelcapelle – 9th & 10th October 1917.
■Cambrai – 20th & 21st November 1917. Sydney was “seconded to brigade HQ” for this action; he was a part of the “10% left out of battle” to be used as a nucleus for rebuilding the battalion should it suffer large loss.
■Forth Ypres: The Lys – 11th to 13th April 1918.

http://nickpowley.com/wordpress/?page_id=57 & http://nickpowley.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Scans-007-11.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 20:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women in World War I Yeomen - Artifacts: World War I Identification Bracelet



Issued to Yeoman (F) Josephine Mitchell, 13 April 1918.
This tag was prepared by Mr. Tayor, of the Navy Department.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h65000/h65588.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

OLD POSTCARD, THEME, Galante and women, BARCELONA 13 APRIL 1919



http://www.allcollection.net/old-postcard-theme-galante-and-women-barcelona-13-april-1919~x24017345
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Palmsonntagsputsch, 13. April 1919

Gescheiterter Putsch der regierungstreuen "Republikanischen Schutztruppe" am Palmsonntag, 13. April 1919, in München. Der Putsch führte zum Sturz der ersten Räterepublik und zur Etablierung der kommunistischen zweiten Räterepublik.

Entscheidung zum Sturz der Räteregierung - Bald nach der Ausrufung der Räterepublik hatte der Kommandant der Republikanischen Schutztruppe, Alfred Seyffertitz, die Entscheidung gefällt, die Münchner Räteregierung abzusetzen und zu verhaften. Obwohl die Pläne nochmals umgestoßen wurden, erreichte Seyffertitz das Einverständnis der Regierung Hoffmann, die er am 10./11. April 1919 in Bamberg aufsuchte.

Verlauf des Putsches - Der Putsch begann im Morgengrauen des 13. April 1919, dem Palmsonntag. Die Republikanische Schutztruppe verhaftete zwar einige Mitglieder des Zentralrats. Entscheidende Protagonisten wie Ernst Toller (1893-1939), Gustav Landauer (1870-1919) und die Führung der KPD konnten jedoch entkommen. Wider Erwarten schloss sich der größte Teil der Münchner Truppenverbände dem Umsturzversuch nicht an. Räte und KPD riefen zu Demonstrationen gegen den Putsch auf. In Hoffnung auf Verstärkung von außen zog sich die Truppe auf den Hauptbahnhof zurück. Die schweren Kämpfe (21 Todesopfer) dort endeten mit der Niederlage der Schutztruppe gegen 21 Uhr.

Folge: Ausrufung der kommunistischen Räterepublik - Der Palmsonntagsputsch war der Auslöser für die Ausrufung der kommunistischen zweiten Räterepublik. Die Putschisten hatten versucht, ihren Umsturz auf einer Versammlung der Betriebs- und Soldatenräte durch einen Beschluss absichern zu lassen. Nachdem dort Nachrichten über die Kämpfe am Hauptbahnhof eintrafen, konnten die Kommunisten unter Eugen Leviné (1883-1919) die Versammlung auf ihre Seite bringen und eine kommunistische Räteregierung etablieren.

http://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/artikel/artikel_44355
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13. April 1918: Die mit den finnischen Weißgardisten verbündeten deutschen Truppen unter General
Rüdiger von der Goltz erobern im finnischen Bürgerkrieg nach zweitägigen Straßenkämpfen Helsinki.




Das kaiserliche Deutschland hatte am Anfang des Bürgerkrieges ein gespaltenes Verhältnis zu Finnland. Es war im deutschen Interesse, sich in der Nachbarschaft Russlands ein befreundetes bürgerliches Land zu sichern, andererseits konnte die offene Unterstützung der Weißen den Friedensprozess von Brest-Litowsk gefährden. Die Anerkennung Finnlands durch Russland und die spätere Unterzeichnung des Friedensvertrages, in dem sich Russland zur Evakuierung Finnlands verpflichtete, erleichterten die Situation. Am 7. März 1918 unterzeichneten die finnischen Gesandten in Berlin, Edvard Hjelt und Rafael Erich, einen Friedensvertrag mit Deutschland. Wenig später traf der soeben aus Helsinki geflüchtete Svinhufvud in Berlin ein und bat um die Entsendung von Hilfstruppen.

Die Inanspruchnahme deutscher Hilfe war im weißen Finnland umstritten. Mannerheim hatte diese wiederholt abgelehnt, weil er eine Abhängigkeit Finnlands von Deutschland fürchtete. Auch der Rumpfsenat in Vaasa weigerte sich, die Vereinbarungen Svinhufvuds offiziell zu bestätigen. Der Streit wurde schließlich beigelegt, indem die deutschen Truppen formell dem Oberbefehl Mannerheims unterstellt wurden. Am 3. April 1918 landete die Ostseedivision der deutschen Armee mit 9500 Mann unter Generalmajor Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz in Hanko sowie am 7. April weitere 2500 Mann unter Oberst Otto von Brandenstein von Tallinn aus in Loviisa

http://www.derkaiserkommt-bevensen.de/blog/index.php?entry=entry090413-061259
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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