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4 Februari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2006 5:17    Onderwerp: 4 Februari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 4. Februar

1914

1915
Deutscher Angriff nordwestlich von St. Menehould
Vordringen der Österreicher und Ungarn im Karpathenwaldgebirge
Bekanntgabe der Blockierung Englands
Die Begründung der Blockierung
Das Landungskorps der "Emden" bei Hodeida eingetroffen

1916
Handgranatenkämpfe in Flandern
Fünf Dampfer in der Themsemündung versenkt
Barbarisches Verhalten eines englischen Fischdampfers
Rückzug der Italiener am Tolmeiner Brückenkopf
Städte der italienischen Ostküste beschossen

1917
Lebhafte Kämpfe an der Westfront
Angriff von Marineflugzeugen auf Furnes und Adinkerke
Talaat Pascha Großwesir
Amerika bricht die diplomatischen Beziehungen zu Deutschland ab
Abberufung des amerikanischen Botschafters
Wilsons Botschaft an den Kongreß
Kriegerische Vorbereitungen der amerikanischen Behörden
Angebliche Beschlagnahme deutscher Schiffe in Amerika
Kanonenboot "Geier" in Honolulu von der Besatzung in Brand gesteckt
Handels-U-Boot "Deutschland" im Heimathafen
Zustellung der Pässe an Grafen Bernstorff
Abberufung der amerikanischen Konsuln aus Deutschland

1918
Gesteigerte Artillerietätigkeit in Flandern und an der Scarpe
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2006 5:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 4

1915 Germany declares war zone around British Isles

A full two years before Germany’s aggressive naval policy would draw the United States into the war against them, Kaiser Wilhelm announces an important step in the development of that policy, proclaiming the North Sea a war zone, in which all merchant ships, including those from neutral countries, were liable to be sunk without warning.

In widening the boundaries of naval warfare, Germany was retaliating against the Allies for the British-imposed blockade of Germany in the North Sea, an important part of Britain’s war strategy aimed at strangling its enemy economically. By war’s end—according to official British counts—the so-called “hunger blockade” would take some 770,000 German lives.

The German navy, despite its attempts to build itself up in the pre-war years, was far inferior in strength to the peerless British Royal Navy. After resounding defeats of its battle cruisers, such as that suffered in the Falkland Islands in December 1914, Germany began to look to its dangerous U-boat submarines as its best hope at sea. Hermann Bauer, the leader of the German submarine service, had suggested in October 1914 that the U-boats could be used to attack commerce ships and raid their cargoes, thus scaring off imports to Britain, including those from neutral countries. Early the following month, Britain declared the North Sea a military area, warning neutral countries that areas would be mined and that all ships must first put into British ports, where they would be searched for possible supplies bound for Germany, stripped of these, and escorted through the British minefields. With this intensification of the blockade, Bauer’s idea gained greater support within Germany as the only appropriate response to Britain’s actions.

Though German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg and the German Foreign Ministry worried about angering neutral countries, pressure from naval leaders and anger in the German press about the British blockade convinced them to go through with the declaration. On February 4, 1915, Kaiser Wilhelm announced Germany’s intention to sink any and all ships sailing under the flags of Britain, Russia or France found within British waters. The Kaiser warned neutral countries that neither crews nor passengers were safe while traveling within the designated war zone around the British Isles. If neutral ships chose to enter British waters after February 18, when the policy went into effect, they would be doing so at their own risk.

The U.S. government immediately and strongly protested the war-zone designation, warning Germany that it would take “any steps it might be necessary to take” in order to protect American lives and property. Subsequently, a rift opened between Germany’s politicians—who didn’t want to provoke America’s anger—and its navy, which was determined to use its deadly U-boats to the greatest possible advantage.

After a German U-boat sank the British passenger ship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, killing over 1,000 people, including 128 Americans, pressure from the U.S. prompted the German government to greatly constrain the operation of submarines; U-boat warfare was completely suspended that September. Unrestricted submarine warfare was resumed on February 1, 1917, prompting the U.S., two days later, to break diplomatic relations with Germany.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Feb 2008 11:30    Onderwerp: 4 februari 1918 Reageer met quote

Op 4 februari 1918
ging het 3de Karabiniers naar Wulveringem en Vinkem. Van daar trokken ze verder richting De Panne om het zeefront te verzekeren. Bataljon I, waartoe Leo Baelden behoorde, bevond zich op 10 maart 1918 in de eerste lijn te Nieuwendamme – Sint-Joris in de sector Nieuwpoort. Een hevig Duits bombardement met obussen en stikgassen deed op 18 maart om 6 uur ’s morgens het Gevecht bij Nieuwendamme uitbreken. De vooruitgeschoven bewakingsposten van het 3de Regiment trokken zich terug. De vijand viel hevig aan en enkele posten van de lijn ‘Fortins’ voor Sint-Joris vielen in hun handen, maar rond 8 uur werden ze heroverd. In de sector van Nieuwendamme gingen de Duitsers vooruit tot de ‘Kruisdijk’ en de ‘Redan du Gaulois’.
Om 9.30u. viel een Duitse granaat in Leo’s buurt. De scherven doorboorden zijn schedel en Leo stierf bijna onmiddellijk. Tijdens het hevige gevecht van 18 en 19 maart 1918 vielen 230 doden en gewonden.

In tegenstelling tot de Duitse stormtroepen kende het 3de Regiment het terrein bij Nieuwendamme nauwelijks. Het was nog maar pas in deze frontsector aangekomen. De 3de Karabiniers bleven nog tot 30 juli in de streek van Nieuwpoort.

http://www.collegeveurne.be/archief/projectgesned/baelden.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 18:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Admiralty Declaration, 4 February 1915

This communication from Germany, forbidding all merchant shipping traffic in British waters, opened the first wave of: "unrestricted" submarine warfare:
All the waters surrounding Great Britain and Ireland, including the whole of the English Channel, are hereby declared to be a war zone. From February 18 onwards every enemy merchant vessel found within this war zone will be destroyed without it always being possible to avoid danger to the crews and passengers.

Neutral ships will also be exposed to danger in the war zone, as, in view of the misue of neutral flags ordered on January 31 by the British Government, and owing to unforeseen incidents to which naval warfare is liable, it is impossible to avoid attacks being made on neutral ships in mistake for those of the enemy.

Navigation to the north of the Shetlands, in the eastern parts of the North Sea and through a zone at least thirty nautical miles wide along the Dutch coast is not exposed to danger.

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/dc150204.htm

Translated from the Reichsanzeiger, February 4th, 1915, quoted on pages 260-261 of Naval Operations volume II, by SIr Julian S. Corbett (Battery Press reprint).


Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz on the German Naval Blockade of Britain, 4 February 1915

The historical decision to make a war zone around the United Kingdom and Ireland was arrived at on the evening of February 2nd in a conference between von Pohl and the Chancellor with the consent of the Foreign Office, in the presence of the Minister of the Home Office, and apparently without opposition from the Grand General Staff.

Von Pohl obtained the consent of the Chancellor, who was still sadly unconversant with the world conditions and our own submarine power and then on February 4th sprang his prepared draft of the declaration of the Emperor while sailing through Wilhelmshaven Harbour.

It was disloyal of von Pohl not to consult beforehand with the Secretary of State as to the wording of the draft. He was also disloyal to me as he had always previously sought my advice in reaching critical decisions. I was entitled to this.

His act was, on the whole, the product of boundless vanity. He wished above all that the declaration should be made over his name, and February 4th was the last date on which this could be done, for on that day he took over the command of the High Seas Fleet and was already, strictly speaking, no longer chief of the naval staff.

So, against my advice and on the decision of Bethmann-Hollweg, submarine war was to begin, threatening every ship sailing in the direction of Great Britain and Ireland. Unless the dignity, and therewith the power, of the empire was to be seriously impaired and the confidence of the enemy fatally strengthened, there was nothing for it now but to stand fast.

In the face of the whole world, seriously and with a flourish of trumpets, as it were, the declaration, in my opinion so premature and so unfortunate, had been made.

On February 12th came America's first note of protest against submarine warfare. In a responsible bureau this could hardly have been unexpected, but to von Pohl's astonishment and chagrin it caused the Foreign Office to make an about-face in regards to the U-boat policy.

The Chancellor's representative at headquarters, von Reuter, later said that the Chancellor had been misunderstood by von Pohl. Von Pohi energetically denied the possibility of a misunderstanding, maintaining that he had carefully explained to the Chancellor the full consequence of the step.

Thus, scarcely had submarine warfare, born February 4th, drawn its first breath, when its own fathers, terrified, hastened to smother it. In my opinion we should never even have considered a modification of our submarine policy, once it was announced to the world, unless England consented to modify some of her own interpretations of maritime law during the war.

America's first protest resulted in our allowing the shell of submarine warfare to stand as a sop to the German public, ever irritating America, but by orders from our political leaders to our submarine commanders we had hollowed out the military kernel.

We were acting on a program of big words and little deeds. Our method of submarine warfare had now become, according to Bethmann's prediction, ineffective for final German victory, but a fruitful source of vexatious incidents with the United States.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/tirpitz_uboatwar1915.htm

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 4 February 1915

DUTCH RIGHTS IN RHINE WATERS.


HC Deb 04 February 1915 vol 69 c118 118

§ 7. Mr. BIGLAND asked the Secretary for Foreign Affairs whether he has information showing that prior to the outbreak of the War the Dutch Government had ceded to the German Government the Dutch rights in the waters of the Rhine; and, if so, whether he will state the view of the British Government as to the effect of this Treaty on the position of Holland as a neutral in the present War?

§ Sir E. GREY The free navigation of the Rhine has been secured by three Treaties: by Annex 16 of the Act of the Congress of Vienna, June 9th, 1815; by the Treaty of March 31st, 1831, between Baden, Bavaria, France, Hesse, Nassau, the Netherlands, and Prussia; and by the Treaty of October 17th, 1868, between France, Baden, Bavaria, Hesse, the Netherlands, and Prussia, These Conventions are published in the "State Papers." His Majesty's Government are aware of no other agreement affecting the lights of the riverain Powers.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/04/dutch-rights-in-rhine-waters
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

4 februari 1917
“De Burgemeester van Baerle-Hertog, gezien de toenemende schaarste van petroleum, vermaant de ingezetenen bij het aanwenden van petroleum voor de verlichting de uiterste spaarzaamheid in acht te nemen. Het gebruik van petroleum als warmtebron en in toestellen die verlichting geven door petroleumgas, is verboden.” (Gemeentearchief B.-Hertog; schepencollege)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6th Brigade Canadian Machine Gun Company
War Diary - February 1917


WAR DIARY or INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY

February 4 - Weather fine and cold. per attached syllabus. Company played the 6th T.M. Battery at Association Football, winning the game by the score 3 goals to 1.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~brett/cmgc/6bde_wd17feb.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vrede van Versailles (1919)

Het Verdrag van Versailles werd op 28 juni 1919 (precies vijf jaar na de moord op Frans Ferdinand, de directe aanleiding voor het uitbreken van de oorlog), na afsluiting van een op 18 januari 1919 te Parijs begonnen geallieerde vredesconferentie, in de spiegelzaal van het kasteel van Versailles door vertegenwoordigers van het Duitse Rijk (Johannes Bell, 1868-1949 en Hermann Müller, 1876-1931, beiden minister in het zojuist aangetreden kabinet Bauer, het voorgaande kabinet Scheidemann was over de verdragstekst gevallen) enerzijds en door 26 geallieerde en geassocieerde regeringen (Rusland ontbrak) anderzijds ondertekend en trad op 10 januari 1920 in werking. Het verdrag werd echter niet door de Verenigde Staten, Hedjas (thans bij Saoedi-Arabië) en Ecuador geratificeerd, zodat de formele beëindiging van de oorlogstoestand eerst door het Vredesverdrag van Berlijn tussen de Verenigde Staten en het Duitse Rijk van 25 augustus 1921, het Duits-Saoedische vriendschapsverdrag van 26 april 1929 en het opnieuw aanknopen van de diplomatieke betrekkingen met Ecuador door middel van protocollen en notawisseling (1921-24) plaatsvond. Het in het Verdrag van Versailles als verdragspartner genoemde China had het verdrag niet ondertekend en door een apart verdrag van 20 mei 1921 de oorlogstoestand beëindigd. Costa Rica nam aan de onderhandelingen niet deel en beëindigde de oorlogstoestand bij decreet van 4 februari 1920.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vrede_van_Versailles_(1919)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 12:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Muider IJsclub ”Eendracht”.

Op den 4e Februari 1914 word te Muiden eene vereeniging opgericht met de naam van Muider IJsclub ”Eendracht”.

Zo begon het.

Het was in de mobilisatietijd 1914-1918 dat er te Muiden militairen waren gelegerd. Met hen schaatste de Muiderbevolking op de Vecht, de kasteelgracht en de Veste. Men hield hardrijderij-wedstrijden en de prijzen werden betaald uit de opbrengst van intekenlijsten die men de bevolking aanbood.

De heer Bouvy, een fervent schaatser, polste een aantal stadsgenoten en hij nam het initiatief om een ijsclub op te richten. De bespreking was in Café Vechtzicht en zo postitief dat men besloot een oprichtingsvergadering te houden op 4 februari 1914 en de bevolking van Muiden uit te nodigen om zich als lid aan te melden. 82 personen gaven zich op.

http://muiderijsclub.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 12:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fred Lorz



Frederick (Fred) Lorz (New York City, juni 1884 - The Bronx, 4 februari 1914) was een Amerikaans langeafstandsloper, die gespecialiseerd was in de marathon. Door een bizar voorval op de Olympische Spelen van 1904 in Saint Louis werd hij een bekendheid. (...)

Met een vijfde plaats op de Boston Marathon van 1904 kwalificeerde hij zich voor de Olympische Spelen, die later dat jaar gehouden werden. Op de olympisch marathon was hij de eerste die over de finish ging. Een toeschouwer beschuldigde hem echter van bedrog. Daarop gaf Lorz vrijwillig toe de helft van het parcours in een auto te hebben afgelegd. Het gevolg hiervan was dat hij een levenslang verbod kreeg op deelname aan de Olympische Spelen. Zijn verklaring dat hij slechts een grap had willen uithalen, hielp niet. De tweede finisher - Thomas Hicks - werd tot winnaar uitgeroepen.

De Amerikaanse bond was milder en liet de schorsing in het daaropvolgende jaar aflopen. Lorz bewees met zijn overwinning in de Boston Marathon van 1905 dat hij wel degelijk op een eerlijke manier een wedstrijd kon winnen. Ook in 1908 nam hij deel aan de Boston Marathon waar hij een zevende plaats behaalde.

In zijn actieve tijd was hij aangesloten bij de Mohawk Athletic Club.

Op 29-jarige leeftijd stierf hij aan longontsteking.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Lorz
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 12:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nederland: Nieuwe dienstplichtwet (4 februari 1922)

De Tweede Kamer neemt een nieuwe dienstplichtwet aan. Deze vervangt de bestaande militie-, Landweer- en Landstormwetten. De landweer en de landstorm worden opgeheven.

De wet voorziet in de opkomst van een jaarlijkse lichting van 19.500 militairen en een opleiding en oefenperiode van 5,5 maand voor de infanterie. Het betekent dat het leger in vredestijd langzaam in omvang wordt teruggebracht; ook wat betreft uitrusting en bewapening stagneert de ontwikkeling van de landmacht.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1914-1945/nieuwe_dienstplichtwet_(4_februari_1922)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Norman Wisdom



Sir Norman Joseph Wisdom, OBE[2] (4 February 1915 – 4 October 2010) was an English comedian, singer-songwriter and actor best known for a series of comedy films produced between 1953 and 1966 featuring his hapless onscreen character Norman Pitkin. These films initially made more money than the James Bond film series, and secured Wisdom a celebrity status in lands as far apart as South America, Iran and many Eastern Bloc countries, particularly in Albania where his films were permitted by Enver Hoxha – Wisdom was the only Western actor to enjoy this privilege. Charlie Chaplin famously referred to Wisdom as his "favourite clown".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Wisdom

Tribute to Norman Wisdom (4 February 1915 – 4 October 2010)

"As you get older three things happen. The first is your memory goes, and I can't remember the other two."

"I was born in London, and went to school in Scotland - I used to be dead tired when I got home at night."

"Well if I was going to describe my audience, it's going to take longer than you'd ever expect, hundreds of years in fact, because there's many of them, all over the world."

"You see, I'm still big over here (in Albania). Not anywhere else, but over here. I don't know why I'm so popular here. They (Albanians) must be raving mad."

"I was born in very sorry circumstances. So my parents felt very sorry."

"I've just been very lucky. But I've worked hard, and the harder you work, the luckier you seem to get."

http://www.fun-with-english.co.uk/2010/10/tribute-to-norman-wisdom-4-february.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | February 1915

Thursday 4th February 1915 - Dull, sleet. Parade 10.40am. 10.40-12.30 physical exercise under Blank. Games 11.30-12.30. Bantam fight, charging on one leg. Very amusing. Knocked 4 men out. Beaten by Godwin. Stand jumps. Fine sport. Afternoon bayonet drill under Sgt. Mjr. Marsden. Fixing and unfixing. Later 2 movements between knees.

To fix on march, trail arms, raise muzzle, fix, on guard, slope, time from rt hand man. In close column marker holds hand or bayonet above head. Bayonet. On guard, left elbow close to rifle. Mans breast, rifle end, and eye in line. Rifles cleaned. Beat Stables 2-0 chess.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Zal" the word that expresses the soul of Poland.
Etude Magazine. February, 1915



Every language contains untranslatable words—more than that, every nationality has them. An Englishman cannot possibly make clear to Americans that peculiar product of his own peculiar civilization to which he refers when he speaks of a "bounder." Neither can a German make clear all the good-fellowship implied in "gemüchtligheit." The Italian dolce far niente, the "sweetness of doing nothing," we have found so untranslatable that we have simply adopted it wholesale, being willing to sense its vague suggestiveness rather than to define its meaning. The same applies to the French word "début," which we have summarily captured from our Gallic friends and adopted for our own use. The Poles also have a word which defies translation. It is the Polish word zal and represents a condition of mind peculiar to fair Poland. Once, the Countess d'Agoult asked Chopin "by what name he called that which he enclosed in his compositions, like unknown ashes in superb urns of most exquisitely chiselled alabaster?"

"Conquered by the appealing tears which moistened the beautiful eyes," continues the flowery Liszt, "with a candor rare indeed in this artist, so susceptible upon all that related to the secrets of the sacred relics buried in the gorgeous shrines of his music, he replied that her heart had not deceived her in the gloom which she felt stealing upon her, for whatever might have been his transitory pleasures, he had never been free from a feeling which might almost be said to form the soil of his heart, and for which he could find no appropriate expression except in his own language, no other possessing a term equivalent to the Polish word Zal! As if his ears thirsted for the sound of this word, which expresses the whole range of emotions produced by intense regret, through all the shades of feeling, from hatred to repentance, he repeated it again and again.

"Zal! Strange substantive, embracing a strange diversity, a strange philosophy! Susceptible of different regimens, it includes all the tenderness, all the humility of a regret borne with resignation and without a murmur, while bowing before the fiat of necessity, the inscrutable decrees of Providence: but, changing its character, and assuming the regimen indirect as soon as it is addressed to man, it signifies excitement, agitation, rancor, revolt full of reproach, premeditated vengeance, menace never ceasing to threaten if retaliation should become possible, feeding itself, meanwhile with a bitter, if sterile, hatred."

http://scriabin.com/etude/1915/02/zal-the-word-that-expresses-the-soul-of-poland.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mobilization of the 1st Canadian Division

The Movement to France

Early in December 1914 Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry regiment left Salisbury Plain and joined the British 27th Division in France. The Regiment was brigaded with the 3rd King's Royal Rifles, 4th King's Royal Rifles, 4th Rifle Brigade and 2nd King's Shropshire Light Infantry.

A few days after an inspection by King George V on 4 February 1915 the 1st Canadian Division marched off Salisbury Plain and entrained for their port of embarkation at Avonmouth on the Bristol Channel under the command of Lieutenant General Edwin Alderson. The Division was composed of three infantry brigades, three artillery brigades, an ammunition column, divisional engineers, divisional mounted troops and divisional train.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/westfront/armies/britishunits/1cdndiv.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Admiral Hugo Von Pohl, Chief of Marine Staff (4th February, 1915)

The waters round Great Britain and Ireland, including the English Channel, are hereby proclaimed a war region.

On and after February 18th every enemy merchant vessel found in this region will be destroyed, without its always being possible to warn the crews or passengers of the dangers threatening.

Neutral ships will also incur danger in the war region, where, in view of the misuse of neutral flags ordered by the British Government, and incidents inevitable in sea warfare, attacks intended for hostile ships may affect neutral ships also.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWlusitania.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colins, Leon, Poster, 4 February 1916



http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-4-february-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fire of the Parliament Buildings -- 4 February 1916

On the evening of February 3, 1916, a mysterious fire engulfed the elegant Gothic-Revival Centre Block of Parliament Hill. The intense flames consumed the building rapidly with the interior of the central tower collapsing just after midnight. While most were able to safely exit, the Ottawa Citizen reported that seven people were known to have perished in the blaze. The Parliamentary Library, and the priceless collection of books within, was fortuitously saved through the closing of heavy metal doors which separated it from the rest of the original Centre Block.

Many of the newspapers of the day playing to public fears of German conspiracy immediately published that the fire was a deliberate act of sabotage. The Toronto Globe reported that while "officially" the cause of the fire was a carelessly left cigar, "unofficial Ottawa, including many Members of Parliament, declare 'the Hun hath done this thing.'"

The Victoria Memorial Museum, now the home of the Canadian Museum of Nature, was chosen as the site for Parliament until the structure could be rebuilt. On September 1, 1916, the Governor General of Canada, His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught, laid the cornerstone for the new Centre Block. This act was one of Connaught's last as Governor General as he soon left Canada to a command in the British forces.


Parliament Building Fire. Taken at 12:30 AM, a few minutes before the tower fell on February 4, 1916.
Although a German conspiracy was originally suspected, the fire that destroyed the Centre Block was later reported as being caused by an unattended cigarette, or cigar, being left too close to loose papers. The photo, taken by J.B. Reid, is one of many of the blaze found in the Canada.


Meer foto's op http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/025005-3100-e.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BL 5.4 inch Howitzer


Gun and crew, East Africa, 1916 or 1917

The Ordnance BL 5.4 inch Howitzer was a version of the British 5 inch howitzer designed for British Indian Army use, especially on the Northwest Frontier. (...)

4 guns were sent from India and served in the East Africa campaign. They were manned by the 134th (Cornwall) Howitzer Battery (TF) from England. The battery was formed at Maktan on 4 February 1916 and drawn by oxen. The Territorial Force gunners would already have been familiar with the 5 inch howitzer which was closely related.

The battery is reported as firing 102 rounds in the bombardment of German positions on the Mgeta river (approximately 100 miles (160 km) SW of Dar es Salam) on 1 January 1917, part of the Rufiji River campaign. This allowed Cunliffe's Nigerian Brigade to cross the Mgeta river and pursue the German force south. One of the guns was destroyed by a premature explosion in this action, with 1 gunner killed and 2 wounded

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BL_5.4_inch_Howitzer
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Benaras Hindu University Speech (1916)
by Mohandas K. Gandhi

On 4th February 1916. Pandit Malaviya had invited Gandhiji to speak on the occasion of the opening of the Banaras Hindu University. Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy, had come specially to lay the foundation-stone of the University. To protect his life extra precautions were taken by the police. They were omnipresent and all houses along the route were guarded. Benaras was, so to say, in a state of siege.

Eminent persons from all over India had come. Many of them delivered addresses. On February 4, 1916 it was Gandhiji’s turn to address the audience, mostly consisting of impressionable youths. A galaxy of princes, bedecked and bejeweled, had occupied the dias. The Maharaja of Darbhanga was in the chair.

Gandhiji who was clad in a short, coarse dhoti, Kathiawadi cloak and turban rose to speak. The police precautions and the luxury around him hurt him deeply. Turning to the audience, Gandhiji said that he wanted to think audibly-speak without reserve:


I wish to tender my humble apology for the long delay that took place before I was able to reach this place. And you will readily accept the apology when I tell you that I am not responsible for the delay nor is any human agency responsible for it. The fact is that I am like an animal on show, and my keepers in their over kindness always manage to neglect a necessary chapter in this life, and, that is, pure accident. In this case, they did not provide for the series of accidents that happened to us-to me, keepers, and my carriers. Hence this delay.

Friends, under the influence of the matchless eloquence of Mrs. Besant who has just sat down, pray, do not believe that our University has become a finished product, and that all the young men who are to come to the University, that has yet to rise and come into existence, have also come and returned from it finished citizens of a great empire. Do not go away with any such impression, and if you, the student world to which my remarks are supposed to be addressed this evening, consider for one moment that the spiritual life, for which this country is noted and for which this country has no rival, can be transmitted through the lip, pray, believe me, you are wrong. You will never be able merely through the lip, to give the message that India, I hope, will one day deliver to the world. I myself have been fed up with speeches and lectures. I except the lectures that have been delivered here during the last two days from this category, because they are necessary. But I do venture to suggest to you that we have now reached almost the end of our resources in speech-making; it is not enough that our ears are feasted, that our eyes are feasted, but it is necessary that our hearts have got to be touched and that out hands and feet have got to be moved.

We have been told during the last two days how necessary it is, if we are to retain our hold upon the simplicity of Indian character, that our hands and feet should move in unison with our hearts. But this is only by way of preface. I wanted to say it is a matter of deep humiliation and shame for us that I am compelled this evening under the shadow of this great college, in this sacred city, to address my countrymen in a language that is foreign to me. I know that if I was appointed an examiner, to examine all those who have been attending during these two days this series of lectures, most of those who might be examined upon these lectures would fail. And why? Because they have not been touched.

I was present at the sessions of the great Congress in the month of December. There was a much vaster audience, and will you believe me when I tell you that the only speeches that touched the huge audience in Bombay were the speeches that were delivered in Hindustani? In Bombay, mind you, not in Benaras where everybody speaks Hindi. But between the vernaculars of the Bombay Presidency on the one hand and Hindi on the other, no such great dividing line exists as there does between English and the sister language of India; and the Congress audience was better able to follow the speakers in Hindi. I am hoping that this University will see to it that the youths who come to it will receive their instruction through the medium of their vernaculars. Our languages the reflection of ourselves, and if you tell me that our languages are too poor to express the best thought, then say that the sooner we are wiped out of existence the better for us. Is there a man who dreams that English can ever become the national language of India? Why this handicap on the nation? Just consider for one moment what an equal race our lads have to run with every English lad.

I had the privilege of a close conversation with some Poona professors. They assured me that every Indian youth, because he reached his knowledge through the English language, lost at least six precious years of life. Multiply that by the numbers of students turned out by our schools and colleges, and find out for yourselves how many thousand years have been lost to the nation. The charge against us is that we have no initiative. How can we have any, if we are to devote the precious years of our life to the mastery of a foreign tongue? We fail in this attempt also. Was it possible for any speaker yesterday and today to impress his audience as was possible for Mr. Higginbotham? It was not the fault of the previous speakers that they could not engage the audience. They had more than substance enough for us in their addresses. But their addresses could not go home to us. I have heard it said that after all it is English educated India which is leading and which is leading and which is doing all the things for the nation. It would be monstrous if it were otherwise. The only education we receive is English education. Surely we must show something for it. But suppose that we had been receiving during the past fifty years education through our vernaculars, what should we have today? We should have today a free India, we should have our educated men, not as if they were foreigners in their own land but speaking to the heart of the nation; they would be working amongst the poorest of the poor, and whatever they would have gained during these fifty years would be a heritage for the nation. Today even our wives are not the sharers in our best thought. Look at Professor Bose and Professor Ray and their brilliant researches. Is it not a shame that their researches are not the common property of the masses?

Let us now turn to another subject.

The Congress has passed a resolution about self-government, and I have no doubt that the All-India Congress Committee and the Muslim League will do their duty and come forward with some tangible suggestions. But I, for one, must frankly confess that I am not so much interested in what they will be able to produce as I am interested in anything that the student world is going to produce or the masses are going to produce. No paper contribution will ever give us self-government. No amount of speeches will ever make us fit for self-government. It is only our conduct that will fit for us it. And how are we trying to govern ourselves?

I want to think audibly this evening. I do not want to make a speech and if you find me this evening speaking without reserve, pray, consider that you are only sharing the thoughts of a man who allows himself to think audibly, and if you think that I seem to transgress the limits that courtesy imposes upon me, pardon me for the liberty I may be taking. I visited the Vishwanath temple last evening, and ad I was walking through those lanes, these were the thoughts that touched me. If a stranger dropped from above on to this great temple, and he had to consider what we as Hindus were, would he not be justified in condemning us? Is not this great temple a reflection of our own character? I speak feelingly, as a Hindu. Is it right that the lanes of our sacred temple should be as dirty as they are? The houses round about are built anyhow. The lanes are tortuous and narrow. If even our temples are not models of roominess and cleanliness, what can our self-government be? Shall our temples be abodes of holiness, cleanliness and peace as soon as the English have retired from India, either of their own pleasure or by compulsion, bag and baggage?

I entirely agree with the President of the Congress that before we think of self-government, we shall have to do the necessary plodding. In every city there are two divisions, the cantonment and the city proper. The city mostly is a stinking den. But we are a people unused to city life. But if we want city life, we cannot reproduce the easy-going hamlet life. It is not comforting to think that people walk about the streets of Indian Bombay under the perpetual fear of dwellers in the storeyed building spitting upon them. I do a great deal of railway traveling. I observe the difficulty of third-class passengers. But the railway administration is by no means to blame for all their hard lot. We do not know the elementary laws of cleanliness. We spit anywhere on the carriage floor, irrespective of the thoughts that it is often used as sleeping space. We do not trouble ourselves as to how we use it; the result is indescribable filth in the compartment. The so-called better class passengers overawe their less fortunate brethren. Among them I have seen the student world also; sometimes they behave no better. They can speak English and they have worn Norfolk jackets and, therefore, claim the right to force their way in and command seating accommodation.

I have turned the searchlight all over, and as you have given me the privilege of speaking to you, I am laying my heart bare. Surely we must set these things right in our progress towards self-government. I now introduce you to another scene. His Highness the Maharaja who presided yesterday over our deliberations spoke about the poverty of India. Other speakers laid great stress upon it. But what did we witness in the great pandal in which the foundation ceremony was performed by the Viceroy? Certainly a most gorgeous show, an exhibition of jewellery, which made a splendid feast for the eyes of the greatest jeweler who chose to come from Paris. I compare with the richly bedecked noble men the millions of the poor. And I feel like saying to these noble men, “There is no salvation for India unless you strip yourselves of this jewellery and hold it in trust for your countrymen in India.” I am sure it is not the desire of the King-Emperor or Lord Hardinge that in order to show the truest loyalty to our King-Emperor, it is necessary for us to ransack our jewellery boxes and to appear bedecked from top to toe. I would undertake, at the peril of my life, to bring to you a message from King George himself that he excepts nothing of the kind.

Sir, whenever I hear of a great palace rising in any great city of India, be it in British India or be it in India which is ruled by our great chiefs, I become jealous at once, and say, “Oh, it is the money that has come from the agriculturists.” Over seventy-five per cent of the population are agriculturists and Mr. Higginbotham told us last night in his own felicitous language, that they are the men who grow two blades of grass in the place of one. But there cannot be much spirit of self-government about us, if we take away or allow others to take away from them almost the whole of the results of their labour. Our salvation can only come through the farmer. Neither the lawyers, nor the doctors, nor the rich landlords are going to secure it.

Now, last but not the least, it is my bounden duty to refer to what agitated our minds during these two or three days. All of us have had many anxious moments while the Viceroy was going through the streets of Banaras. There were detectives stationed in many places. We were horrified. We asked ourselves, “Why this distrust?” Is it not better that even Lord Hardinge should die than live a living death? But a representative of a mighty sovereign may not. He might find it necessary to impose these detectives on us? We may foam, we may fret, we may resent, but let us not forget that India of today in her impatience has produced an army of anarchists. I myself am an anarchist, but of another type. But there is a class of anarchists amongst us, and if I was able to reach this class, I would say to them that their anarchism has no room in India, if India is to conqueror. It is a sign of fear. If we trust and fear God, we shall have to fear no one, not the Maharajas, not the Viceroys, not the detectives, not even King George.

I honour the anarchist for his love of the country. I honour him for his bravery in being willing to die for his country; but I ask him-is killing honourable? Is the dagger of an assassin a fit precursor of an honourable death? I deny it. There is no warrant for such methods in any scriptures. If I found it necessary for the salvation of India that the English should retire, that they should be driven out, I would not hesitate to declare that they would have to go, and I hope I would be prepared to die in defense of that belief. That would, in my opinion, be an honourable death. The bomb-thrower creates secret plots, is afraid to come out into the open, and when caught pays the penalty of misdirected zeal.

I have been told, “Had we not done this, had some people not thrown bombs, we should never have gained what we have got with reference to the partition movement.” (Mrs. Besant : ‘Please stop it.’) This was what I said in Bengal when Mr. Lyon presided at the meeting. I think what I am saying is necessary. If I am told to stop I shall obey. (Turning to the Chairman) I await your orders. If you consider that by my speaking as I am, I am not serving the country and the empire I shall certainly stop. (Cries of ‘Go on.’) (The Chairman: ‘Please, explain your object.’) I am simply. . . (another interruption). My friends, please do not resent this interruption. If Mrs. Besant this evening suggests that I should stop, she does so because she loves India so well, and she considers that I am erring in thinking audibly before you young men. But even so, I simply say this, that I want to purge India of this atmosphere of suspicion on either side, if we are to reach our goal; we should have an empire which is to be based upon mutual love and mutual trust. Is it not better that we talk under the shadow of this college than that we should be talking irresponsibly in our homes? I consider that it is much better that we talk these things openly. I have done so with excellent results before now. I know that there is nothing that the students do not know. I am, therefore, turning the searchlight towards ourselves. I hold the name of my country so dear to me that I exchange these thoughts with you, and submit to you that there is no room for anarchism in India. Let us frankly and openly say whatever we want to say our rulers, and face the consequences if what we have to say does not please them. But let us not abuse.

I was talking the other day to a member of the much-abused Civil Service. I have not very much in common with the members of that Service, but I could not help admiring the manner in which he was speaking to mw. He said : “Mr. Gandhi, do you for one moment suppose that all we, Civil Servants, are a bad lot, that we want to oppress the people whom we have come to govern?” “No,,” I said. “Then if you get an opportunity put in a word for the much-abused Civil Service.” And I am here to put in that word. Yes, many members of the Indian Civil Service are most decidedly overbearing; they are tyrannical, at times thoughtless. Many other adjectives may be used. I grant all these things and I grant also that after having lived in India for a certain number of years some of them become somewhat degraded. But what does that signify? They were gentlemen before they came here, and if they have lost some of the moral fiber, it is a reflection upon ourselves.

Just think out for yourselves, if a man who was good yesterday has become bad after having come in contact with me, is he responsible that he has deteriorated or am I? The atmosphere of sycophancy and falsity that surrounds them on their coming to India demoralizes them, as it would many of us. It is well to take the blame sometimes. If we are to receive self-government, we shall have to take it. We shall never be granted self-government. Look at the history of the British Empire and the British nation; freedom loving as it is, it will not be a party to give freedom to a people who will not take it themselves. Learn your lesson if you wish to from the Boer War. Those who were enemies of that empire only a few years ago have now become friends...

(At this point there was an interruption and a movement on the platform to leave. The speech, therefore, ended here abruptly.)

Source: This speech is from selected works of Mahatma Gandhi Volume-Six, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Benaras_Hindu_University_Speech
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Repington, diary entry (4th February, 1916)

Finished rather an important article about the German casualties, making out that they have lost 150,000 men a month since the war began; that is the permanent net loss including sickness. I find that my article on 'The Western Front' is regarded as unanswerable, and is generally agreed with by the most important people.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWrepington.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE PUNJAB MILITARY TRANSPORT ACT, 1916

(Punjab Act I of 1916) - [4 February 1916]

An Act to make better provision for the impressment of Animals, Vehicles, Boats and Gear in the Punjab for the purposes of Military Transport.

Lees verder op http://www.pap.gov.pk/uploads/acts/25.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garde-Reserve-Pionier-Regiment Flammenwerfer Truppen



An unteroffizier belonging to an unidentified pionier bataillon, but identified by the "Totenkopf" insignia on his sleeve as being Flammenwerfer Truppen (flame-thrower troops).

Design and development of the German flamethrower had begun several years before the outbreak of the First World War. Richard Fiedler created the first functioning and practical flamethrower. He was assisted in his work by Herman Reddeman – who would hold the rank of major in a flamethrower unit in the German Army during the war – and who had, at one time, been the fire chief of the German city of Leipzig.

The flamethrowers were field tested against French elements at Verdun in February of 1915. The flamethrowers were operated by an all volunteer unit of Pioneers, the unit itself having been formed in January of 1915. The Pioneers themselves were an integral part of Stormtrooper operations, solving combat engineer problems during attacks.

These various trouble spots could be dealt with either via the flamethrower or with hand-grenades. The grenades, while effective, did not instill the terror which the flamethrower did. The idea of burning alive was enough to make men abandon their posts. Those who did were met by Stormtroopers heavily armed with a variety of weapons designed for maximum performance in trench combat.

The flamethrower, then, was not only an effective physical weapon, but a psychological weapon as well. The flamethrower’s effectiveness would be apparent in the Second World War also as United States Marines used them in their fight against the Imperial Japanese Army in the Pacific Campaign.

Source: Drury, Ian. German Stormtrooper, 1914-1918. London: Osprey, 1996.



Toevoeging:

Basically, here's the deal about the Germans:

1. August of 1914 - one two-man portable flamethrower squad per platoon of selected pioneer battalions and companies. Nobody knows how many, though, because the records were all destroyed in WWII. Portable flamethrowers were mostly withdrawn at the end of the year, but pioneers on the eastern front continued to use them well into the summer of 1915, even using them to spray poison gas.

2. January of 1915 - Flammenwerfer-Abteilung Reddemann, attached to the Fifth Army. One officer and 48 men, armed with hand-pumped flamethrowers invented by Reddemann and large Fiedler weapons powered by compressed nitrogen.

3. March 15, 1915 - III. Garde-Pionier-Bataillon established as the flamethrower battalion, controlled directly by the OHL. Four 200-man companies (9th-12th) armed with 18 small and 22 large flamethrowers each, a staff, and a workshop detachment. Four more companies (13th-16th) added by the end of the year.

4. February 1916 - IV. Garde-Pionier-Bataillon established. Two companies, a staff, and a workshop detachment.

5. April 20, 1916 - Garde-Reserve-Pionier-Regiment created by merging the two flamethrower battalions. Three battalions of ten companies, three staffs, and three workshop detachments. By June two more companies added, for a total of 12 (1st-12th).

6. Late 1916 - The flamethrower regiment began attaching flamethrower platoons to the infantry assault battalions. Except for Assault Battalion No. 5 (Rohr), the men remained members of the flamethrower regiment. In the case of Rohr's unit, they were full members of the assault battalion.

7. September 1918 - Each pioneer company on the western front formed a flamethrower platoon armed with six portable devices to engage in antitank warfare.

8. October 1918 - Assault battalions may have formed their own flamethrower platoons not affiliated with the flamethrower regiment.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/drakegoodman/4851321485/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 februari 1917 - Raad van Vlaanderen


De Raad van Vlaanderen vergadert in de vergaderzaal van de Brabantse provincieraad.

Op de Vlaamsch Nationale Landdag te Brussel vindt na moeizame onderhandelingen tussen verschillende activistische organisaties de oprichting van de Raad van Vlaanderen plaats. Uit het gezelschap van 128 aanwezigen worden de eerste 50 leden van de Raad aangewezen. Dit alles gebeurt zonder publieke ruchtbaarheid.

De Raad fungeert als vertegenwoordigende vergadering met wetgevende bevoegdheden en is het centrale orgaan dat de activistische politiek moet sturen en de samenwerking met de Duitse bezettingsautoriteiten moet verzekeren. Van een zelfstandig optreden is geen sprake. De Duitsers laten daarvoor geen speelruimte.

In de Raad hebben zowel de radicalen van de groep Jong Vlaanderen, die een licht overwicht hebben, als meer gematigde activisten, unionisten genoemd, zitting. De eersten zien de Raad als de kern van het parlement en de regering van het toekomstige soevereine Vlaanderen en rekenen daarvoor op een overwinning van Duitsland. De gematigden willen niet verder gaan dan een opportunistische samenwerking met de bezetter om bepaalde doeleinden te verwezenlijken (zoals de vernederlandsing van de Gentse universiteit en de bestuurlijke scheiding van de ministeries). Alhoewel in de aanloop naar de oprichting van de Raad beide groepen het eens raken over de formule "de Vlamingen vragen voor Vlaanderen volledige en algehele zelfstandigheid en autonomie", zal het eindeloze gepalaver over de ideale staatsvorm voor Vlaanderen (koninkrijk of onderdeel van een federaal België) haar werking sterk belemmeren.

http://users.telenet.be/frankie.schram/tijd/feit/afbtxt/19/1/7/1917-02-04c.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Generaloberst Freiherr von Bissing

In december 1914 werd Generaloberst Freiherr von Bissing (1844-1917), door de Duitse Keizer Wilhelm II aangesteld als de Duitse bestuurder van het bezette België. Baron von Bissing zal vooral in de hedendaagse Belgische geschiedenis bekend blijven als de schepper van de zogeheten Flamenpolitik, door Duitsvriendelijke propaganda de Vlaamse minderheid in België te trachten te lijmen door hen autonomie te beloven. Zo zal hij zelfs op 21 maart 1917 overgaan tot de bestuurlijke scheiding van België in autonome gebieden: Vlaanderen en Wallonnië waarbij Brussel bij Vlaanderen werd gevoegd en er de hoofdstad van werd. De natte droom van elke tegenwoordige extreem Vlaams-nationalist. Een aantal Vlaams-nationalisten zullen in de val trappen die de Duitsers voor hen gespannen hadden, ondermeer Dr. August Borms, en het Aktivistisch avontuur aanvangen, om over te gaan tot de totale collaboratie met de Duitse bezetter. Hiertoe werd op 4 februari 1917 te Brussel de eerste Raad van Vlaanderen opgericht (de 2de versie zal bij de volgende collaboratie plaatshebben tijdens WOII).

Echter de ware oogmerken van Duitsland ten opzichte van België zoals die door Baron von Bissing geformuleerd werden tussen 1914 en 1917 in zijn postuum nagelaten testament en dat pas in mei 1917 algemeen verspreid raakte, onthulde heel wat anders dan wat de Aktivisten de bevolking tot dan toe had voorgehouden[!]: "Uit militair oogpunt volstaat het bezit van de Maasforten niet: de Duitse grens moet tot aan de Belgische kust worden vooruitgeschoven. Ook economisch dient het buurland aan de Duitse belangen ondergeschikt te worden. In het algemeen moet het land aan het Duitse gezag worden onderworpen en volledig verduitst. Daartoe moet ook 'gedurende jaren nog het thans bestaand dictatuurschap gehandhaafd worden. De Vlamingen zullen zich in een dergelijk overgangsstadium van de Welsche[sic] dwingelandij bevrijden en zich weer tot hun Nederduitse -hoewel niet licht te bewerken- aard laten terugvoeren. De Walen kunnen en moeten in de loop van dit tijdstip beslissen of zij zich willen aanpassen bij de gewijzigde definitieve toestanden, dan wel vekiezen België te verlaten. Wie in het land blijft, moet zich naar Duitsland keren en na afzienbare tijd ook het 'Deutschtum' aankleven. In geen geval mag het Duitse Rijk zich ten aanzien van België zo 'week' betonen als voor de oorlog in de Elzas: de bevolking moet met geweld worden verduitst. Wie dit niet zint, dient zonder omhaal onteigend en verdreven te worden."

http://www.verzet.org/content/view/937/37/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chemin des Dames

Ook de Duitse verliezen na de Slag aan de Somme waren van dien aard, dat Ludendorff op 4 februari 1917 besloot een aanzienlijk deel van de frontlijn in te korten en terug te trekken op de Hindenburg-linie, waarbij zo’n 25 km terrein werd prijsgegeven. De operatie “Alberich”, toepasselijk vernoemd naar de boosaardige dwerg uit de Nibelungen-sage, werd vanaf 16 maart uitgevoerd en verraste de Geallieerden dusdanig, dat de plannen voor het voorjaarsoffensief ingrijpend moesten worden gewijzigd. Een belangrijk gedeelte van de frontlijn, langs het zuidelijke scharnier van de Duitse verdediging, bleef echter onveranderd op haar plaats. Juist op dit gedeelte waren de Franse pijlen gericht.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/nivelle-offensief/01-nivelle.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Onafhankelijkheidsverklaring Vlaanderen

RAAD VAN VLAANDEREN

Overeenkomstig de doeleinden aangegeven in zijn eerste Manifest, één jaar geleden verschenen, heeft de Raad van Vlaanderen in zijn algemeene vergadering van 22 december 1917, plechtig en éénparig Vlaanderens volledige zelfstandigheid besloten.

Ingevolge deze verklaring legt de Raad van Vlaanderen het mandaat neder, hem door den Vlaamschen Landdag van 4 februari 1917 toevertrouwd, en zal zich aan een nieuwe Volksraadpleging onderwerpen, die het Vlaamsche Volk gelegenheid moet verschaffen, zijn wil nopens dit besluit van den Raad uit te drukken.

http://nl.wikisource.org/wiki/Onafhankelijkheidsverklaring_Vlaanderen
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

4 februari 1915 - De Duitse regering kondigt een verscherping van de duikbootoorlog aan. De wateren rond Groot-Brittannië, Ierland, het Kanaal en bijna de gehele Middellandse Zee worden tot oorlogsgebied verklaard. Ook neutrale (Nederlandse) schepen lopen nu gevaar, waarbij het contact tussen Nederland en Nederlands-Indië eveneens gevaar dreigt te lopen. Als reactie hierop komt de Britse regering twee dagen later, op 6 februari, met de door haar uitgevaardigde 'Order in Council', als represaillemaatregel.

4 februari 1917 - De vrijwel nieuwe zeesleper 'Limburg' (1916) van Bureau Wijsmuller uit IJmuiden wordt door de Britse autoriteiten in Londonderry gevorderd.

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=2&d=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 13:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Selections from War Poems by Siegfried Sassoon

Remorse

(Limerick, 4 February 1918)

Lost in the swamp and welter of the pit,
He flounders off the duck-boards; only he knows
Each flash and spouting crash, - each instant lit
When gloom reveals the streaming rain. He goes
Heavily, blindly on. And, while he blunders,
"Could anything be worse than this?" - he wonders,
Remembering how he saw those Germans run,
Screaming for mercy among the stumps of trees:
Green-faced, they dodged and darted: there was one
Livid with terror, clutching at his knees ...
Our chaps were sticking 'em like pigs ... "O hell!"
He thought - "there's things in war one dare not tell
Poor father sitting safe at home, who reads
Of dying heroes and their deathless deeds."


http://www.radix.net/~bbrown/sassoon.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 14:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DISTRIBUTION OF PROPAGANDA BY AIR, 1914 - 1918
By Captain Morris

Hieruit:

Dr. Pape, who was one of the counsel for the defence, reported
that the acquittal of the four officers had been confirmed. Next a statement
appeared in the German Press and was also circulated by German wireless that
Second Lieutenant E. Scholtz and H.C. Wookey R.F.C. of No. 11 Squadron who
were shot down near Cambrai on 17th October 1917 had been sentenced on the
1st December 1917 by a German court-martial to ten years penal servitude for
dropping pamphlets. On the 4th February 1918 a protest was telegraphed to the
British Minister at the Hague for communication to the German Government,
who were informed that “His Majesty’s Government do not regard such action
as contrary to International Law and no justification has been produced by the
German Government in support of their contention that such action is outside
the scope of the laws of war.”
The German Government were warned that failing the release of these two
officers, His Majesty’s Government would proceed to reprisals after the
expiration of the months grace in accordance with the Hague Agreement
between the two Governments in regard to Prisoners of War.

http://www.psywar.org/psywar/reproductions/morris.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 14:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jewish Legion

(...) Many books have been written about the Legion but this paper focuses on a major event in the Jewish East End when part of the 38th battalion marched proudly through Whitechapel and the City, on Monday, February 4th, 1918, watched equally proudly by the wild and frenzied cheering Jews of East London. They were en route to fight in Palestine/Israel and liberate it from the Turkish occupation.

Mooi artikel! Lees verder op http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/sugar38rf.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2011 14:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lance Corpl. George Robert Marsh



Lance Corpl. George Robert Marsh of the 2nd Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry was killed in action in France on 4th February 1918, at the age of 30. He was the second son of Mr. and Mrs. Marsh of Coldharbour, Northbourne. He joined the Army in January 1908, and before enlisting he was in the employ of Lord Northbourne. He saw six years and seven months' service in India and from there was sent to France in September 1914, to the Meerut Clearing Hospital to help with the wounded. He was also a stretcher bearer, and afterwards sent to the relief of Kut to help with the sick and wounded. He also saw service in the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. He was sent home sick in August 1916, and again went to France on active service in 1917.

Despite the Indian sounding name, Meerut Hospital, served the Western Front, and in 1914 was located at Orléans situated on the river Loire, 100 km south of Paris.

Kut (Al Kut or Kut-al-Amara) in Iraq, is situated on a loop of the river Tigris 160 kilometres south-east of Bagdad. Anglo-Indian troops had retreated here in December 1915 and were besieged by Turkish forces. A relief force was set up, diverting resources from the Western Front. The expedition set off from the British HQ at Basra in January 1916. Several relief attempts were made but none broke the Turkish siege and an additional 23,000 British casualties occurred during the relief efforts; the Turks lost approximately 10,000 men. However, Kut surrendered on 29th April 1916, the British having run out of food supplies and wracked with disease and inadequate medical provisions. It was a great humiliation for the British army. Approximately 8,000 troops were taken prisoner, many weak through sickness, they were not well treated and many died while in captivity. In a new campaign in the spring of 1917 Kut was retaken and British forces quickly advanced to take Baghdad.

George Robert Marsh is buried at the Metz-en-Couture Cemetery, Pas-de-Calais, France. He is also commemorated on the Northbourne War Memorial, and at the Victoria Memorial Hospital, Deal.

http://freespace.virgin.net/andrew.parkinson4/wwi_army.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2014 15:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brand in de Utrechtse Domtoren!

Er komt rook uit de toren! Op een ijzig koude zondagmiddag op 4 februari 1917, om ongeveer 3 uur, werd brand ontdekt in de Domtoren. Vanaf het Domplein hadden voorbijgangers rook en een vuurgloed gezien ter hoogte van de eerste omgang.

Het tweede vierkant was al een tijdje in restauratie en juist daar, onder de pas vernieuwde wijzerplaat, op ongeveer 40 meter hoogte kronkelden de rookwolken naar buiten. Wat verder weg, van af het Wed en de Korte Nieuwstraat kon men achter de galmborden al vurige tongen zien lekken langs het houtwerk in de klokkenkamer.

Een agent van politie, die op het Domplein dienst had, werd gewaarschuwd en deze belde onmiddellijk de Brandweer en riep daarna de bewaker van de toren. Beiden renden naar boven en vonden de vloer van de klokkenkamer in brand en de dikke eikenhouten balken van de klokkenstoelen al door het vuur aangetast. Ook de galmborden buiten aan de zuidzijde van de toren hadden vlam gevat.

De agent begon meteen één der grote klokken te luiden, waarop de binnenstad en ver daarbuiten begreep dat er onraad was op de Domtoren.

Lees verder op http://www.zowasutrecht.nl/stad-utrecht/utrecht-verder-terug/domtoren-in-brand
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2014 16:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dagboek Raphaël Waterschoot, 1917

4 februari 1917 zondag
Ik ga bij Albert naar Antwerpen; hij ziet er goed uit. Veel ijs op de Schelde.

http://oorlogsdagboek.org/1917%20oorlogsdagboek%201917/scannen0086.htm
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2014 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Lycett's Diary : Feb - Mar 1917

Sunday 4th February, 1917
Same routine, one case 2 a.m. Off duty 8.30 a.m. On duty 8.30 p.m. Our guns thundering tonight on our left, no wounded in. The heavy gunfire tonight is on our left in direction of Thiepval and Beaumont Hamel like continuous roll of thunder. Enemy shelled Albert today.

http://www.ozebook.com.au/william-lycetts-diary--feb---mar-1917.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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