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10 Maart

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2006 7:26    Onderwerp: 10 Maart Reageer met quote

March 10

1917 Turkish troops begin evacuation of Baghdad


Less than two weeks after their victorious recapture of the strategically placed city of Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, British troops under the regional command of Sir Frederick Stanley Maude bear down on Baghdad, causing their Turkish opponents to begin a full-scale evacuation of the city on the evening of March 10, 1917.

Shortly after receiving control of regional operations in Mesopotamia in the summer of 1916, Maude began to reorganize and re-supply his troops in preparation for a renewed offensive. The central target of the operation would be the city of Kut, which had been captured by the Turks in April 1916 along with 10,000 British and Indian soldiers under the command of Sir Charles Townshend, a devastating defeat for Allied operations in the region. In January 1917, Maude’s 150,000 troops set out from the regional command headquarters at Basra, located south of Kut near the junction of the Tigris with the Euphrates River, launching the offensive that would culminate in the recapture of Kut on February 24.

In the wake of their success at Kut, Maude’s forces paused briefly while waiting for confirmation from headquarters in London to continue their offensive. Operations were not renewed until March 5—a pause that gave Turkish commander in chief Khalil Pasha some time to consider his options for mounting a defense of Baghdad, the capital of the Ottoman Empire’s southern region. In the end, Pasha was indecisive—after first beginning preparations for an offensively minded forward assault on approaching Allied forces, he decided instead to fall back and concentrate his troops near Baghdad itself. He therefore stationed the Turkish Sixth Army some 35 miles to the south of the city, near the junction of the Tigris with the Diyala River.

In the absence of significant reserves, the Turks were vastly outnumbered, with only 9,500 soldiers facing 45,000 British and Indian troops. Maude’s troops reached the Diyala on March 8, mounting their first assault on the Turkish positions the next morning, which Pasha and his men successfully repelled. After struggling to cross the fast-moving Diyala, Maude decided to shift his troops and cross the river at a more northern point. Alerted to enemy movements by German reconnaissance aircraft, Pasha mirrored his movements, sending the bulk of his forces to meet the Allied soldiers. He left a single regiment to hold the original defensive position at the Diyala, which was quickly and decisively crushed by British and Indian forces with a sudden attack on March 10. Stunned, Pasha ordered his troops to retreat. By the end of the day, the evacuation of Baghdad was underway.

After marching more than 100 miles in 15 days, Maude’s troops entered Baghdad on March 11 without a struggle, taking 9,000 prisoners from the retreating Ottoman army amid cheers from the city’s 140,000 occupants. The Allied victory in Baghdad marked only the beginning of the struggle over who would control the oil-rich region of Mesopotamia (the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, now Iraq and eastern Syria). The British government had earlier promised a number of Arab leaders that their people would receive their independence if they rebelled against Turkish rule; a subsequent uprising in June 1916 was led by Faisal Husein and partially engineered by the British, including Colonel T.E. Lawrence (later known as “Lawrence of Arabia”).

After World War I ended in November 1918, however, the Treaty of Versailles and the newly created League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to govern in Mesopotamia, and the British and French governments issued a joint declaration stating their intention to work towards establishing independent Arab governments in the former Ottoman states. This was not enough, however, for the Arabs in Mesopotamia, who began an armed uprising in 1920 against British occupation forces in Baghdad and other areas. After subduing the revolt at great expense—£40 million—the British government decided to give up its mandate, drawing up a provisional government for Iraq that included a council of Arab ministers under the supervision of a British high commissioner. In August 1921, Faisal Husein won 96 percent of the votes and was elected king of the new Iraqi nation.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2006 7:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1915 RFC makes first bombing raids against enemy railway installations and divisional HQ as part of the Allied offensive at Neuves Chappelle. This is the first attack planned using maps prepared solely from intelligence gathered by aerial photographic reconnaissance

Births
1 1891 Leslie Burbidge
2 1891 Joseph-Henri Guiguet
3 1892 William Barnes
4 1894 Joseph de Sevin
5 1895 Marziale Cerutti
6 1896 Gregory Blaxland
7 1897 Earl Hand
8 1897 Raven von Barnekow
9 1898 Jean Pezon
10 1899 Laurence Pearson

Deaths
1 1918 Hans-Joachim Buddecke
2 1919 Kurt Jacob
3 1980 Euan Dickson

Claims
1 1917 Bruno Loerzer #4
2 1917 Kurt Schönfelder u/c
3 1918 Richard Howard #7
4 1918 Geoffrey Hughes #2 #3
5 1918 William Alexander #15
6 1918 William Brown #3
7 1918 Richard Dawes #5
8 1918 Austin Fleming #6
9 1918 Donald MacLaren #2
10 1918 John Manuel #7
11 1918 Stanley Rosevear #13
12 1918 Arthur Whealy #10
13 1918 John Bateman #2
14 1918 Frederick Britnell #1
15 1918 William Chisam #4
16 1918 Edward Clear #2
17 1918 Jack Cottle #1
18 1918 Aubrey Ellwood #5
19 1918 Walter Hinchliffe #2
20 1918 George Hodson #1
21 1918 M.B. Kilroy #2
22 1918 Maurice Leblanc-Smith #1
23 1918 Ronald McClintock #1
24 1918 Harold Mellings #7
25 1918 David Stewart #8
26 1918 Lionel de Marmier u/c
27 1918 Hans Bethge #20
28 1918 Franz Hemer #3
29 1918 Franz Schleiff zLg
30 1918 Adolf von Tutschek #27
31 1918 Kurt Wüsthoff #27
32 1918 Albert Waller #2
33 1918 Samuel Kinkead #15
34 1918 St. Cyprian Tayler #8 #9
35 1918 Maxwell Findlay #6

Losses
1 1918 Hans-Joachim Buddecke killed in action; shot down by 3 Naval

http://www.theaerodrome.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

March 10, 1918 -- Sunday lay around in the morning. In the afternoon went to the square to hear a band concert. At night went to a church service. Canon Scott preached. Also a band concert after service. Heard the Glee, Comrade in Arms sung by the members of the band. Went to billet, had supper and to bed.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/Bottomley/march1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

March 10, 1918 #12
Dear Folks:-

Well another week has gone by and our course here is finished. Now we have merely to receive our orders, pack up and go “somewhere.”

Our course here has been very satisfactory, to me at least. It was intended to last two weeks but owing to out late arrival we were compelled to take 12 days work in 9 in order not to hold back the next class which is to start Monday. Of course that meant lots of hard work, but that is what we wanted and we sure did go after it. We had nothing to do, outside of drill (for exercise) in the A.M. and the usual cleaning up and policing, except study machine guns, their habits and customs. We studied only the two guns used in aerial work and as usual we were the first to take this particular course. Our work here has been satisfactory I guess, for the lowest grade received by any of our 24 is 91. As for me, I tried to uphold my usual standard and did better being at the top of the heap with 100 in each course. At that I think I deserved it for I worked like the dickens every night when I should have written you more often. But I know you will overlook that under the circumstances for I have been busy every single minute. Besides class work I have done some good shooting. We were on the range every afternoon, weather permitting and I made several perfect scores.

It has been interesting to be here for we have met officers of all kinds. This is a general school in modern methods of warfare. It is a real place and one has to be a real soldier first, last and all the time. No matter how muddy it is there are no dirty shoes at the morning inspection of quarters and person, even rubber boots must shine. This place is the real thing.

Lees verder op http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/march-11-1918
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Günther Rall

Lieutenant-General Günther Rall (10 March 1918 – 4 October 2009) was the third most successful fighter ace in history. A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat. He achieved a total of 275 victories during World War II: 272 on the Eastern Front, of which 241 were against Soviet fighters. He flew a total of 621 combat missions, was shot down 8 times and was wounded 3 times. He claimed all of his victories in the Messerschmitt Bf 109.

Interessante man... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%BCnther_Rall
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

S.B.Butler Letters 1916 to 1920

As the school year came to a close World War One was heating up for America and Sylvester joined the officers training corps in Plattsburg NY. After receiving his commision he was stationed at Fort Devons in Ayers Mass as an officer in the divisional supply train. In the summer of 1918 he was sent to France where he continued to send letters until his return home in June of 1919.

Camp Devens
March 10, 1918

Dear Mother,

I like this new paper of mine first-rate and thank you very much for it. [note - paper has gone from cream colored to a pale khaki-green] I'm also much obliged for the pie and cake and chocolate sent up by Ralph & also earlier in the week.

All my spare time during the week has gone into the Major's book and I had it nearly ready for him when he came down to-night. He looked it over decidedly hurriedly and authorized its being sent to the printer, but will undoubtedly give the next proof-sheets, when they come back, a much more thorough examination.

I am acting as a sort of a near half adjutant to Lieut. June attending, adjutant's meetings when he is not able to himself, and helping him out on a number of things which come up, such as weekly schedules, letters he wants written, &c. This with my company and the book isn't making life any more like a summer holiday. But the more the merrier, as they say.

Thursday I went to the automobile show in Boston, which Ralph has probably told you about. I only stayed during the day and started back home about four o'clock with Lieut's June, Fox, & Spaulding in the Major's car. Deck wanted to stay in town, go to a show, & come back late, but the rest of us didn't care about it. I'm not strong for mid week parties up to one & two in the morning, with a useless working day as a sequence.

I forgot to acknowledge Dad's lyrical lilt which he sent me week before last. Tell Dad I trust he won't think I'm unappreciative of budding genius.

This will have to be all for to-night, I have a heavy day to-morrow.
Lots of love
Sylvester

http://cromwellbutlers.com/sbb_0318.htm#March101918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CAB 23/2 Minutes of War Cabinet meeting 93, 10 March 1917

[This Document is the Property of His Britannic Majesty's Government.]
Printed for the War Cabinet, March 1917.

SECRET.

WAR CABINET, 93.
------------
Minutes of a Meeting of the War Cabinet held at 10, Downing Street, on Saturday, March 10, 1917, at 11.30 A.M.

Present:
The Right Hon. A. BONAR LAW, M.P. (in the Chair).
The Right Hon. the EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON, K.G., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. The Right Hon. A. HENDERSON, M.P.
The Right Hon. the VISCOUNT MILNER, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

The following were also present:-
The Right Hon. A. J. BALFOUR, O.M., M.P., Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Major-General F. B. MAURICE, C.B., Director of Military Operations.
Lieutenant-Colonel SIR M. P. A. HANKEY, K.C.B., Secretary.

Mesopotamia.
1. THE Director of Military Operations reported that the 3rd Corps, which had replaced the cavalry division in front of the Diala River, had attempted a surprise crossing of that river, but had failed owing to bright moonlight, which had enabled the enemy to discover the attempt. Meanwhile, General Maude's cavalry and the leading division of his 1st Corps had crossed to the right bank of the Tigris below the junction of the Diala, but whether this force would be utilised to recross the Tigris in order to turn the enemy's position, or whether it would advance direct on Bagdad was not as yet known. The whole of General Maude's striking force was now concentrated within the immediate zone of operations.

Operations on the Western Front.
2. The Director of Military Operations read further correspondence* between Field-Marshal Haig and General Nivelle on the subject of the plan of operations of the Allies on the Western front in 1917. He stated that, in view of the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, there was no divergence of opinion between Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig and General Nivelle which could not, in all probability, be adjusted by a personal conference.

The War Cabinet, while noting with satisfaction a more cordial tone in the trend of the correspondence, saw no reason to alter their desire for a Governmental Conference. They directed the Secretary to communicate with the Prime Minister as soon as he received information as to the French reply.

(Initialled) A. B. L.
2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W.,
March 10, 1917.

* As this correspondence is of the most secret character and refers to actual plans of operations it has not been reproduced.

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=CAB_23/2_Minutes_of_War_Cabinet_meeting_93%2C_10_March_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Neuve Chapelle, 1915

Fought between 10-13 March 1915, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle was originally intended to comprise part of a wider Allied offensive in the Artois region.

However, delays in the arrival of relieving British troops for Ypres, owing to a redirection of effort towards Gallipoli, resulted in the attack on Neuve Chapelle being launched as a distinct action in its own right.

The decision to attack Neuve Chapelle, situated north of La Bassee and west of Lille in north-west France, was Sir John French's, Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Whilst Neuve Chapelle was to form the initial target of the assault, French intended to capture the village at Aubers a mile to the east and to press the German defence of Lille. In achieving these aims French wished to reduce the small German salient near Neuve Chapelle.

Lees vooral verder... http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/neuvechapelle.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1916

10 March 1916
Leitenant Pushchin (Zadorni), Russian, Leitenant Shestakov class Destroyer
Hit Bulgarian mine off Varna whilst scouting the harbour for an aborted attack.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk16.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private HJ Smith;7th Battalion The Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry KIA 10 March 1916

From the regimental history of the DCLI:

“Life in the trenches during March was horrible. The weather did its best to make things utterly miserable – frost,rain,sleet and snow coming alternately.After heavy snow had fallen,the sun would come out and melt it,filling the trenches with snow water.The enemy was also extremely active…As an instance of the damage done bu his shellfire,a machine gun and its whole team – with the exception of an NCO, who is reported to have wandered “dazed and wounded” into the lines of another unit ,was buried by the burst of a shell on 10 March”.

Harold James Smith,a 23 year old factory worker from Birmingham,lies entombed in the muddy fields of The Ypres Salient.His name is recorded on Panel 20 of The Menin Gate Memorial.

http://imtheboy.wordpress.com/2009/12/12/lieutenant-hg-evan-jones1st-battalion-the-welch-regiment-kia-16-february-1916-and-private-hj-smith7th-battalion-the-duke-of-cornwalls-light-infantry-kia-10-march-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2010 12:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The raid on Jifjafa -- April 1916

Aircraft from 14 Squadron, RFC based at Ismailia regularly monitored the activity at Jifjafa. On 10 March 1916, a BE 2c reconnaissance aircraft was hit several times by small arms fire.

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+raid+on+Jifjafa+--+April+1916+(Part+1)-a083516776
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rokeby Venus



The Rokeby Venus is a painting by Diego Velázquez (1599–1660), the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age, in the National Gallery, London. Completed between 1647 and 1651, and probably painted during the artist's visit to Italy, the work depicts the goddess Venus in an erotic pose, lying on a bed and looking into a mirror held by the god of sensual love, her son Cupid.

(...) On March 10, 1914, the militant suffragette Mary Richardson walked into the National Gallery in London and attacked Velázquez's canvas with a meat cleaver. Her action was ostensibly provoked by the arrest of fellow suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst the previous day, although there had been earlier warnings of a planned suffragette attack on the collection. Richardson left seven slashes on the painting, causing damage to the area between the figure's shoulders. However, all were successfully repaired by the National Gallery's chief restorer Helmut Ruhemann.

Richardson was sentenced to six months' imprisonment, the maximum allowed for destruction of an artwork. In a statement to the Women's Social and Political Union shortly afterwards, Richardson explained, "I have tried to destroy the picture of the most beautiful woman in mythological history as a protest against the Government for destroying Mrs. Pankhurst, who is the most beautiful character in modern history." She added in a 1952 interview that she "didn't like the way men visitors gaped at it all day long".

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Rokeby_Venus
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 maart

Het is vandaag volgens de heiligenkalender de feestdag van de veertig martelaren. In de volksweerkunde is het een echte lotsdag. "Zoals 't weer de veertig martelaren vindt, zo blijft het veertig dagen, mijn vrind". Als het vriest, blijft het nog een hele tijd winteren: "Als vorst de veertig martelaren brachten, dan houden zij die veertig nachten".

http://www.internettuner.nl/vandaag/index.php?z_actie=datum&zDag=10&zMaand=3
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Neuve-Chapelle, 10-13 March 1915

The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle, 10-13 March 1915, was a small scale battle in Artois fought in advance of the main Spring offensives of 1915. It was fought in an attempt to reduce a German salient south of Ypres. The attack was carried out by four divisions from General Sir Douglas Haig’s First Army (7th and 8th British and Meerut and Lahore Divisions of the Indian Corps). The British managed to gather their force of 60,000 men, supported by 500 guns, without alerting the Germans. As a result the sector of the German line to be attacked was defended by less than 10,000 men.

The bombardment began at 7.00 a.m. It was aimed at the German front line trenches, the wire and selected strongpoints behind the lines. It was followed by a standing barrage designed to isolate the German front line and prevent reinforcements from being sent forward.

The initial attack was a total success. The infantry assault began at 8.05 a.m., and by 8.30 the British had created a breach 1,600 yards in the German lines. A minor breakthrough beckoned.

That breakthrough was prevented by a combination of a rigid British plan and a well though out German response. The rigidity of the British plan was an attempt to deal with the confusion caused during battle. Communication between the advancing troops and Headquarters was difficult at best and almost impossible during the battle. The British plan was designed to make sure that the battle remained under control even if communications were broken.

The British plan called for two pauses in the advance, once after the first line of trenches had been captured to allow for another bombardment, and one after the lines had broken to allow Haig to give orders that reflected the new situation. It was this second pause that caused the failure of the British attack. It took six hours, from 9.00 am until 3 p.m., for information from the front to reach Haig and for new orders to be issued. It then took another three hours for those orders to reach the front line troops. By then it was too late.

In 1915 everything favoured the defenders. A single machine gun post could hold up hundreds of attackers. Even when part of the defensive line was breached, the left and right flanks of the breach would still be largely intact, along with their established lines of communication. Falkenhayn had put in place standing orders to deal with a breach in the lines. This meant that while the British junior officers in the breach were waiting for orders, their German equivalents knew what to do.

Their first task was to secure the flanks of the breach. That was done before noon. The next step was to rush reinforcements from the rear area to seal the breach. A new German line was taking shape before the British were able to renew their attack. The chance for a real breakthrough was gone.

Both sides planned to attack on 11 March. The British attack was stopped by fog, which prevented the artillery from bombarding the new German line. The German attack had to be postponed when one of the units involved failed to arrive in time. When the German counterattack was launched on 12 March, the British had had time to set up their own defensive line and the German attack was repulsed.

The battle ended with the British in control of the village of Neuve-Chapelle but the Germans on the ridge to the east. British losses are various reported as 11,652 or 13,000, German losses as between 9,000 and 14,000. Neuve-Chapelle marked the last offensive use of the Indian Corps on the Western Front, although Indian soldiers remained in the line for most of the rest of 1915, before being transferred to the Middle East. Sir John French blamed the relative failure of the attack on a shortage of shells, helping to trigger the “shell crisis” that brought down the last Liberal government.

Rickard, J (19 August 2007), Battle of Neuve-Chapelle, 10-13 March 1915 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_neuve_chapelle.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A British attack using the bayonet and grenade, Neuve-Chapelle, France, 10 March 1915



A British attack using the bayonet and grenade, Neuve-Chapelle, France, 10 March 1915, (1926). The British successfully broke through the German lines in Artois at the Battle of Neuve-Chapelle in March 1915 but were unable to exploit the situation due to poor communications and a shortage of artillery shells. Ultimately the British and Indians took approximately 2 kilometres of ground at a cost of 11,200 troops.

http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=1218386&pricing=true&licenseType=RM
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 9th and 10th March, 1916 - Siggers and I went to Béthune at three-thirty pm to get a haircut and do a little shopping. We left for the guns again at six thirty, having got everything we wanted, but got lost in the dark and, although we weren't far out of our way, we had some trouble to get on the right track again and finally got home at about nine. I sleep at the guns that night, and it snows again in the night. Nothing unusual happens during the day.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/03/diary-entry-9th-and-10th-march-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Action of 10 March 1917


The sinking of SS Otaki by SMS Möwe.

The Action of 10 March 1917 was a naval battle during World War I fought between a German commerce raider and an armed New Zealand merchant steamer. Although the Germans won the battle, their ship was badly damaged and they were forced to end their raid and return to Germany.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_10_March_1917
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

10 maart 1917 - Burgemeester van Gilse vroeg aan de Belgische bakkers om opgaaf te doen van hun voorraad ongebuild meel, Amerikaanse en inlandse bloem. Het betrof de bakkers Gullickx-Segers, Bax, Van der Flaes Fr. en de weduwe Jansen-Remeysen. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anna Achmatova - Werken (Amsterdam 2007)

Hoe galmend en steil zijn de bruggen,
Wat zijn deze pleinen hier breed!
En boven ons, somber en rustig,
Spreidt 't sterloze duister zijn kleed.

Twee sterflijke mensen, zo gaan we
Door 't sneeuwdek, nog maagdelijk rein.
En is het geen wonder hier samen
Op 't uur voor ons scheiden te zijn?

Opeens heb ik knikkende knieën,
Mijn adem lijkt moeizaam te gaan ...
Jij -zonlicht van mijn poëzieën,
Jij -zegening van mijn bestaan.

Dan deinen de donkere daken,
Ik val met een plofweer omlaag,
Het is niet zo erg te ontwaken
Voor mij in mijn dorpstuin vandaag
.

10 maart 1917, Petersburg

Vertaling uit het Russisch door M. Berg en M. Wiebes; http://gedicht.canandanann.nl/poetry/achmatova.htm
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Enkele gegevens over de oorlog 1914-1918 te Boekhoute



Op 10 maart 1917 kwam de verordening dat alle koper en andere metalen moesten ingeleverd worden. Alles werd kapotgeslagen en weggevoerd.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~noemeetjesland/meetjesland/ons_meetjesland/1974_2/oorlog_Boekhoute_1914_18.htm
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Willem Hendrik de Beaufort

De Beaufort was voor de Eerste Wereldoorlog voorman van de vrij-liberalen en minister van Buitenlandse zaken. Zijn dagboek geeft een idee hoe het er tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog in politiek Den Haag toe ging. (...)

In 1918 is de oorlog nog steeds bezig. Nederland is neutraal gebleven. Toch snakt ook Nederland naar het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De Beaufort schrijft op 10 maart 1918:

'Van Karnebeek [A.P.C. van Karnebeek, de minister van Buitenlandse zaken] die altijd pessimist is, zeide mij dat hij de toekomst zeer zwart inzag: hij hoopte op een beslissing in welken zin ook aan het front in België of Frankrijk, opdat er een einde aan den oorlog kwam. Een beslissing in Duitsch voordeel zal evenwel het einde niet brengen.'

http://www.deoorlog.nps.nl/page/personen/780151/Willem+Hendrik+de++Beaufort+?afl=1
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Zoon van laatste Oostenrijkse keizer overleden
DPA − 14/12/07

Carl Ludwig von Habsburg-Lothringen, de zoon van de laatste Oostenrijkse keizer, is dinsdag in Brussel gestorven. Hij is 89 jaar geworden. Dat meldt het Oostenrijkse persbureau APA vrijdag.

Carl Ludwig was de vijfde zoon van keizer Karl en keizerin Zita, en de jongere broer van politicus en publicist Otto von Habsburg. Karl von Habsburg was van 1916 tot 1918 de laatste keizer van Oostenrijk. Carl Ludwig werd op 10 maart 1918 geboren, kort voor de instorting van de monarchie. Het keizerspaar nam hun kinderen mee in ballingschap en die uiteindelijk in verschillende landen terecht kwamen.

Carl Ludwig studeerde in Quebec af als doctor in de rechten en de politieke en sociale wetenschappen. Hij diende in het Amerikaanse leger en trouwde in 1950 met prinses Yolande de Ligne. Ze kregen vier kinderen. In 1958 trok de aartshertog naar Brussel. Samen met zijn broer Felix voerde hij veel processen om het Habsburgse familievermogen terug te krijgen.

http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2686/Binnenland/article/detail/874708/2007/12/14/Zoon-van-laatste-Oostenrijkse-keizer-overleden.dhtml
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Opstand in de Poetilov-fabriek

De opstand in de Poetilov-fabriek vond plaats in maart 1919.

Het begon allemaal met Maria Spiridonova, een populaire sociaal-revolutionaire politica. Zij werd op 10 februari 1919 gearresteerd, samen met 210 partijgenoten. Ze werd opgesloten in een psychiatrische inrichting. Later wist zij te ontsnappen.

De reden voor haar aanhouding: zij bekritiseerde de terreur van de Tsjeka (=politieke politie), en stelde de misstanden omtrent deze organisatie aan de kaak.

In maart 1919 braken er in Petrograd twee heftige arbeidersstakingen uit. De arbeiders waren woedend over de opsluiting van Spiridonova. Op 10 maart 1919 nam de algemene vergadering van arbeiders van de Poetilov-fabriek, in tegenwoordigheid van tienduizend deelnemers, een proclamatie aan. "Deze regering is slechts een dictatuur van het centrale comité van de Communistische Partij, die regeert met behulp van de Tsjeka en de revolutionaire Tribunalen", zo stelden de arbeiders.

Voorts eisten de arbeiders in deze proclamatie dat alle macht aan de sovjets werd overgedragen, dat er vrijheid van verkiezingen voor de sovjets kwamen, dat er een einde kwam aan de dwingende maatregelen tegen het hamsteren en dat Maria Spiridonova en haar revolutionaire kameraden werden vrijgelaten.

Op 12 en 13 maart brachten Lenin en Zinovjev een bezoek aan Poetilov-fabriek. Toen zij bij de fabriek aankwamen, werden zij uitgejouwd door een woedende arbeidersmassa.

Op 16 maart 1919 zetten detachementen van de Tsjeka de aanval in op de arbeiders van de Poetilov-fabriek. 900 opstandige arbeiders werden aangehouden. 200 van hen werden op de Schlusserburg-vesting (even buiten Petrograd) geëxecuteerd.

Alle arbeiders van de fabriek werden nu ontslagen. Iedereen die weer aan het werk wilde, moest eerst een verklaring tekenen waarin hij de proclamatie van 10 maart verwierp.

Het voorval in de Poetilov-fabriek is tekenend voor de wijze waarop de nieuwe leiding van Rusland omging met stakende arbeiders. Stakingen jegens het tsaristisch bewind werden vroeger aangemoedigd; stakingen jegens de bolsjewieken waren echter streng verboden.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opstand_in_de_Poetilov-fabriek
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2011 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vrijstaat Coburg

Wilhelm Bock (USPD) verklaarde in de Novemberrevolutie op 9 november 1918 te Gotha hertog Karel Eduard voor afgezet. De volgende dag werd de Coburger landdag heengezonden en een Arbeiders- en Soldatenraad opgericht.

Daar de gemeenschappelijke landdag van het voorheen in personele unie geregeerde dubbelhertogdom Saksen-Coburg en Gotha de Arbeiders- en Soldatenraad niet erkende, trok de USPD-fractie zich daaruit nog diezelfde maand terug en bewerkstelligde zo de facto de opsplitsing van Saksen-Gotha en Saksen-Coburg. De eerstgenoemde staat, het noordelijke deel van Saksen-Coburg en Gotha, vormde sindsdien de Vrijstaat Gotha, de laatstgenoemde, het zuidelijke deel, de Vrijstaat Coburg. Karel Eduard deed op 14 november formeel troonsafstand.

De elf leden tellende Coburger Nationale Vergadering nam op 10 maart 1919 met het Vorläufiges Gesetz über die Gesetzgebung und Verwaltung im Freistaate Coburg een provisorische grondwet aan. Op 12 april 1919 kwam met het ondertekenen van de Staatsvertrag über die Verwaltung der gemeinschaftlichen Angelegenheiten der Freistaaten Coburg und Gotha de opsplitsing van Coburg en Gotha uiteindelijk geheel tot stand.

Op 7 juni 1919 trof de regering een regeling met hertog Karel Eduard, volgens welke hij voor het afstaan van zijn domeinen, kunstschatten en enige kastelen een schadeloosstelling van 1,5 miljoen mark ontving.

Op 30 november 1919 vond te Coburg het eerste democratische referendum in Duitsland plaats over de positie van de vrijstaat. Met een opkomst van 70% stemde - met name vanwege de voedselschaarste en de overwegend linkse gezindheid van de kiezers - 88% van de bevolking tegen aansluiting bij de vrijstaat Thüringen. Een verdrag regelde op 14 februari 1920 een vereniging met de vrijstaat Beieren, die op 1 juli werd voltrokken. Gotha sloot zich, evenals de andere Thüringse staten, bij Thüringen aan.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vrijstaat_Coburg
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10 March 1919 → Commons Sitting

CHANNEL TUNNEL
.

HC Deb 10 March 1919 vol 113 c878 878

Mr. BOTTOMLEY asked the Prime Minister whether, in order to find employment for discharged soldiers, he will approach the French Government with a view to immediately commencing the construction of the Channel Tunnel?

Mr. BONAR LAW I am in communication with the Prime Minister in Paris on this subject.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/mar/10/channel-tunnel
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Mrt 2011 14:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Charles Townshend's Communiqué on the Siege of Kut, 10 March 1916

Reproduced below is the second of Sir Charles Townshend's official communiqués to his garrison at Kut, dated 10 March 1916. Under siege from Turkish forces following the failure of the overly optimistic British advance upon Baghdad towards the close of 1915 - although Townshend himself had long held reservations about the plan - his communiqué was intended to sustain the inevitably flagging morale of his garrison troops in the wake of the failure of a second British relief operation.

The garrison - chiefly comprised of native Indian troops - eventually surrendered to Turkish forces at the end of April 1916, and was widely regarded as a heavy humiliation to British influence in the region. Townshend's reputation, although initially intact, was subsequently tarnished when news emerged of the Turkish mistreatment of his troops, and he died in some disgrace in 1924
.

Communiqué from Sir Charles Townshend to the Kut Garrison, 10 March 1916

As on a former occasion, I take the troops of all ranks into my confidence again.

We have now stood a three months' siege in a manner which has called upon you the praise of our beloved King and our fellow-countrymen in England, Scotland, Ireland and India, and all this after your brilliant battles of Kut-el-Amara and Ctesiphon and your retirement to Kut, all of which feats of arms are now famous.

Since December 5, 1915, you have spent three months of cruel uncertainty, and to all men and all people uncertainty is intolerable. As I say, on the top of all this comes the second failure to relieve us. And I ask you also to give a little sympathy to me who have commanded you in these battles referred to, and who, having come to you as a stranger, now love my command with a depth of feeling I have never known in my life before.

When I mention myself I would also mention the names of the generals under me, whose names are distinguished in the army as leaders of men.

I am speaking to you as I did before, straight from the heart, and, as I say, I ask your sympathy for my feelings, having promised you relief on certain dates on the promise of those ordered to relieve us. Not their fault, no doubt. Do not think that I blame them; they are giving their lives freely, and deserve our gratitude and admiration.

But I want you to help me again, as before. I have asked General Aylmer for the next attempt to bring such numbers as will break down all resistance and leave no doubt as to the issue.

In order, then, to hold out, I am killing a large number of horses so as to reduce the quantity of grain eaten every day, and I have had to reduce your ration. It is necessary to do this in order to keep our flag flying.

I am determined to hold out, and I know you are with me heart and soul.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/kut_townshend2.htm
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