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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2006 6:48    Onderwerp: 9 Maart Reageer met quote

March 9

1916 Germany declares war on Portugal


On this day in 1916, Germany declares war on Portugal, who earlier that year honored its alliance with Great Britain by seizing German ships anchored in Lisbon’s harbor.

Portugal became a republic in 1910 after a revolution led by the country’s military toppled King Manuel II (his father, King Carlos, and elder brother had been assassinated two years earlier). A liberal constitution was enacted in 1911, and Manuel José de Arriaga was elected as the republic’s first president.

With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Portugal became increasingly anxious about the security of its colonial holdings in Angola and Mozambique. In order to secure international support for its authority in Africa, Portugal entered the war on the side of Britain and the Allies. Its participation was at first limited to naval support. In February 1917, however, Portugal sent its first troops—an expeditionary force of 50,000 men—to the Western Front. They saw action for the first time in Belgium on June 17 of that year.

One notable battle in which Portuguese forces took part was the Battle of Lys, near the Lys River in the Flanders region of Belgium, in April 1918. It was part of the major German offensive—the last of the war—launched that spring on the Western Front. During that battle, one Portuguese division of troops was struck hard by four German divisions; the preliminary shelling alone was so heavy that one Portuguese battalion refused to push forward into the trenches. All told, the victorious Germans took more than 6,000 prisoners in that conflict and were able to push through enemy lines along a three-and-a-half mile stretch. By the time World War I ended, a total of 7,000 Portuguese soldiers had died in combat.

http://www.historychannel.com/

Zie ook
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=3682
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 15:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De bevolking van Armenië

Utrechts Nieuwsblad, 9 maart 1918


Londen, 8 Maart. Off. Het Armenisch inlichtingen-bureau heeft berichten ontvangen, die er op wijzen, dat het afstaan van Trans-Kaukasisch gebied aan de Turken aanleiding zal geven tot verdere Armenische gruwelen en wellicht tot de heele uitroeiing van de rest van de Armenische bevolking door de Turksche troepen, die thans oprukken om Armenië weer te bezetten. Te Samsoen waren alle mannelijke inwoners, de zuigelingen incluis, afgemaakt en dergelijke gruwelen werden in iedere stad en elk dorp bedreven.

De voorzitter van de Armenische nationale delegatie te Parijs heeft dan ook de vrees uitgesproken, dat het Armenische volk nooit zo nabij zijn totale vernietiging is geweest als thans. Vroeger konden de Armeniërs als het gevaar dreigde altijd bescherming zoeken bij hun broeders in den Kaukasus, maar nu deze bescherming niet meer bestaat zullen ze door de Turken worden verpletterd. Volgens deze kenner van het land zullen de Turken zich niet vergenoegen te blijven binnen de hun aangewezen grenzen, maar zullen ze trachten door den Kaukasus en Turkestan door te dringen en een Duitsch-Turkschen opmarsch naar de grenzen van Perzië en Afganistan voorbereiden.

Bron: het Utrechts Archief
http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/UN-9-3-1918.html
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=21664 voor de hedendaagse stand van zaken.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion: Alphaeus Casey's Diary

Tuesday 9th March 1915

Washing up. Parade 11am. Ordered to scrub hut out, and then put equipment together. Everybody dissatisfied. Won’t get good results unless are more decent to men. Working everybody to death doing fatigues and squad drill etc., which know is useless.

11-12am Company Drill under Jarrard. Did quite well.

Afternoon bayonet drill under Sgt Major Marsden. Everybody keen. Enjoyable. Practised point, parry, thrust, pointing at sacks on run and the at wooden posts. Very exciting. Sgt Major pleased.

In evening played bridge and pingpong. 3 ships sunk, 27 out of crew of 28 in 1 drowned.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary03.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LETTERS WRITTEN HOME FROM FRANCE IN THE FIRST HALF OF 1915
By A. PIATT ANDREW

St. Omer, France, March 9, 1915.
Dear Mother and Father:

I left Paris at ten o'clock this morning on my first inspection tour, equipped with formidable letters to French officials in the different armies along the line and prepared to look into various questions of concern to the administration of our several sections --- with power to act if need be.

A high-powered Peugeot car has been assigned to me, with a pleasant fellow named Freeborn as driver. We intended to stop first of all at Beauvais, where we have a section of thirteen machines and where the French administration for the automobile service in the western armies is centred. Then we intended to stop leisurely at St. Pol, Abbéville, and elsewhere, and end up at Dunkirk, at each of which places we have a few cars. But about ten miles out of Paris we had an experience which changed our plans. A heavy limousine ahead of us skidded into the curbing and smashed its steering-gear, and out of the depths of the car emerged two English officers, one of them a general. They were bound from Paris to St. Omer, the headquarters of the English lines, and they were anxious to go on without delay; so we took them in, changed our plans and brought , them through the 250 or 260 kilometres to their destination.

The general was General Henderson, of the Flying Corps, an altogether delightful person, who lunched with us as our guest in Beauvais and insisted upon our having tea and remaining to dinner with him at his headquarters in an old château near St. Omer. So we have added to our stock of war memories the recollection of a hospitable evening spent in France with half a dozen English officers about their table with much good talk.

It was surprising to find how familiar they all were with our Civil War. They have all studied at Aldershot the campaigns of the war, especially the campaigns of Stonewall Jackson so wonderfully depicted in Henderson's "Life." General Henderson, who I believe is a distant relative of the author of that work, said that, although he had never seen the region, he thought he could find his way blindfolded over the battlefields of Virginia and Maryland. They all admired Lee, and Henderson said that he placed him among the "Great Six," or whatever the number, --the few great generals of all time.

They seemed to think that the war will last for at least a year. They have genuine respect for the strategy of Joffre and entertain no doubts whatever as to his ability or as to the eventual outcome.

As I retire to-night I can hear the cannon rumbling on the frontier.

Good-night.

http://www.ourstory.info/library/2-ww1/APA/APA1.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 17:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to Tsaritsa Alexandra

Stavka. 9 March. 1915.

MY BELOVED SUNNY,

How am I to thank you for your two charming letters and for the lilies? I press them to my face and kiss often the places which I think were touched by your dear lips. They stand on my table day and night; when the gentlemen pass my doors I give them the flowers to smell. God grant that I may return by the 11th - probably at 10 o'clock in the morning. What joy to be again in one's own nestsnugly and closely (in every sense) together I just at this very minute, 11.30, Nicolasha came running into my carriage, out of breath and with tears in his eyes, and told me of the fall of Przemysl. Thanks be to God I For two days we have been waiting for this news with hope and anxiety. The fall of this fortress has an enormous moral and military significance. After several months of despondency, this news strikes as an unexpected ray of sunshine. and exactly on the first day of spring!

I began this letter in a calm mood, but now everything has been turned upside down in my head, so you must excuse the second part of this letter. Oh, my dear, I am so profoundly happy at this good news, and so grateful to God for His mercy! I have ordered a thanksgiving Te Deum to be sung at 2 o'clock in the local church, where I was present last year at the thanksgiving molebni [services]! Yesterday I drove in a motor car to the same charming wood near the Scobolevsky Camp, and had a good walk on the other side of the big road - it was warm and thawing hard.

As Drenteln has hurt his ankle, Grabbe is taking his place at our games of dominoes; he is so amusing with the little Admiral that they make me and N. P. roll with laughter. I am thinking of sending Grabbe to the army in Przemysl with heaps of orders and thanks for the officers and men.

3 o'clock.

I have just returned from church, which was packed with officers and my splendid Cossacks. What beaming faces! Shavelsky spoke a few moving words; everyone was in a sort of paschal mood!

Well, good-bye, my treasure, my Sunny! May God bless you and the dear children! I am tremendously happy to return home again.

Always your old hubby,

Nicky.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/march15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

PRINCESS VICTORIA, 1,108grt, 9 March 1915, 16 miles NW by N from Liverpool Bar LV, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine

BLACKWOOD, 1,230grt, 9 March 1915, 18 miles SW by S from Dungeness, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine

TANGISTAN, 3,738grt, 9 March 1915, 9 miles N from Flamborough Head, torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine, 38 lives lost including Master

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrMS1914-16.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom.
OFFICIAL NOTICES TO MEMBERS


Aviators' Certificates.—The granting of the following aviators' certificates was confirmed :—
1103 Flight Sub-Lieut. Redford Henry Mulock, R.N.A.S. (Short Biplane, Royal Naval Hying School, Eastchurch). March 9th, 1915.

War Honours.
IN a special supplement to the London Gazette issued on the 9th inst . there appeared the following :—
" The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for the following officers to be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order in recognition of their services as mentioned:
" For services rendered in the aerial attack on Dunkirk, January 23rd, 1915
Squadron Commander Richard Bell Davies.
Flight-Lieutenant Richard Edmund Charles Peirse.

These officers have repeatedly attacked the German submarine station at Ostend and Zeebrugge, being subjected on each occasion to heavy and accurate fire, their machines being frequently hit. In particular, on January 23rd, they each discharged eight bombs in an attack upon submarines alongside the mole at Zeebrugge, flying down to close range. At the outset of this flight Lieutenant Davies was severely wounded by a bullet in the thigh, but nevertheless he accomplished his task, handling his machine for an hour with great skill in spite of pain and loss of blood."

http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1915/1915%20-%200262.html
http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1915/1915%20-%200263.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pancho Villa

José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923), better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa, was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.

On 9 March 1916, General Villa ordered nearly 500 Mexican members of his revolutionary group to make a cross-border attack against Columbus, New Mexico. The raid was conducted because of the U.S. government's official recognition of the Carranza regime and for the loss of lives in battle due to defective bullets purchased from the United States.[8] They attacked a detachment of the 13th Cavalry Regiment (United States), seizing 100 horses and mules, and setting part of the town on fire. 18 Americans and about 80 Villistas were killed.[9]. On 15 May, they attacked Glen Springs, Texas, killing a civilian and wounding three American soldiers; on 15 June, bandits killed four soldiers at San Ygnacio, Texas; on 31 July, one American soldier and a U.S. customs inspector were killed.[10]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancho_Villa
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 March 1916, Commons Sitting

DARDANELLES EXPEDITION (OFFICERS AND. MEN MISSING).


HC Deb 09 March 1916 vol 80 cc1722-3 1723

§ 116. Sir A. MARKHAM asked the Under-Secretary of State for War what is the number of officers and men, respectively, who have been officially reported as wounded and missing, or are missing, in connection with the Dardanelles operations; and how many of these officers and men have since been reported to be prisoners of war?

§ Mr. TENNANT The total number reported missing in the Dardanelles among the British, Colonial and Indian Forces, and the Royal Naval Division, now stands as follows:—
Officers 333
Other ranks 11,221

The total number of prisoners (including Naval) so far as they can be identified is as follows:—
Officers 32
Other ranks or ratings 470

A large number of names which were difficult to identify owing to very defective descriptions have been found to be duplicate and have been eliminated from the lists rendered by the Turkish Government, but some addition may have to be made for names not yet identified. The totals do not include officers or men who have died as prisoners of war.

§ Sir A. MARKHAM Does that include the number referred to by the Foreign Secretary to-day?

§ Mr. TENNANT I cannot say, but I imagine that it does.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/mar/09/dardanelles-expedition-officers-and-men
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fifth battle of the Isonzo, 9-17 March 1916

The fifth battle of the Isonzo was a short-lived offensive launched at the request of Britain and France who wanted diversionary attacks to prevent the Central Powers moving more troops into the battle at Verdun.

The Italians gathered seven corps and two Alpini groups for the offensive, which began in fog, snow and rain on 9 March. The offensive was called off after eight days, partly because of the continuing poor weather and partly because General Cadorna was aware that the Austrians were planning an attack in the Trentino (battle of Asiago, 15 May-25 June 1916).

This was the least costly of the battles of the Isonzo. The Italians suffered 1,882 casualties, the Austrians 1,985. The next attack on the Isonzo, the sixth battle (6-17 August) would be the most successful so far, after the Italians moved their troops back from the Trentino to the Isonzo quicker than the Austrians.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_isonzo5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PORTUGAL'S ENTRY IN THE WAR

But Britain herself was not enthusiastic at all about an eventual participation of its Portuguese ally in the war. The British held the Portuguese armed forces in the utmost (even racist) contempt and considered the country as a whole an absolutely worthless ally, incapable of defending itself and its colonies, let alone giving some sort of positive contribution to the British war effort. [2]. Thus, despite skirmishes between German and Portuguese colonial troops and tribal revolts in Africa instigated by Germany were taking place since August 1914, in the same month the Portuguese government, under pressure from Britain, declared its neutrality, while reaffirming that the country was still bound by its old alliance with the United Kingdom. By 1915, though, the raising and training of a military force had already begun. [3]

Only the relentless butchery on the Western front convinced the British and French commands that the Portuguese forces could be of some use. Portugal was therefore "allowed" to enter the war. The actual cause of the formal German declaration of war on 9 March 1916 was the seizure of 36 German and Austro-Hungarian merchant ships anchored in front of Lisbon since the beginning of the war on 24 February 1916, at Britain's request. These were to be used by Portugal to carry vital foodstuffs for the civilian population (or so ran the official version).

Despite Portugal's assurance that the ships would be handed back to Germany and indemnities paid, the German minister (Ambassador) Van Rosen delivered a formal declaration of war by Germany on 9 March 1916, claiming Portugal was an "English vassal" and the seizure of the ships was an intentional provocation (the latter being of course absolutely correct). Portugal promptly reciprocated by declaring war on Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Leuk... http://www.worldwar1.com/france/portugal.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gertrude Bell (1868-1926)

[9 March 1916] Basrah [Basrah, Al (Basra)]. March 9 Dearest Mother. I wish I ever knew how long I were going to stay in any place or what I were likely to do next. But that is just the kind of thing which one never can know when one is engaged in the indefinite sort of job which I am doing. There is however a great deal of work to be done here. I have already begun to classify the very valuable tribal material which I find in the files at the Intel. Dept. and I think there are pretty wide possibilities of adding to what has been collected already. It is extraordinarily interesting; my own previous knowledge, though there was little enough of it, comes in very handy in many ways - as a check upon, and a frame to the new stuff I am handling. And I can't tell you how wonderful it is to be in at the birth, so to speak, of a new administration, to watch the tidying up of old rubbish heaps and to be able to see at last what exactly they were composed of. As yet I can only guess at these things, but I shall learn more about them I hope in time. Everyone is being amazingly kind. I have found myself, or rather I have been given a lodging, next door to Headquarters in the big house on the river which belongs to Gray Mackenzie and Co. That is most convenient, for I have only to step across the bridge over a little creek to get to my work. Today I lunched with all the Generals - Sir Percy Lake, General Cawfer, General Offley Shaw and General Money, and as an immediate result they moved me and my maps and books onto a splendid great verandah with a cool room behind it where I may sit and work all day long. My companion here is Captain Campbell Thompson, ex-archaeologist - I knew him in his former incarnation - very pleasant and obliging and delighted to benefit with me by the change of workshop, for we were lodged by day in Col. Beach's bedroom (he is the head of the I.D.) a plan which was not very convenient either for us or for him. The whole of Basrah is packed full, as you may understand when it has had suddenly to expand into the base of a large army. Finally I have got an Arab boy as a servant; his name is Mikhail, he comes from Mosul [Mawsil, Al] and promises to be very satisfactory, so that I am now fully and completely established. Sir Percy Cox came back last night - he has been away at Bashire [Bushehr (Bushire)] - and he also is going to help me to get all the information I want by sending on to me any Arabs whom he thinks will interest me. Therefore if I don't make something of it, it will be entirely my own fault.

Lees verder op http://www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk/letter_details.php?letter_id=157
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private Reginald Hardwicke, A.S.A.

Derbyshire Times, Saturday 9 March 1918

Private Reginald Hardwicke, A.S.A., of 7- Duke Street, Creswell, Derbyshire has succumbed to a two days illness at the Fulham Hospital, London.
He only joined up eight weeks ago, having been in training at Isleworth, Middlesex. He was 26 years of age, and was a son of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Hardwick, of Welbeck. He leaves a widow, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Tyson, Dover Street, Camswell, and a little child. Formerly a Welbeck employee, he obtained work on the surface at the Creswell Colliery about three years ago. He had written home to state that he was coming home on leave this week-end. The body was removed to Creswell on Wednesday, and the interment was fixed for yesterday (Friday). In deference to the wishes of the family there were no military honours. A brother in law Private Jim Tyson, York and Lancs., has been discharged after serving over two years in France, while another brother in law, Private Walter Tyson, M.G.C. is in Egypt.

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/private-reginald-hardwicke-asa.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 18:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DISTRIBUTION OF PROPAGANDA BY AIR, 1914--1918
By Captain Morris

On the 2nd March 1918 a telegram was sent to Sir W. Townley the British Minister at the Hague for transmission to the Netherlands Minister at Berlin for the information of the German Government, in which it was stated that "No German airmen have ever been condemned by H.M. Government for acts similar to those alleged against Lieutenants Scholtz and Wookey. His Majesty's Government are also informed though this does not affect the case that no German aviator has been court-martialled for distributing propaganda by the French authorities, nor has it ever been proposed that they should be."(6)

Meanwhile it was learned that Lt. H. Whitworth, Sec. Lt. W.C. Pruden, Sergeant Everix and Gunner Conlin all of the R.F.C. were in prison awaiting trial on charges similar to those made against Lt. Scholtz and Wookey.

His Majesty's Government therefore on the 21st March 1918 telegraphed to the British Minister at the Hague requesting an immediate assurance from the German Government that:

"(a) the above officers and men as well as Lts. Scholtz and Wookey have been released from prison and sent to a camp befitting prisoners of war and that no further proceedings will he taken against them,

"(b) that no other officers are still in prison on a similar charge."

In the event of non-compliance with these demands reprisals were threatened. On the 19 April 1918 Sir W. Townley telegraphed that he had been informed by the Netherlands Minister at Berlin that Lt. Whitworth and Pruden and Sergeant Everix and Gunner Conlin had been acquitted.

In a note dated 9 March 1918 in reply to the protests of the British Government the German Government stated that the details of the case of Lts. Scholtz and Wookey were not yet known to the German Military Administration as the documents relating to the trial had not yet come to hand for scrutiny. The note stated that a definite reply to the British notes would therefore not he possible within the period prescribed by the British Government and in the meantime the German Government expected that the reprisals threatened by the British Government would not be promptly carried into effect and that the British Government would await the reply of the General Army Administration.

Staat in zijn geheel op http://www.vlib.us/wwi/resources/archives/texts/t050310/Morris.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2010 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918).

Guillaume Apollinaire, pseudoniem voor Guillaume Albert Vladimir Alexandre Apollinaire de Kostrowitzki werd op 26 augustus 1880 in Rome geboren.

In Parijs werkte Apollinaire als journalist en bankmedewerker. Hij werd bekend als schrijver en dichter en raakte bevriend met jonge schilders, zoals André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Henri Matisse en Henri Rousseau. Vanaf 1905, toen hij bevriend werd met o.a. Pablo Picasso, publiceerde hij over kunst en verdedigde hij zijn artistieke vrienden.

Na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog probeerde Apollinaire op 5 augustus vrijwillig dienst te nemen, maar wegens de grote toeloop die men niet aankon werd hij drie weken later ontslagen. Apollinaire vertrok daarna naar Nice, waar hij op 4 december 1914 opnieuw voor vrijwillige dienst tekende. Vanaf 6 december kreeg Apollinaire een onderofficiers opleiding in Nîmes bij het 38ste Artillerie regiment. Na zijn opleiding werd Apollinaire als korporaal gelegerd in Champagne, waar hij te paard berichten moest overbrengen.

Apollinaire was op 6 april 1915 als brigadier gelegerd in Mourmelon-le-Grand en later dichter aan het front in de buurt van Souain-Perthes-lès-Hurlus. Op 10 augustus 1915 schreef Apollinaire een brief aan Madeleines moeder om de hand van haar dochter te vragen. Op 20 november 1915 kwam Apollinaire aan het front als onderluitenant bij het 96ste infantrie regiment. Zijn tweeweekse verlof van 26 december 1915 t/m 11 januari 1916 bracht Apollinaire bij Madeleine thuis in Oran door. Na terugkeer uit Algerije volgde een nieuwe periode aan het front achter de voorste linie. Op 9 maart 1916 kreeg Apollinaire het Franse staatsburgerschap. Op 14 maart kwam hij opnieuw aan het front in de Vallée de l'Aisne.

Op 17 maart 1916 werd Apollinaire als tweede luitenant van de infanterie gewond aan zijn hoofd. Na aan het front verbonden te zijn werd hij met een ambulance naar het ziekenhuis van Château-Thierry gebracht en op 29 maart naar het militaire ziekenhuis Val-de-Grâce in Parijs. Op 9 mei moest Apollinaire opnieuw geopereerd worden.

Op 9 november 1918 kwamen Picasso en Max Jacob 's morgens bij Jean Cocteau om Dr. Capmas voor Apollinaire op te bellen, daar Apollinaire zeer ziek was. Verzwakt door zijn oorlogswonden stierf Apollinaire op dezelfde dag 's middags om 5 uur aan de Spaanse griep in Parijs. Hij werd op 13 november na de kerkdienst in de Saint Thomas d'Aquin met militaire eer begraven op het kerkhof Père-Lachaise.

Lees het gansche verhaal! http://www.kubisme.info/kb101.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2010 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Berlin March 1919 - the second Spartacist uprising

March 9-12, 1919 - the battle of Lichtenberg
The Spartacists and their allies were then slowly beaten back to working-class tenements of East Berlin. Here they threw up barricades and turned the entire suburb of Lichtenberg into an armed fortress. An estimated 10,000 revolutionaries prepared for the final showdown.
On 9 March a rumour circulated that the Lichtenberg police station had been stormed by revolutionaries and that 70 police officers had been executed in cold blood.

The Vorwärts, like many other publications, reported the next day that the men had been: 'shot like animals'. The story was an exaggeration. Five policemen had been killed, although the exact cause for why still remained unknown. Regardless of the facts, however, Noske now issued his notorious order declaring: 'Any individual bearing arms against government troops will be summarily shot.'

Lees verder op http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/revolution(3).html en bekijk de foto's
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Dresden, 9 Maart 1914.
Hotel Bellevue Dresden


(...) Ik heb vanavond in Duitschland voor dit seizoen m'n handgeld verdiend - 300 Mark - maar als ik 't zóó elken avond moest doen, werd ik weer journalist, hoor, of figurant bij jelui, of suppoost van 't concertgebouw, of stovenzetster op de IJsclub.... Groote Goden, wat heb ik me geërgerd. Onze gastheer was Dr. Naumann, een van de ‘richards’ van Dresden. Eerst was er al 'n heele herrie geweest over 't programma. Bijna àl m'n Fransch moest eruit. Het Duitsch moest fatsoenlijk-in-de-tiende-macht zijn, één Engelsch en één Hollandsch liedje mocht ik zingen. Wij waren ‘gast’, dùs in rok. Je weet, hoe ik daar 't land al dadelijk aan heb! Goed. We waren in rok en zagen er zeer goed uit, wat natuurlijk van twee knappe jongelieden als Max en ik niets verwonderlijk is. Eerst werd er gesoupeerd. Van acht tot tien. Nou, dat was best. Oesters! En kreeft! En champagne! (Je zal me daar grappen beleven als ik terug kom!) Alleen 't gezelschap was tamelijk vervelend. Aan Max z'n tafeltje moet 't nogal aardig zijn geweest. Toen 'n sigaartje en toen wij.... Je aller chiqueste publiek uit Dresden op rijtjes voor onzen vleugel. Allemaal officieren in schitterende uniformen, hoopjes heeren met tallooze ridderkruisen en - typeerend voor het heele gezelschap! - niet één interessante of zelfs maar goed gekleede vrouw. - Terwijl ik zong, zat de heele keet hardop te praten, zoódat Max eruit wou schei'en. Ik dacht aan de 300 Mark en vroeg of - die bedonderd was. Van vreemde talen verstonden ze geen woord en van 't Duitsch snapten ze niet de helft van de humor of 't sentiment. Ik zeg je, Zunki in de Bordelaise heeft veel aandachtiger gehoor dan ik in dezen kring van de Dresdener Crème-de la crème. (...)

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische oorlogskinderen in Horst en Sevenum

In 2008 is het negentig jaar geleden dat er een einde kwam aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Nederland was in die oorlog neutraal. Maar dat betekende niet dat de oorlog helemaal aan ons land voorbijging. Vanaf het uitbreken van de oorlog in 1914 sloegen honderdduizenden mensen uit België op de vlucht voor het geweld. Ze kwamen bijna allemaal in Nederland terecht. De meesten werden opgevangen in grote kampen boven de grote rivieren. Maar ook in Limburg verbleven veel vluchtelingen. In Horst en Sevenum werden tijdens de oorlogsjaren vooral Belgische kinderen opgevangen.

Dendermonde was een van de Belgische steden die het ergst door het oorlogsgeweld was getroffen. Bij de oorlogshandelingen in september en oktober 1914 bleven slechts 98 van de meer dan tweeduizend woningen die de stad telde, onbeschadigd. Duizenden inwoners moesten op zoek naar nieuwe huisvesting. Vooral kinderen hadden het zwaar: ze sliepen soms in groepen van tien tot vijftien in varkensstallen en schuren omdat hun woningen met de grond gelijk waren gemaakt. In Nederland zette een comité zich in voor de huisvesting van Belgische ‘oorlogskinderen’. Dit comité besliste dat een aantal van de dakloze kinderen uit Dendermonde en het nabijgelegen Zele in Horst zou worden ondergebracht. Begin februari 1915 arriveerde een grote vrachtwagen met 32 kinderen in Horst. Later zou nog een tweede groep van omstreeks twintig Belgische kinderen in Horst worden opgevangen. In Sevenum kwamen op 24 februari en 9 maart 1915 in totaal 73 kinderen aan. Een groot deel van hen kwam uit Antwerpen of directe omgeving. Verder waren er elf afkomstig uit Zele, tien uit Grembergen en zes uit Dendermonde.

De kinderen varieerden in leeftijd van 4 tot 14 jaar. Ze bleven vrijwel allemaal de hele oorlog in Horst en Sevenum. Het merendeel was ondergebracht bij particulieren, maar in Horst vond een aantal kinderen ook onderdak in het Sint-Antoniusgesticht (het huidige Gasthoes) en in Sevenum in het zustersklooster. Het benodigde geld voor de opvang van de kinderen werd vergaard door donaties en collectes. Bovendien verleende het Rijk subsidie voor elk kind dat werd opgevangen.

Hoe enkele van de kinderen die in Horst en Sevenum waren ondergebracht hun verblijf hebben ervaren, valt hieronder te lezen.

Irma Moortgat - De 14-jarige Irma Moortgat vond aan de Gasthuisstraat in Horst onderdak bij dokter Koning en zijn zus Ida: ‘Ik deed er boodschappen en moest de dienstmeid helpen. Ik was er zeer graag en kreeg mooie kleren. Mijn moeder stuurde me af en toe brieven. Eens zat er een foto van mijn jongste broertje in. Dokter Koning werd helaas ziek en verhuisde naar Goor. Ik ben toen ca. een jaar in het St.-Antoniusgesticht geweest. Juffrouw Koning betaalde mijn kost, inwoning en kleding en vooral ook wit brood, omdat ik geen bruin lustte. Ik kreeg van haar veel brieven. Soms kwam zij mij opzoeken en ging dan met me eten in hotel Timmermans aan de Markt. Juffrouw Koning zorgde er ook voor dat ik, met toestemming van de Eerwaarde Moeder van het Gesticht, een post als dienstbode kreeg. Dat was bij hoofdonderwijzer Hoppenbrouwers-van Hees in Gestel (Eindhoven). Ik verdiende f 6,- per maand en spaarde die voor moeder. Toen ik weer thuis kwam, had ik f 94,- bij elkaar. Ik ben bij de Gestelse familie gebleven, totdat de oorlog voorbij was.’

Omer Moortgat - Omer Moortgat was bij aankomst in Horst 9 jaar: ‘In Horst aangekomen, werd ik niet in een gezin maar, samen met mijn broertje René, bij de Zusters in het Gesticht ondergebracht. De weduwe van notaris Van den Bergh had me geadopteerd, d.w.z. zij betaalde de verzorgkosten en mijn kleren aan de Zusters. Zelf kreeg ik van haar een zilveren zakhorloge met mijn naam erin gegraveerd. Ik ben vaker bij haar thuis geweest en ben haar erg dankbaar. In het Gesticht sliepen we op zolder. In de winter hingen de ijspegels soms tot op het bed. Als we ons wilden wassen, moesten we eerst het ijs op de wasbakken kapot slaan. Eten deden we in de kelders. Soms kregen we 3 à 4 dagen niets dan blauwe bonen. René vond die afschuwelijk, maar iets anders kreeg hij niet. De mensen van Horst waren vriendelijk. Boeren gaven soms wat melk te drinken. In het Gesticht kregen we die nooit. Bakker Houben riep ons vaker binnen en dan mochten we de overgebleven taartjes opeten. Op school had ik het goed naar de zin. De onderwijzers waren aardig en ook de leerlingen. Sommige Belgische jongens waren zodanige vlegels dat ze niet langer in hun pleegezin gehandhaafd konden worden. Ze kwamen dan in het Gesticht. Datzelfde gebeurde als een gezin zelf in financiële of andere problemen geraakte.’

Jozef Rydant - Jozef Rydant kwam op 5-jarige leeftijd naar Horst: ‘In Horst ging ik naar de kleuterschool. De Zusters, die de school leidden, vond ik wel aardig. Ook met mijn pleegvader, veldwachter Bovens, had ik het heel goed getroffen. Zijn vrouw kon niet zo goed met kinderen omgaan. Ze was wat stijfjes. Waarschijnlijk was het ook vanwege haar, dat mijn zus en ik overgeplaatst werden naar het Gesticht. Daar kwam mevrouw Bovens ons echter nog geregeld opzoeken. Mijn herinneringen aan het St.-Antoniusgesticht zijn niet erg positief. De sfeer was er wat pensionaatachtig. Ik weet bijvoorbeeld nog dat ik eens twee dagen lang gedwongen werd om spek, dat ik niet lustte, toch op te eten. Mijn vader, die veekoopman was, en een van mijn broers zijn in de oorlog naar Duitsland weggevoerd. Mijn moeder was in die moeilijke tijd een dappere statige vrouw. Ze bezocht ons 2 à 3 keer in Horst. Toen zij eens aan notaris Esser over de gruwelijke toestanden in België vertelde, geloofde die haar niet.’

Charles Willems - De 8-jarige Charles Willems werd in februari 1915 naar de speelplaats van de Zustersschool in Sevenum gebracht. Daar konden inwoners van Sevenum hun pleegkind komen uitzoeken. Charles Willems: ‘Maar aangezien ik te schaemel was, wou niemand me hebben. Uiteindelijk nam de zeer godsdienstige familie Aerts-Pouwels, wonend op de Blaktdijk, me op. Zij wilden liever een meisje, maar als ik door mijn zwakte dood zou gaan, dan zouden zij een engeltje in de hemel brengen en dat was in die tijd een extra verdienste om zelf nog hoger in de hemel te komen. De familie Aerts had zelf geen kinderen en wilde me adopteren. Dat werd echter niet toegestaan. Wel mocht ik na 1918 in Sevenum blijven, mits mijn ouders me daarvoor toestemming gaven. Ik had het goed naar mijn zin in mijn pleeggezin omdat ik beschouwd werd als student. Vader Aerts zag me graag priester worden. Mijn belangstelling ging echter uit naar alles wat met radio’s te maken had. Ik werd dan ook radiomonteur en bleef 48 jaar in Sevenum wonen! Men noemde mij daar vaak "D’n Bels".

http://www.hephorst.nl/wo1/belgisch.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sint-Bavo (Sint-Baafs)kerk Westrozebeke

Reeds voor 1300 vereerde men op een bijzondere wijze Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Westrozebeke. De ommegang vond zijn oorsprong na de slag van Westrozebeke (1382).
De graaf van Vlaanderen, Filips de Stoute, met gravin Margarethe van Male, kwamen in 1384 met veel luister en een groot gevolg op bedevaart.
In 1566 vernielden de beeldenstormers ook het beeld van Onze-Lieve-Vrouw, en de kerk werd gesloten.
Het duurde tot 1584 om de eredienst opnieuw in te richten, en een nieuw beeld van Onze-Lieve-Vrouw in te huldigen.
Op 9 maart 1915, tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, bracht men het beeld naar de Sint-Michielskerk van Roeselare, en op 19 november 1917 van Roeselare naar Hamme (Oost-Vlaanderen). Na de oorlog op 1 juni 1919 kwam het terug naar Roeselare. Op 25 april 1920 bracht Roeselare onder zeer grote belangstelling en op plechtige wijze het beeld terug naar West-Rozebeke voor de intronisatie in een noodbarak. Daar vereerde men het beeld tot de definitieve overplaatsing naar de nieuwe kerk op 13 juni 1924.

http://www.kerkeninvlaanderen.be/pages/kerk_01530.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Humenné

Humenné (Hongaars: Homonna, Duits: Homenau) is een stad in het oosten van Slowakije. De twintigste eeuw bracht culturele vernieuwing en Humenné stond bekend vanwege haar markten en beurzen. Deze veelbelovende ontwikkeling werd onderbroken door de Eerste Wereldoorlog, en op 23 november 1914 werd de stad kortstondig bezet door Russische troepen, die zich echter op 9 maart 1915 weer terugtrokken over de Karpaten.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humenn%C3%A9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 9, 1913: Virginia Woolf delivers her first novel, The Voyage Out

Thirty-one-year-old writer Virginia Woolf delivers the manuscript of her first novel, The Voyage Out, to her publisher. Coincidentally, this date was also the 21st birthday of Woolf's future lover, Vita Sackville-West, who Woolf would not meet until 1925.

Woolf, born Adeline Virginia Stephen in London in 1882, grew up surrounded by intellectuals. Her father was a writer and philosopher, and her mother was a British aristocrat. In 1902, Virginia's father died, and she took a house with her sister and two brothers in the Bloomsbury district in London near the British Museum. The family developed close friendships with other intellectuals and writers, including writer E.M. Forster, economist J.M. Keyes, and biographer Lytton Strachey. Their group came to be known as the Bloomsbury Group, a leisured set known later for their intellectual and sexual nonconformism: Many of the group, including Woolf herself, were bisexual or homosexual. Woolf became a regular contributor to the Times Literary Supplement and also took odd jobs to support herself until she inherited a comfortable income from an aunt.

Virginia married writer and social reformer Leonard Woolf in 1912. The couple established the Hogarth Press in their dining room several years later. In addition to Virginia Woolf's later novels, the press also published T.S. Eliot and translations of Chekhov and Dostoevsky.

Woolf published her ground-breaking novel, Mrs. Dalloway, in 1925. Its stream-of-consciousness structure deeply influenced later writers. That same year, she fell in love with poet Sackville-West, who was married to the bisexual diplomat and author Harold Nichols. The affair produced Woolf's most whimsical work, Orlando. Woolf wrote several more novels as well as social and literary criticism. However, she was given to depressive spells and battled mental illness all her life. In 1941, fearful for her own mental state and afraid of the coming World War, she filled her pockets with rocks and drowned herself.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/virginia-woolf-delivers-her-first-novel-the-voyage-out
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Luchtfoto van Kitchener's Wood op 9 maart 1916.



Op de foto zijn duidelijk de Duitse loopgraven aan de zuidelijke rand te zien. De zwarte lijnen die door het bos lopen, zijn kleine spoorwegjes die door de Duitsers aangelegd zijn. Links van het bos is de Bruine Broekstraat. De zwarte vlekjes zijn tientallen obusputten.

http://www.digilife.be/teleducatie/vbssj/omd98/omd8.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9th March 1917, a bad day for 40 Sqn RFC

It must have appeared to the locals as if it were raining F.E.8s on the 9th of March 1917, as the Albatros fighters of Manfred von Richthofen's Jagdstaffel 11 tore through an offensive patrol from 40 Squadron RFC, shooting down or badly damaging six of the enemy aircraft in as many minutes.





Meer foto's op http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/aircraft/51250-9th-march-1917-bad-day-40-sqn-rfc.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 maart 1918: St. Petersburg, Petrograd, Moskou

Petrograd (St. Petersburg) is niet langer de hoofdstad van het Russische rijk, wanneer op 9 maart 1918 Moskou opnieuw de belangrijkste stad van het land wordt. Moskou was al eerder de hoofdstad van het land, maar moest haar positie in 1712 afstaan aan St. Petersburg, op last van tsaar Peter I. Deze tsaar had in 1703 St. Petersburg gesticht en verplaatste alle belangrijke functies naar zijn nieuwe stad.

St. Petersburg heette van 1914 tot 1924 Petrograd en vervolgens Leningrad. Sinds 1991 heet de stad weer officieel St. Petersburg.
Tegenwoordig wonen er zo'n 5 miljoen mensen en is het, na Moskou, de tweede stad van het land.

http://www.nueens.nl/394/moskou-de-nieuwe-hoofdstad-van-rusland.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stichtelijke openingstoespraak wekt wrevel

De Landbouwhogeschool en het weekblad De Dageraad voerden jarenlang allebei een zaaier als symbool. Maar dat betekent niet dat ze het altijd met elkaar eens waren. De stichtelijke toon van de toespraak die president-curator Schelto van Citters hield bij de oprichting van de LH op 9 maart 1918, viel bij het blad niet in goede aarde. ‘Dat dergelijke onzin in de twintigste eeuw nog verkondigd durft te worden.’


Statieportret van hoogleraren en notabelen op het bordes van het
Wageningse stadhuis op 9 maart 1918. Vooraan in grijs kostuum prins
Hendrik. De derde persoon rechts van de prins is jonkheer Van Citters,
die de gewraakte toespraak hield
.

De dag van 9 Maart 1918 zal ongetwijfeld met gulden letters in de geschiedenis van onzen vaderlandschen landbouw worden opgeteekend’, zo begint het liberale landelijke ochtendblad De Nieuwe Courant haar verslag over de officiële opening van ‘de tot Landbouw-Hoogeschool verheven instelling te Wageningen’. Het blad, in 1923 overgenomen door het NRC, spreekt de verwachting uit dat de hogeschool ‘niet alleen ten zegen kan strekken van den boerenstand, maar ook van ons geheele volk’. De opening van de Landbouwhogeschool leidt tot een landelijke publiciteitsgolf. In het historisch archief van Wageningen UR zijn vooral lovende persuitingen bewaard, maar daartussen zit ook één zeer kritisch artikel uit weekblad De Dageraad, de spreekbuis van de Nederlandse vrijdenkers. Onder de kop ‘Het comediespel te Wageningen’ wordt fel van leer getrokken tegen het feit dat de opening van de LH plaatsvond in de kerk van de Nederlands Hervormde Gemeente. ‘Eerst werd een toespraak tot de genoodigden op het stadhuis gehouden en, alsof dit niet mooi genoeg was, ging men het daarna nog eens dunnetjes overdoen in de kerk. De ‘Lieve Heer’ mocht niet vergeten worden, zijn zegen moest over het werk afgesmeekt worden.’ Het blad is vooral vernietigend over de toespraak van jonkheer mr. Schelto van Citters, die als president-curator – zeg maar voorzitter van de raad van toezicht – inderdaad een opmerkelijk stichtelijk betoog hield. Van Citters, destijds Commissaris der Koningin in Gelderland, richtte zich speciaal tot degenen ‘die geroepen worden hier de wetenschap te beoefenen’. ‘Het is een groot voorrecht het leven te mogen wijden aan de studie der natuur; steeds dieper te mogen indringen in het wonderwerk der schepping’, aldus Van Citters. Hij benadrukte echter wel : ‘Indien dit slechts geschiedt in den geest van nederigheid, in het besef dat het God is, die de wetten in het rijk der natuur gesteld heeft en dat elke vordering der wetenschap, elke nieuwe ontdekking een ruimer blik geeft in den onnaspeurlijken rijkdom van het scheppingswerk, zóó, dat ook in eigen ziel opleeft de lofkreet van den gewijden dichter: Heer, onze Heer, hoe heerlijk zijn Uwe werken op de gansche aarde.’ ‘Dat dergelijke onzin nog in de twintigste eeuw bij de officiëele opening van een openbare school verkondigd durft te worden, bewijst wel voldoende hoe noodzakelijk het nog steeds is den godsdienst te bestrijden’, schrijft De Dageraad. ‘Wat weet jhr.mr. S. van Citters af van een god, die de wetten in het rijk der natuur gesteld heeft? Is hij soms bij den ‘Lieven Heer’ op visite geweest, dat hij zoo goed omtrent het doen en laten van hem op de hoogte is?’ De ondertitel van De Dageraad – ‘weekblad tot zedelijke en verstandelijke ontwikkeling van den mensch en tot bestrijding van den godsdienst in al zijn vormen’- verklaart wellicht de felle toon van de berichtgeving. Het protestants-christelijke Friesch Dagblad haalt ook dezelfde woorden van de president-curator aan, maar dan juist lovend: ‘Zulke een woord op zijn pas, geeft hem die het sprak, recht op onze warmen dank’. Het Friesch Dagblad verschijnt nog immer. De Dageraad hield in 1925 op te bestaan.

http://resource.wur.nl/organisatie/detail/stichtelijke-openingstoespraak-wekt-wrevel/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Mrt 2011 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finland - Wrakduiken in Åland
01-01-10

Oorlogsmonument
Een volgende duik maken we op de Hindenburg, hier wordt het duiken een stuk technischer. Qua diepte bevindt dit wrak zich binnen de limieten, maar al ga je het wrak niet in, dan nog duurt een duik op het schip zo lang dat je zonder dubbelset en stages niet ver komt. Na een vrije afdaling naar zevenendertig meter zien we het achterdek opdoemen. De hoogtepunten van deze duik zijn twee goed bewaarde scheepstelegrafen, de commandobrug, de scheepsklok, de afgebroken schoorsteen, de boegspriet en de enorme schroef. Ik ben blij dat de isolerende eigenschappen van het argongas de omgevingstemperatuur van vier graden iets acceptabeler maken.
De Hindenburg was oorspronkelijk een ijsbreker, maar werd als mijnveger gebruikt. Op 9 maart 1918 liep het schip op een mijn die was bedekt met een laag ijs. Door de explosie brak de boeg af en zonk het schip. De Hindenburg is geklasseerd als oorlogsmonument, er mag dan ook maar twintig keer per jaar door ervaren duikers op gedoken worden.

http://www.duiken.nl/index.php?pageid=33&newsitemtitle=finland---wrakduiken-in-land
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Dorothea Allison to Milborough Mackay, 9 March [1914]

March 9th - Canada

Dearest Mib,

It is dreadful the way I have gone on waiting to write to you. I fell head over heels at first — Then waited for a snap shot of the wedding group taken by Frank Rimmer. It is misleading as it leads one to suppose I was married in Church — which I wasn’t as I was marrying a non Catholic. But the priest let us out thro the church from the Vestry so Frank took us on the doorstep. hope [sic] you will observe the white ruffle which you gave me. It was quite an air to my get up. And does not the fur coat look quite saucy. I had a new collar put on to it & used the old collar in patching up gone parts. Bob absolutely refused to let me see your letter til I actually was Mrs. Allison! He really is the greatest treasure. He has put on 13 lbs. in six weeks since married!

I very much appreciated your letters from Aden and Port Sail. As it is a very alarming time just before marriage! & certainly a very lonely time in a great big country with — on the whole — very uncongenial people around me. Miss Wentworth was a dear & the Venables kind so I was lucky to have some one to stay with.

I had a horrid cold — the sort of thing I would go and get. So only got up from bed in time to dress & drive in from the Coldstream to Vernon. When we got down here after lunch Bob’s sister who had a baby a few days after! was here with her two little children to receive me. She helped me (when I unpacked the sheets) make the bed & then departed. Everything was awful for a few days as the new rooms were not furnished but now we are getting quite comfortable & my “living room” as the Canadians call a sitting room looks sweet — your rugs [sic] a great success & so light and nice to take up and shake — a thing much appreciated. Of course work is pretty constant — there is the butter to make & the bread besides the ordinary daily cooking etc. & washing. But Bob is very good in lending a hand & after all there is nothing interesting in this country except the great uncleared land so one might as well be busy in ones house & I have lots to learn as you can imagine.

Give Mrs. Butterworth my love when you see her — I hope she is better than last year.

How have you been since you have been out again? I hope you will write very soon to me in this land of exile and tell me all news.

Did you like Mrs.?! Nilas friend on board — with a baby?

How is Charlie — & where are you going for the hot weather. I often think of Pamba house. It is one of the loveliest places in the world.

Very much love

Bob sends love.

Your loving sister

Dorothea Allison

https://www.lakecountrymuseum.com/our-collections/dorothea-allison-to-milborough-mackay-9-march-1914/
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Charlie Chaplin -- Tango Tangles -- (9 March 1914)

Uit de tijd dat de Little Tramp de Little Tramp nog niet was...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeNRJxo9oeA
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 8:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arrest of Emmeline Pankhurst in Glasgow

Emmeline Pankhurst visited St Andrew's Hall in Glasgow on 9 March 1914 to address a large meeting of the Women's Social and Political Union, the more militant suffragette organisation that she helped to found in 1903, knowing she was subject to re-arrest under the ‘Cat and Mouse Act’. Mrs Pankhurst was smuggled into the hall inside a laundry basket and appeared on stage before the police rushed in. Rioting followed, the police drew batons and several suffragette supporters, including Mrs Pankhurst, were hurt and arrested.

Members of the audience were appalled by the behaviour of the police and wrote letters of complaint to the Lord Provost of Glasgow and the local newspapers. The Chief Constable of Glasgow interviewed his officers and on 26 March 1914, he submitted his report to the Under Secretary for Scotland denying the accusations. The Town Council called a Special Meeting of the Magistrates Committee to gather evidence and investigate the alleged ill treatment of women. Male and female witnesses provided their accounts of events. In the end, the Committee decided that there was no cause for complaint against the police and Walter Scott, the Secretary for Scotland, refused to appoint a Commissioner to conduct a public enquiry into the arrest of Mrs Pankhurst.

The sources are statements made by two men who were present at the public meeting.

Voor de bronnen, even doorklikken... http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/suffragettes/emmelinePankhurst.asp
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HANSARD → 9 March 1915 → Written Answers (Commons) → WAR.

PRISONERS OF WAR.

Mr. BOWERMAN asked the Financial Secretary to the War Office whether he can state how many prisoners of war are interned at the aliens camps at Knockaloe, Peel, Isle of Man, and at Douglas, Isle of Man, respectively; what was the cost of fitting out and furnishing each camp; how much money is allowed to feed each man; whether any clothes or boots have been given to the men and, if so, the cost for each camp; and what is the expense of administration of each camp, including the salaries of the staff employed?

Mr. McKENNA There are at the present time 2,578 Germans interned at Knockaloe Camp, and 2,449 at Douglas Camp. Accommodation for a further 2,500 is being provided at Knockaloe. The Isle of Man Government is in charge of both camps, and reports that the cost of fitting them out, including huts, lighting, furniture and stores will be, when both camps are completed, about £28,000. The greater part of this sum will have been expended at Knockaloe, as a holiday camp which was already in existence at Douglas was placed at the disposal of the Island1264W Government, and has been adapted for the present purpose at comparatively little cost. The Island Government states that the cost of the food for the men, together with the cost of clothing and boots, and the expenses of administration, is covered by the weekly allowance of 10s. per man which is made to them by the Home Government. I hope that in the present pressure of work my hon. Friend will not ask for further particulars, the collection of which would involve considerable labour.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1915/mar/09/prisoners-of-war
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9 March 1915 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage

9 March 1915 - Captain reports submarine attack near Channel Islands


The master of the SS Lydia claimed that an enemy submarine attacked his vessel this week while it was en route from Jersey to England. Torpedoes were reportedly fired at the ship, although fortunately they did not hit their intended target.

There has been considerable anxiety since it became known that German U-Boats were now operating in the Channel and around the coasts of Britain. Emerging from the recently captured Belgian port of Ostend, the enemy submarines have been active since the start of the year. In February, the enemy announced that any vessel within the designated war zone was considered a target and may be attacked without warning. It seems the Lydia, which was on her way to Southampton with a complement of passengers, may have had a lucky escape.

News of the attempted attack has prompted further questions as to whether the Channel Islands could be used by the enemy as supply depots for enemy submarines. Jersey Lieutenant Governor, General Rochfort, is dismissive of the idea however, claiming the waters around the Islands are to shallow and rocky for submarines to operate.

Bekijk de correspondentie... https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/9-march-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 8:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ON THIS DATE IN THEIR OWN WORDS: MARIA ROMANOV- 9 MARCH, 1916.

1916 letter from Maria Romanov to Nicholas II
: 9 March. My dear darling Papa! Today is Spring already, but it’s 7 [degrees below] here and snowing with wind. Completely unacceptable. [I] just finished breakfast. Olga and Tatiana are going to Petrograd for charities and committee, and will have tea at Grandmama’s, and will also stop by Aunt Ksenia’s who feels terrible and does not leave the house. I will now go to our infirmary with A. Nikolai Dmitrievich [Demenkov] bade farewell to Mama. Before that, the regiment had a goodbye party for him in the evening at 7 o’clock, which only ended at 5 in the morning, so Resin looked rather sad, and when he was leaving the room [he] almost knocked over a vase with flowers, and his voice was not very nice either. But N.D. himself was very charming. I have not seen him since then, and don’t even expect to anymore. Right now Anastasia is sitting here and playing the balalaika. Well so long, my dear. I kiss you affectionately and apologize for a boring letter. Your Kazanetz. May Christ be with you. +

http://www.theromanovfamily.com/date-words-maria-romanov-9-march-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 8:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postcard from Margaret Ripley to her mother, sent 9 March 1915

Sent by a nurse, Margaret Ripley, to her mother back in England. As far as I can tell (corrections and additions welcome) this reads: "9.3.13 So nice to have a home again. we don't know what teh cook will be like yet. S is full of complaints again. We go at 8.30a.. Come back at 12 go again at 2 till 4 tea here go back at 5 or 5.30 so you see we are not overworked. S had no patients so she has changed & is with [?] lady no so that does not suit her. [?] still in bed without voice [?] comes every day - very nice. She is not ill a bit only voiceless. Love Mar"

Bekijk de kaart op https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Postcard_from_Margaret_Ripley_to_her_mother,_sent_9_March_1915_(6267675626).jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 March 1916, Part I: Newton Baker Sworn In as Secretary of War

Abstract - This invited blog post explores the appointment of Newton D. Baker to the post of Secretary of War during the Woodrow Wilson Administration.

Comments - This post appeared on the site "Roads to the Great War," on 9 March 2016, the 100th anniversary of Secretary Baker's appointment. The site is curated by historian Mike Hanlon. Here is the url: http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2016/03/9-march-1916-part-i-newton-baker-sworn.html

Recommended Citation
Muchowski, Keith J., "9 March 1916, Part I: Newton Baker Sworn In as Secretary of War" (2016). CUNY Academic Works.
https://academicworks.cuny.edu/ny_pubs/102

Read al about it! https://academicworks.cuny.edu/ny_pubs/102/
Ook hier: https://academicworks.cuny.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1100&context=ny_pubs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 8:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Sketch, Number 2184, March 9, 1916

Description - The Daily Sketch was a British tabloid newspaper, established in Manchester in 1909 by Sir Edward Hulton (1869–1925), one of the leading newspaper proprietors of his era. Hulton soon moved the paper to London, where it competed with the other leading British tabloid, the Daily Mirror. Like his father Edward Hulton (died 1904), Hulton was an astute entrepreneur who regarded newspaper publishing as primarily a commercial enterprise. He and his editors attracted a large readership by offering human interest news stories, news about sports, serialized stories, competitions in which readers could win prizes, and other features that entertained as much as they informed. Hulton early recognized the possibilities of picture journalism, and the front and back pages of the Daily Sketch always were given over completely to photographs. Many people in Britain came to see World War I through the prism of the newspaper, which devoted extensive coverage to the war. Presented here are 144 issues of the Daily Sketch from April 9, 1915, to May 31, 1916. Each issue generally contained news about the battles on the Western Front and other theaters of the war, with much attention paid to the wounded and to war heroes; information about the activities of the British royal family and other notables; news about the home front; features about women and families; short articles on political and social issues; cartoons; serialized stories; and advertisements. The issues generally ran to 12 pages.

https://www.wdl.org/en/item/19151/
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T. E. Lawrence Society - The international Society for everyone with an interest in the life of T. E. Lawrence

9 MARCH 1917

“Dear Colonel Wilson,

“Please excuse what is going to be a hurried note. MacRury got here this morning, and his news is rather sudden. I hoped to get it up to Newcombe, but cannot, as he is coming in, without saying by what road …

“In the circumstances … I got Feisul to take action. In spite of General Clayton’s orders I told him something of the situation. It would have been impossible for me to have done anything myself on the necessary scale. One must inform one’s G.O.C.! …

“I’m afraid it will be touch and go.

“I am taking some Garland mines with me, if I can find instantaneous fuse, and if there is time, will set them, as near Medina as possible: it is partly for this reason that I am going up myself, and partly with a view to smashing Hedia, if it can anyhow be done.

“Feisal will do everything he can. Only it’s fearfully short notice.”


(T. E. Lawrence to Colonel Wilson, The Letters of T. E. Lawrence, edited by David Garnett, published by Jonathan Cape, 1938)

In the evening of 8 March, an urgent message from General Clayton in Cairo announced that intelligence had been received suggesting that the Turks had been ordered to evacuate Medina and take up a new defensive position near Maan.

For General Archibald Murray, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, who was planning an imminent attack on Gaza, the arrival of a large Turkish force in the area posed an unforeseen nuisance! Clayton issued orders that every effort must be made to hold the Turks within Medina or to destroy them as they withdrew.

In Wejh, Lawrence found himself temporarily the senior officer. He decided to ride to Wadi Ais to spur Abdullah into action against the nearby railway.

http://www.telsociety.org.uk/9-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Week in World War One, 9 March 1917 | Northumberland Archives

BERWICK ADVERTISER, 9 MARCH 1917 - LOCAL NEWS

German Claims Descent from Grace Darling – At Liverpool a charge of making a false statement was preferred against Weximilian Eugene Backhans (37), and alleged German who posed as a Belgian. A detective stated that prisoner married an English woman 14 years ago, and claimed that his wife was a descendant of Grace Darling. There were three children. Before the war the prisoner was known as a German, and had boasted of what Germany could do to England. Evidence was given by an hotel manager and a waiter, who had known and worked with accused, that he was undoubtedly a German. The latter witness added he knew accused to be German, and once gave him a thrashing, “Only as recently as January, “said witness. “I met him. I am in the Volunteers, and said to him: Haven’t the interned you yet? I’ll see that they do. I’m not going to do volunteering if your at large.” Accused contended that he was born at Ostend. The magistrate said accused must go to gaol for three months.

Wát!? http://www.northumberlandarchives.com/2017/03/10/this-week-in-world-war-one-9-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 March 1917 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

Frederick Albert Williamson of Cheeseman’s Creek sends news from the Western Front. He describes the weather as atrocious and says: Of late we have been fighting in mud up to our waist … I have lost nearly all my old comrades – new faces wherever one looks – but we are all brothers together, and one is at home anywhere. I am sure, father, when the time comes and they let us return home, and I tell all of you the narrow escapes I have had, they will make your hair rise.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/9-march-1917/
Hier de brief van Williamson: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/117823520/13052197
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Film: inspecting the troops, 1917

Walter Long, Secretary for the Colonies, inspects New Zealand troops near Bailleul, northern France, on 9 March 1917. Long is greeted by the New Zealand divisional commander, Major-General Sir Andrew Russell. They inspect the 2nd NZ Infantry Brigade and other units, including the NZ Pioneer Battalion. Long is escorted by Major Peter H. Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa).

Filmpje. https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/video/film-inspecting-the-troops-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Einstein. Autograph letter signed (‘Albert’) to Michele Besso, [Berlin], 9 March 1917.

'Your suggestion about relativity is right. But the little book is finished, the proof corrections almost completed, so that I can make no further use of it': Einstein is rather dissatisfied with the way his book has come out, finding it rather wooden – in future he might leave the writing part to someone else with 'more facility in self-expression and a better sense of order'. Besso will have received Einstein's article 'Cosmological considerations on the general theory of relativity': 'It is at least a proof that general relativity can lead to a system free of contradictions. Until now there was always the fear that 'infinity' would hide insoluble contradictions. Unfortunately there seems little prospect of being able to verify the propositions in reality. If one relies upon the researches of astronomers about the density of distribution of stars, one comes to the order of magnitude R=107 light years, whereas visibility reaches only as far as R=104 light years ... One mustn't forget that the curvature of space is irregular, so that light rays travel in a medium filled with streaks ['mit Schlieren']'. Some recent work on quanta has brought him back to the idea of a spatial quantum aspect to radiant energy: 'But I have a feeling that the actual joke which the eternal riddle-maker poses for us here has not yet been grasped'.

Einstein is putting off a projected visit to Zurich until the summer, a time at which a journey is easier on 'my creaking carcass' – the doctor has diagnosed him with gall stones: 'water cure, strict diet ... I am in fact feeling much better, no longer in pain and I look healthier’. He is however deeply pessimistic about the political situation (after three years of war), sensing pathological aspect to the general outlook, and comparing the times to 'witch-hunts and similar outbursts of religious madness'.

Bekijk de brief op https://onlineonly.christies.com/s/einstein-letters-friend-part-i/einstein-eternal-riddle-maker-10/42208
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 March 1917 – 40 Squadron mauled

40 Squadron RFC were on the end of what was clearly a pre-planned joint operation by Jasta 11 and anti-aircraft gunners on the ground near Oppy. The RFC communiqué reported:

“…nine FE8s of 40 Squadron, whilst patrolling over Oppy in the morning, were unusually heavily fired at by anti-aircraft guns for about five minutes. Two hostile aircraft appeared well to the east of the patrol. The anti-aircraft fire suddenly ceased and eight or more hostile machines dived from above the clouds onto the FE patrol. Apparently the two machines, the anti-aircraft and the formation of hostile aircraft were working in accordance with a pre-arranged plan. In the combat that ensued at least one hostile machine was destroyed. Three of our machines failed to return and the remainder were badly shot about. One FE just succeeded in reaching our lines when it burst into flames. The pilot, who had been twice wounded, jumped from the machine. The fight lasted for about half an hour.”

The first to go down was 2nd Lieutenant T Shepard in FE8 6456 who was claimed by Leutnant Kurt Wolff. He landed behind enemy lines and was taken prisoner. Shortly after this, Leutnant Karl Allmenroder severely damaged 2nd Lieutenant Rupert Ernest Neve’s FE8 6399. He fled for the lines and had just crossed them when the aircraft burst into flames and Neve was forced to jump from the aircraft. Remarkably he survived through he was seriously injured.

After this, Leutnant Karl Schaeffer shot down 2nd Lieutenant William Brading Hills in FE8 6397 and then Lieutenant Geoffrey Frank Haseler in FE8 A4874. Both men were taken prisoner.

A hostile machine was claimed by 2nd Lieutenant Henry Cuthbert Todd before his FE8 6425 was shot up and he made a forced landing behind the lines. Lieutenant William Morrice in FE8 7836 suffered a similar fate. .

Manfred von Richthofen made up for failing to score in this battle by shooting down in flames 2nd Lieutenant Arthur John Pearson MC from 29 Squadron in DH2 A2571. Pearson was killed.

The disaster resulted in the immediate replacement of the remaining FE8s with Nieuports. 41 Squadron RFC was the only unit left flying the onsolete FE8.

airwar19141918 - The British At War in the Air 1914-1918 - https://airwar19141918.wordpress.com/2017/03/15/9-march-1917-40-squadron-mauled/
Ook hier http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=67485
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bygone news: 9 Mar 1917 – The Macclesfield Times

ROLL OF HONOUR
SOLDIER’S SAD END – KILLED AT HIS OWN GUN – GUNNER J H BARLOW
Mrs Barlow, 4 Copper St, Macclesfield, has been informed that her husband, Gunner Joseph Henry Barlow, Royal Garrison Artillery, died in hospital at Rouen on February 27th from severe burns about the body, hands and face, accidentally sustained in action. He was injured by a shell which exploded backwards. The deceased was 27 years of age, and leaves two children. A native of Macclesfield, he received his education at Daybrook Street School, and was connected with Hurdsfield Sunday School. Gunner Barlow enlisted last June, and was formerly employed as a weaver at the Lower Heyes Mill. After training at Gosport, he was drafted out to France five months ago. His brother, Private Walter Barlow, Cheshire Regt, was recently discharged from the army on account of wounds; and another brother, Private Ernest Barlow, has just gone out to France.

SHOT BY A SNIPER – ANOTHER MACCLESFIELD LOSS
Mr and Mrs Arthur Bradshaw, 6 Newton Street, Macclesfield, have been informed of the death in action in France of their son, Signaller Harry Bradshaw, of the Manchester Regt. The sad news was contained in a letter from the deceased soldier’s platoon commander, Second-Lieut C Danziger: …your son… took part in an attack on a strong German position at dawn on February 25th, and it was after the final objective had been gained that he was killed, He had served in my platoon during the last two months, earning the respect of both officers and men.. a cheery and fearless soldier, quick to perform his duty… Wilfred Wright, a comrade of the deceased soldier… [wrote]: He was shot in the stomach by a sniper… about nine o’clock in the morning, and he died almost instantaneously. I myself miss him very much, for I have been his constant companion for over 18 months… Signaller Bradshaw was 20 years of age and received his education at the Crompton Road and Christ Church day schools. He was a member of the Parish Church Men’s Bible Class and was also connected with the Large Sunday School. Prior to enlistment, on the outbreak of war, he was employed at the Chester Road Mill. He was drafted out to France about seven months ago. His brother, Lance-Corporal Bradshaw, is serving with the Welsh Regt in Egypt.

LOCAL MEN AT THE FRONT
A MACCLESFIELD OFFICER IN THE FLYING CORPS
Mr Harold E Eaton, only son of Mr Alderman Eaton, has received a commission in the Royal FLying Corps. He has been serving for some time in the Liverpool Scottish, which he joined as a private. Lieut Eaton is 21 years of age and was educated at the Macclesfield Grammar School. He was over on short leave this week.

IN MEMORIAM
HUNT – In loving memory of Private Ralph Hunt, 1st Cheshire Regt, who was killed in action March 9th, 1915.
One of the first to answer the call,
He made the greatest sacrifice of all.
Somewhere in France in a nameless grave
Lies our hero amongst the brave
.
Always remembered by his wife and little son.

http://macclesfieldreflects.org.uk/1917/03/09/bygone-news-9-mar-1917-the-macclesfield-times/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in Aviation - 9 March 1918

9 March 1918: Captain James Ely Miller, commanding officer, 95th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, American Expeditionary Force, accepted the invitation of Major Davenport Johnson to join him and Major Harmon for a short patrol over the lines in three SPAD S.VII C.1 fighters borrowed from a French squadron.

Major Harmon’s SPAD had engine trouble and he turned back. Major Johnson and Captain Miller continued and encountered four German fighters near Juvincourt-et-Damary in northern France. Shortly after the air battle began, Major Johnson abandoned the fight, leaving Captain Miller on his own. Captain Miller was shot down near Corbény, France.

The German pilot who downed Miller and a German intelligence officer who had rushed to the crash scene witnessed Captain Miller’s dying words in which he cursed Major Davenport Johnson for leaving him during the air battle.

On 12 March, Major Johnson assumed command of the 95th.

Captain Miller was the first United States airman to be killed in combat. In 1919, Miller Field, Staten Island, New York, was named in his honor. His remains were buried at the Oise-Aisne American Cemetery, Fère-en-Terdenois, France. (...)

https://www.thisdayinaviation.com/9-march-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

News extracts from the Moruya Examiner of 9 March 1918, provided by the Moruya & District Historical Society

OUR SOLDIERS. – The many friends of Private Charles Harper, Ashfield, son of Mr. C. A. Harper, surveyor, will be sorry to hear that he has been ill for some time past, in the hospital, suffering from trench fever. He was attached to the A.A.M.C. and saw service in the battlefields of France, being closely associated in the work of Dr. Eric Hutchinson, also a well-known Sydney man. Private Harper’s brother, Oswald, who was wounded seriously at Bullecourt, returns shortly to Australia.

EXPECTED HOME. – Pte. Phil Knight is expected to arrive in Sydney next week. His mother intends going to Sydney to meet him.

PATRIOTIC. – A public meeting was held here on the 16th at which a strong committee was formed for the purpose of carrying out a series of fortnightly dances in aid of the Lord Mayor’s and other patriotic funds. It was also decided to hold a day’s sport on Easter Monday with a ball and euchre tournament at night. A good programme has been drawn up and a substantial sum should result.

Lees alles op https://www.beagleweekly.com.au/single-post/2018/02/28/100-Years-Ago---9th-March-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mickey Spillane

Frank Morrison Spillane (9 March 1918 –17 July 2006), better known as Mickey Spillane, was an American crime novelist. He was known for his series of novels featuring his signature detective character, Mike Hammer, among other works.

Quote 1: Nobody reads a mystery to get to the middle. They read it to get to the end. If it's a letdown, they won't buy any more. The first page sells that book. The last page sells your next book.

Quote 2: Uit: I, the jury, 1947
The roar of the .45 shook the room. Charlotte staggered back a step. Her eyes were a symphony of incredulity, an unbelieving witness to truth. Slowly, she looked down at the ugly swelling in her naked belly where the bullet went in.
"How c-could you?" she gasped.
I had only a moment before talking to a corpse, but I got it in.
"It was easy," I said.

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/March_9 & https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Mickey_Spillane
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

REMEMBER: ON THIS DAY - 9 March 1918 - Faehnrich Emmerich Karl Viktorin

Faehnrich Emmerich Karl Viktorin, 3 Rgt d Tir K J. A university graduate from Komorn, Hungary, Emmerich was born on 24 October 1898. He was enlisted into the army in late 1916 and, by the end of 1917 was serving in Poland. Emmerich died of wounds at Olmütz, Moravia (now part of the Czech Republic). Grave location unrecorded.

http://westfrontassoc.mtcdevserver.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/3630-9-march-1918-faehnrich-emmerich-karl-viktorin.html#sthash.b7Ygamhz.dpbs
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thomas Mooney protest in Manhattan in Union Square on March 9, 1918

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Mooney_protest_in_Manhattan_in_Union_Square_on_March_9,_1918.jpg

Wie is deze man?

Thomas Joseph "Tom" Mooney (December 8, 1882 – March 6, 1942) was an American political activist and labor leader, who was convicted with Warren K. Billings of the San Francisco Preparedness Day Bombing of 1916. Believed by many to have been wrongly convicted of a crime he did not commit, Mooney served 22 years in prison before finally being pardoned in 1939.

Lees verder op https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mooney
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Great War Forum: 61st Field Battery, 14th Brigade, C.F.A. - 9 March 1918 - A blog by ejwalshe

Leesvoer! http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/blogs/entry/1976-9-march-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An article about the slang of Australian soldiers from World War One. Published in The Sunday Times, 9 March 1919.

“Digger yabber” described - The lingo the Aussie talks - A glossary of the comprehensive kind
(For “The Sunday Times,” by “Lieutenant.”)

He is coming back in his hundreds and his thousands, and amongst the many changes and marks that war’s rough hand has left upon him you will find that his speech has changed into a weird and wonderful thing. God knows it was strange jargon enough when he left for the Great Adventure, but now it has developed into a glorious mixture of words from half the tongues of the globe, for the digger with his quick ear and eye for effect is not slow to pick up tit-bits from the languages of whatever countries he calls at, and since 1914 he has called at many.

His pronunciation is, of course, the same as of yore, and the foundation is Aussie talk the same as the “Sentimental Bloke” gives us, but on top of that he has piled a fantastic superstructure. He still drops his aitches or most of them and he’s still ready to give you a good-sized thrashing if you dare whisper the outrageous suggestion in his ear, but he very rarely does what the Cockneys do, put in superfluous aitches, nor does he usually drop the aitch when it follows a vowel. For instance, he might say “a bloomin’ ’op-over,” but he would not say “a ’op-over;” in that case he would say it properly, “a hop-over.” Under the stress and strain of emotion of indignation he will sometimes surprise you by flopping into really correct and faultless English, spoken as it ought to be spoken; all the aitches lined up as on parade, each one in its proper place and the slang carefully excluded. Such outbursts are very rare and of short duration, but I remember one night we were in the support line and due to go up to the front line and take over that night. A fatigue party had been detailed to bring up the Mill’s grenades, etc., and at the last moment it was discovered that “someone had blundered,” with the result that something vital, fuses or something of that sort, had been left behind. One of the diggers was accused of being the guilty party and he was deeply indignant. “I tell you,” said he with solemn energy, “it was through no fault of mine that they were left behind, so help me God.” Such unusual clarity of speech was not only surprising, it was embarrassing, and when he presently followed it up with a flow of really well-done blasphemy I, for one, was distinctly relieved, and so, I think, was the corporal. It’s not natural to hear a digger talk like that.

His yabber has developed side by side with himself, and just as he had certain definite stages of development, so also has his lingo. He began as No. Umpty Something, Private So-and-so. Soon he became Jack or Bill or Jim to his mates. Then he grew into a Billjim, and next the world knew him as an Anzac. He began to call his mates “cobbers,” and proper names like Dick, Tom and Harry disappeared to be replaced by more or less descriptive terms like Snowy, Darky, Slogger, Tiny or Titch (usually a giant), Bluey, Shorty and so on. The Blighty people soon cut the cumbrous “Australian” down to “Aussie,” and thus conferred yet one more baptismal name; finally he emerged as “digger,” and it seems to have come to stay.

His first habitat was Egypt, and we all know how he chafed and fretted in the shadow of the pyramids fearful that the scrap would be over before he got his chance. As a result of his enforced residence in the land of the ancients we find his speech as fleckled with Arabic as a stormy sea is splattered with foam. Buckshee (gratis), imshi (be off), bint (girl), walled (boy), sieeda (good-morning), aouyah (yes), lah (no), kata karac (thank you), higgery (hurry), tolla-hena (come here), magoon (mad), nahadra (to-day) and buckra (to-morrow) are a few of the commonest words that we are all likely to hear fairly frequently. And he uses many more, such as marleesh (it can’t be helped), mafeesh (no more), taiyib (that’s all right), and stanna swire (wait a minute), but as a rule it’s only the 1914 men or those who were on the Palestine front who use many of these Arabic words, although many of the later reinstouchments have picked them up from the older birds. While in Egypt the digger also picked up a few words of Greek. Sometimes you’ll hear him complain that someone has cleftied (stolen) something, or remarking that so-and-so has gone marto (mad). These Arabic and Greek words are here spelt as the digger pronounces them, and not as they are supposed to be spoken. Another favorite phrase which comes from Egypt is “Mr. MacKenzie,” the Arabs being in the habit of addressing all Europeans indiscriminately as “Mr. MacKenzie.” The digger naturally adopted it.

On Gallipoli he came into touch with Indian troops to a certain extent, so we find him using a few words of Hindustani, as when he says, “let me have a dekko (look),” or “throw over the rooti (bread).” Apropos the latter word he shows his keen sense for fact when he calls the long service medal, the “roota” medal, indicating that the recipient has been eating government bread for twenty-one years.

Your good fighter is usually an equally good lover, so it’s not surprising that when the digger pushed on to France as the next stage in his circuitous march to Berlin, the words to which he took most promptly were of the “prominad-tray-bong” variety. Next to them in popularity come words connected with food and drink and the obtaining of the same. “Estaminet” he often calls the “wait-a-minute,” although I once heard it called the “estimate,” burdybang is his way of saying “bur et pain” (bread and butter), and “tout de suite” (as quickly as possible) he first converted into “toot sweet,” which developed into “at the toot,” and now when he wants anything in a hurry he orders “at the toot and the tooter the sweeter.” Thus words in the hands of an artist flourish and spread like the green bay tree. “Comment allez vous” (how are you), he decided would sound better as “Come on, tallow candle,” or “Come on, Tel-el-Kebir,” and “Ca n’fait rien” (it can’t be helped), which sounded to him like “san fairy ann,” he turned into “san Mary Ann.” “Chat” is digger for lice, so he calls a “chateau” a chathouse, and so once more weds wit to truth. Expressions like tray bon, no bon, parley voo, napoo, aprey voo, etc., need no mention. They have evidently come to stay; in fact “tray bon” has almost ousted the once popular “bon-lingo”.

Finally regarding words picked up from other countries we find him occasionally surprising us with Yankee expressions, such as “I’ll beat it while the goin’s good,” and he often uses the word “some” in the same way that the Sammies do: “Say, kid, I reckon she wus some little bint, beleeve meh.” He hasn’t condescended to accept any colloquial contributions from Germany worth speaking about, the only two words I can recollect being “zwei (two),” pronounced “swi,” and “strafe.” He has grown to regard anything coming out of Boschland as questionable to say the very least, and extends his veto even to their lingo.

As for the common or everyday expressions which he uses, and which are either home-made or of unknown origin, they would fill a book if collected. Almost everything he meets he labels as his light and fickle fancy dictates, although if one examines his apparently aimless names for things it is surprising how he can make the shoe to fit the foot. Arabs are Gyppos; Turks, Jackos, French, Froggies; and Tommies he calls chooms. Germans are usually referred to as Fritzies, Jerries or swine; more often the latter or another term a little too strong for these respectable pages. Girls he refers to as tabbies, tabs, tarts, janes, pushers or bints; “tarting” means courting. Teeth are called tats, the doctor is the quack, a spruiker is a hot-air merchant, breeches are strides, and a restaurant is a hash-foundry. The glad-eye is known as the joyful optic or the dinky di, but if he says his cobber is dinky di he is bestowing one of his highest forms of praise, and he means that his mate is a king of the dinkums. The absolutely highest praise he can bestow on anyone is to say of them, “’E’s by ’imself,” “I’ll pay him,” or “’E’s a winner,” and another very favorite expression is “He’ll do me, dig.” He does not usually say “I’ll go for a walk,” instead it is often “a route march,” a “promenade,” or a “prom.” Matches are strikes, cigarettes are smokes, a dingbat is his description of a batman or officer’s servant, and an asylum is known as the rat-house or the giggle-house. Chats, as already mentioned, are lice, so to be chatty is to be lousy, and that’s what he means when he sings to the tune of “Way down in Tennessee.”

“I’m so chatty, oh, so chatty,
Don’t you envy me.”


An Australian who is on Headquarters’ work in London he dubs a “Strandzac,” or a “tailor-made Australian.” The frozen stare is the opposite of the glad-eye; a bad deal is a “rough spin,” and a “box-on” is a fight, therefore to box-on means to fight on, or carry on. He rarely ever says that a cobber has been killed, it’s always “’E’s gone west,” or “’E’s chucked a seven.” The latter expression originates from the game of “hazard” in which, if you throw a seven, you are out of the game.

If he fails in anything he calls it “coming a skinner,” and instead of saying “Well, I’ll be damned” as of yore, he now explodes forth with “I’ll go hoppin’ to hell on one leg.” If things are going wrong he opines that “the luck wus dead stiff,” or “it’s no bon for the troops,” and at such times he indulges in a rather amusing sort of ceremonial philosophy. The digger, who has suffered the misfortune or whatever it is, will remark pensively and very emphatically, “When yeh’re in, yeh’re in, dig.,” and his sympathetic cobber will invariably reply, “And when yeh’re out, yeh’re out.” When he’s disheartened he reckons that he is “well and truly down to it,” or he will remark morosely, “I’m the last card in the pack.”

When he pulls himself together he says he “took a strong jerry to himself.” If someone makes a fool of himself the digger describes him as “gone to the wide,” or “gone to the races,” and furthermore he does not waste time telling the foolish one to stop acting the goat, he simply makes the acrid and fitting remark, “Better see the Quartermaster, there’s an issue of horns waiting for you.” Another very effective way he has of quelling the troublesome one is to tap the head while saying very solemnly, “Anzac noises,” “There’s nobody home,” or “Apartments to let.” When he sizes you up he puts it that he has “Tickled you off.”

“Wind,” or “Windy” has become very popular. To say that so-and-so has the wind up means that they are nervous, and sometimes it is said “he’s as draughty as a London Tube.” The word “rough” has also grown very familiar; “rough as bags,” or “rough as goats’ knees” is often heard when he is describing someone who falls short of his standard. The phrase “bit of a rough,” which seems to have no meaning in particular, is always in his mouth: “I’ll have a bit of a rough wash, cobber,” or “Say, Shorty, wot about a bit of a rough prom.?”

Many of his words are of military origin. He will say, “Wot about ’avin’ a bit of a rough ’op-over to-night?” which means a beer-up, and “putting down a heavy barrage” means lowering a lot of booze. A “dud” or a “washout” is a failure. To come before the C.O. is termed “on the mat,” and if he gets two days C.B. (confined to barracks) he calls it “twice round the clock,” but if he gets detention he describes it as the clink, the peter, the log or the jug. The M.P.’s (military police) he dearly hates and he has christened them Jacks, Redcaps, Rosellas, or Mother’s Pets. To “crash” or “slip” or “come a gutser” means to fail in an attempt. If he is A.W.L. (absent without leave) he says he “slung an absence.” A field-gun is a “pip-squeak,” and the shell is a “whizz-bang.”

His nomenclature for coins is confusing at first. For instance:— A penny is a brown; threepence a tray, tizzle, or a ticky; sixpence, a kick, a break, or a zack; a shilling, a diener, a wing, or a John Dillon; half-a-crown, half a dollar or half a caser; dollar, an Oxford scholar; ten shillings, half a Jim; pound, a Bradbury; fiver, a spinnaker. A glass of beer is a pot, a wet, a booze, or a wallop; a glass of spirits a wad or a spot. Having a drink is expressed as “stopping a pot from going bad,” or “blowing the froth off a pot;” but it is needless to say that he does more than blow the froth off it. Gin is known as mother’s ruin; rum as Tom Thumb or chain lightning. The letters S.R.D. (Service Rum Department) on the army rum jars he interprets as “seldom reaches destination.”

Some of his figures of speech and similes while not exactly part of his yabber are so characteristic and in many cases so humorous that any account of digger talk that did not include some specimens would be necessarily incomplete. “Dry as a lime-burner’s boot,” “leary as a loaf of bread and twice as crummy,” “you know as much about it as a pig does about ironing shirts,” “as long as a wet week,” are random specimens of his flowers of speech. He will say, if disparaging someone, “He couldn’t beat a carpet,” or a drum, or “an egg without a patent whisk.” If he wants to emphasise someone’s habitual ill-luck, he will remark, “Poor cow! If he bought ducks they’d drown;” or “If he threw up a five-pound note it would come down a summons.” But the one thing that seems to rouse his powers of scornful comparison is meanness. He can’t stand that at any price, nor can he bear a cobber who is disobliging. I once heard a disgusted batman, who had vainly been trying to wrangle something from an obdurate quartermaster, remark to his officer: “Him, sir! He wouldn’t tell yeh the time — not if he had six watches. He’d tell you to look at the town ’all clock,” and the following, meant to show his contempt for a stingy or crusty person, are good and typical specimens of his wit:—

“If ’e owned the west uv France ’e wouldn’t give yeh a ’op-over.”

“’E wouldn’t give yeh good advice.”

“’E wouldn’t give yeh a push in the river if you wanted to commit suicide.”

“If ’is mother was dyin’ for a drink ’e wouldn’t show ’er a short-cut to the canteen.”

He has an equally caustic way of commenting on anyone whom he considers too exacting, or those whose fingers are apt to stray towards other people’s property:—

“’Im! ’E’d take the bird-seed from a cuckoo clock!”

“’E’d take the milk out uv yer tea.”

“’E’d take a worm from a blind hen.”

“’E’d take the fillin’s out uv yer teeth without disturbin’ yer conversation.”

Finally, as an instance of his figurative way of stating things, I once heard an exasperated digger sing out to another who had been annoying him: “I’ll ’op yeh out some of these days an’ surround yeh with such a bleedin’ maze uv uppercuts that yeh’ll be in a trance fer the rest uv yeh days!”

Source: The Sunday Times (Perth, WA), 9 March 1919, p. 7

Editor’s notes:
acting the goat = behaving in a foolish or silly manner
Anzac = a member of the Australian armed forces, particularly soldiers (may also be used to refer to Australians in general); derives from the acronym of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), which fought in World War One
apropos = (French) à propos, literally “to purpose” (i.e. with regard to the purpose); pertinent, relevant; opportune, fitting, at the right time; with reference to, with respect to, with regard to the present topic
Billjim = (also spelt “Bill-Jim”) being a combination of the common first names “Bill” and “Jim”, “Bill-Jim” was used in Australia from the late 1800s to refer to Australians, and during World War One was commonly used as a slang term for an Australian soldier)
bird = a person, particularly someone who is remarkable, odd, or distinct (e.g. “he’s a tough old bird”, “he’s an odd bird”, “he’s a sly old bird”)
Blighty = (slang) England; or, in a wider context, Britain
bloomin’ = (blooming) an exclamatory oath
C.O. = Commanding Officer
cobber = friend, mate
dig. = abbreviation of “digger”
digger = an Australian soldier (a slang word which originated during World War One); in later usage, may also refer to a friend or mate
glad-eye = a friendly or welcoming glance, especially to look at someone in a seductive fashion, to give a look which indicates a romantic or sexual interest
hop-over = attack, especially regarding an attack mounted from trenches; from the act of infantrymen hopping over the top of a trench when mounting an attack on the Western Front during World War One (the term was subsequently used to refer to the drinking of beer)
lingo = language or speech, particularly the jargon or slang of a particular field, group, individual, or industry
M.P. = Military Police
prom. = abbreviation of “promenade”
reinstouchments = reinforcements for fighting units; a combination of “reinforcements” and “stouch” (fight)
Sammies = Americans, from the personification of the United States of America as “Uncle Sam”
yabber = talk, especially to talk a lot (possibly derived from an Aboriginal word, “yabba”, meaning to talk or speak; or may be derived from the English word “jabber”, meaning to talk rapidly, especially in an excited and/or incomprehensible manner, hence “jibber-jabber”)
Vernacular spelling in the original text:
’all (hall)
’avin’ (having)
beleeve (believe)
bleedin’ (bleeding)
disturbin’ (disturbing)
’e (he)
’er (her)
fer (for)
’im (him)
’imself (himself)
meh (me)
’op (hop)
’op-over = hop-over
uv (of)
wot (what)
wus (was)
yeh (you)
yeh’re (you’re; you are)
yer (your)

[Editor: Corrected “Advanture” to “Adventure”; “Appropos” to “Apropos”; “in his way” to “is his way”; “surprising up with” to “surprising us with”; “morsely” to “morosely”. Added a quotation mark before “Lieutenant”; “promenade”; “an egg”. Added a quotation mark after “Ca n’fait rien”; “allez vous”; “bon-lingo”.]

http://www.australianculture.org/digger-yabber-described-1919/
Sowieso een leuke site! http://www.australianculture.org/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Mrt 2018 9:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 9 March 1920 → Commons Sitting → BRITISH ARMY.

POISON GAS.

Mr. WATERSON asked whether the British troops in Ireland, Egypt, and India are equipped with poison gas; and whether this weapon had been used in those countries?

Mr. CHURCHILL There are stocks of gas shell in Egypt left over from the War, but not in Ireland and India. The answer to the last part of the question is in the negative; a very limited amount, however, was fired away in Palestine.

Mr. LAWSON In view of the protest that the Allied powers made against the use of gas as a method of warfare, are the Allied powers considering the wisdom of abolishing gas as a recognised method of warfare?

Mr. CHURCHILL That is a very important question which ought to be debated by the League of Nations. At the same time, the difficulty of preventing studies in this form of warfare, and the danger that discoveries and preparations may be made make it very necessary that we should be in a position to protect our troops against any warfare with this kind of attack.

Mr. SHORT Has consideration of the subject been remitted to the League of Nations?

Mr. CHURCHILL Not at this moment, because the League of Nations is still in an embryonic condition; but it is one of those subjects which must engage the attention of a great international body.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/mar/09/poison-gas
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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