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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2006 7:13    Onderwerp: 3 Februari Reageer met quote

February 3

1917 U.S. breaks diplomatic relations with Germany


On this day in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson speaks for two hours before a historic session of Congress to announce that the United States is breaking diplomatic relations with Germany.

Due to the reintroduction of the German navy’s policy of unlimited submarine warfare, announced two days earlier by Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollwegg, Wilson announced that his government had no choice but to cut all diplomatic ties with Germany in order to uphold the honor and dignity of the United States. Though he maintained that “We do not desire any hostile conflict with the German government,” Wilson nevertheless cautioned that war would follow if Germany followed through on its threat to sink American ships without warning.

Later that day, Count von Bernstorff, the German ambassador to the U.S., received a note written by Secretary of State Robert Lansing stating that “The President has…directed me to announce to your Excellency that all diplomatic relations between the United States and the German empire are severed, and that the American Ambassador at Berlin will be immediately withdrawn, and in accordance with such announcement to deliver to your Excellency your passports.” Bernstorff was guaranteed safe passage out of the country, but was ordered to leave Washington immediately. Also in the wake of Wilson’s speech, all German cruisers docked in the United States were seized and the government formally demanded that all American prisoners being held in Germany be released at once.

On the same day, a German U-boat sunk the American cargo ship Housatonic off the Scilly Islands, just southwest of Britain. A British ship rescued the ship’s crew, but its entire cargo of grain was lost.

In Berlin that night, before learning of the president’s speech, German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann told U.S. Ambassador James J. Gerard that “Everything will be alright. America will do nothing, for President Wilson is for peace and nothing else. Everything will go on as before.” He was proved wrong the following morning, as news arrived of the break in relations between America and Germany, a decisive step towards U.S. entry into the First World War.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2006 7:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 3. Februar

1914


1915
4000 Russen südlich der Weichsel gefangen
Erfolge der Verbündeten in den Karpathen
Unter falscher Flagge
Hinrichtung der Verschwörer von Sarajewo
Ermordung von Deutschen in Angola

1916
Beschießung der feindlichen Stellungen in Flandern
Verheerender Flugzeugangriff auf Durazzo

1917
Starkes Feuer an Somme und Aa
Deutsche Unterstützung bei Warnung der neutralen Schiffe
Russischer Vorstoß in Ostungarn abgeschlagen
Schwere englische Verluste im Irak
Wichtige Beratungen in Washington
Große Explosion in Archangelsk

1918
Lebhafte Artillerietätigkeit an der Westfront und bei Asiago
Luftangriffe auf London und Paris
Der Versailler Kriegsrat gegen Friedensverhandlungen

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2006 7:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
3. Wilson delivers final speech of Preparedness campaign in Saint Louis.
1917
3. United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany. Count Von Bernstorff is handed his passports.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Suez Canal, 3-4 February 1915

At the start of the First World War Egypt was officially part of the Ottoman Empire, but since 1882 had been ruled by the British. Free and secure access to the Suez Canal was vital to the British Empire. The most valuable parts of the Empire were east of Suez, as were the dominions of Australia and New Zealand and their invaluable volunteers. At the start of 1915 crucial reinforcements were travelling through the canal on their way to the Western Front, where the Australian and New Zealand divisions would soon be considered to be amongst the best troops available to Britain.

General Sir John Maxwell, the British commander in Egypt, had 70,000 troops at his disposal at the start of 1915, although many of them were either in training or transit. On the canal Major-General A. Wilson had 30,000 men, most from the Indian Army but with some Egyptian artillery, spread out along the length of the canal. Wilson also had access to a number of French and British airplanes, and a small naval squadron. It had been decided to conduct an essentially passive defence of the canal. The main British defences were on the western bank, with a few fortified posts on the eastern bank.

At the start of 1915 the Turks decided to launch an expedition towards the Suez Canal. It would be commanded by Djemal Pasha, the Minister of Marine and one of the triumvirate that ruled the Ottoman Empire. He was also governor of Syria and Palestine and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army. He was ably supported by his German chief of staff, Baron Kress von Kressenstein.

Djemal Pasha was faced with a formidable set of problems. His army was only 20,000 strong, so he would be outnumbered at the canal. To get to the canal zone his army would have to cross the Sinai desert, a potentially difficult journey. There were only three possible routes across the desert, of which the northern coastal route and the central route were the most favourable. Most dangerously for the Turks, the purpose of the expedition was unclear. At the time Djemal Pasha seems to have been hoping for a revolt to break out in Egypt at the approach of his army, and despite being outnumbered by more than three to one was planning an invasion. In the aftermath of the campaign, he consistently claimed that he had never intended to invade Egypt, only to make a reconnaissance in force and to damage to canal.

The expedition was well planned. The main force, 15,000 strong, took the central route across the desert. The remaining 5,000 troops were sent along the northern and southern coastal routes. Pontoons had been built in German and smuggled through Bulgaria to Turkey. The main force took ten days to march across the desert, moving at night in an attempt to hide their movements. By 1 February the main force of 15,000 men was close to the canal.

By then any hope of surprise was gone. The two flanking forces had launched feint attacks at Kantara to the north and Kubri to the south on 26-27 January. Warned by this that a Turkish army was in the area, British and French aircraft had then located the main force. The attack was to be made towards Ismailia in the middle of the canal.

The attack was made at 3 a.m. on 3 February. The Turkish troops came under heavy fire as they attempted to cross over the canal, and only three pontoons and their crews reached the west bank, where they were quickly killed or captured. A series of attacks followed during the day, but were no more successful. On the next day Djemal Pasha ordered a retreat back to his base at Beersheba.

The British had seen off the attack on the canal, but they would now pay for their passive defence. Two companies of Ghurkhas attempted a counterattack on 3 February, but otherwise the Turks were allowed to escape. Even so, Djemal Pasha’s men had suffered around 1,400 casualties (according to his own figures). British losses were only 150, but the policy of defending the western bank of the canal came under attack. The next Turkish probe towards the canal would be met in the Sinai, at the battle of Rumani.

Rickard, J (1 September 2007), Battle of the Suez Canal, 3-4 February 1915 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_suez_canal.html

Zie ook http://www.1914-1918.net/suez.htm (o.a. voor een kaart)


In Memoriam
From: The Auckland Weekly News
HAM Pvte W A Ham, Motueka, Nelson, fatally wounded in the Suez Canal engagement 3 Feb 1915, first of the NZEF to be killed in action. [AWN 18.02.1915]

http://www.ozlists.com/genies/bdms/bim_1914_15.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Feb 2010 10:18, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion
Alphaeus Casey's Diary


Alphaeus Abbott Casey was born at Annesley Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire on 22nd January 1895, the son of Thomas and Annie Casey. He was a student at the University of Sheffield when he enlisted into the ranks of the City Battalion with the number 12/69 on 10th September 1914. Between 1st January and 24th March 1915, during which time the battalion was at Redmires Camp, Alphaeus kept a detailed diary which gives a rare insight into the training regime of a Pals battalion. On 1st July 1916, he was killed in action with the battalion's "A" Company during the attack on Serre. Alphaeus has no known grave, and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.

Wednesday 3rd February 1915

Dull weather.

Shooting. Scored 79% at 25yds. No. 8 Rifle Squad drill. Weary of it. Brush with L.Cl. Simpson. Told him off.

1st kaki[sic] suit served out to about ˝ A Co. Looked like Tommies.

Afternoon trench digging. Cover trenches 2 ft. wide at bottom, 5 ft. deep. After 2 hrs started sniping with clay pellets. Developed into fusillade, Capt Allen and Lieut Storey joining in. Sport. Night march past Lodge Moor, to left along Manchester Rd and back up Wyming Brook. Very dark, judged no. of party marched past. Cocoa.

Everett and Townsend played duets including majestic Wedding March.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary02.htm (dagboek) & http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm (inleiding)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SUPPLEMENT TO THE LONDON GAZETTE. 3 FEBRUARY, 1915

The Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment).
13th Battalion—
The undermentioned to be temporary Lieutenants: —
Barrington Wells. Dated 9th. November, 1914.
Louis Henry Dawson. Dated 26th November, 1914.
Edwin James Tydeman. Dated 7th January, 1915.

The Duke of Edinburgh's (Wiltshire Regiment).
5th Battalion—
Temporary Captain Charles G. Skene relinquishes his commission on account of illhealth. Dated 4th February, 1915.

http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/issues/29058/supplements/1175/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 3 February 1915

GERMAN TORPEDO ATTACK.

HC Deb 03 February 1915 vol 69 c38 38

§ Lord ROBERT CECIL Can the Under-Secretary of State for War give us any information about the attempt on the "Asturias," the hospital ship; is he aware that the ship is so painted as to make it absolutely impossible that any mistake as to its character could have occurred, and do the Government propose to make any representations to the neutral nations on the subject of this gross violation of international law?

§ Mr. TENNANT I have received by courtesy of the Noble Lord, notice of this question and I have made inquiries at the War Office, but we have no official information there. I have put myself in communication with the Admiralty and I understand that a telegram has been received at the Admiralty. Perhaps the Noble Lord will address his question to the Admiralty.

§ Lord ROBERT CECIL Then perhaps I. may be allowed to put the question to the representative of the Admiralty?

§ The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY to the ADMIRALTY (Dr. Macnamara) Perhaps the Noble Lord will raise the matter on the Motion for the Adjournment.

§ Lord ROBERT CECIL I will.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/03/german-torpedo-attack

Lees vervolgens hier verder: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/03/german-torpedo-attack-1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadian Parliament Buildings Fire of 1916

While World War I was raging in Europe, the Canadian Parliament Buildings in Ottawa caught fire on a freezing February night in 1916. With the exception of the Library of Parliament, the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings was destroyed and seven people died. Rumours were rife that the Parliament Buildings fire was caused by enemy sabotage, but a Royal Commission into the fire concluded that the cause was accidental.

Lees verder op http://canadaonline.about.com/od/parliament/p/parlbldgsfire.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 10:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 03 FEBRUARY 1916

JOBLIN, Trooper F W, 6th Reinforcements, Canterbury Mounted Rifles – reports mud up to his knees and his overcoat frozen to his back. He is now suffering from rheumatism as a result. He saw three ‘Tommies’ frozen to death but no New Zealanders.

SMITH, Corporal Harold W, Auckland Infantry, aged 24, died in Tooting Military Hospital, one of the victims of the great fight for Chunuk Bair in August. Dangerously wounded by a Turkish bullet which injured the spine and caused paralysis of the lower part of his body. After being treated in Malta for some weeks he was brought to England and about six weeks ago underwent an operation for the removal of the bullet. This, unfortunately, could not be achieved and after a most gallant struggle, which was only possible by the possession of a sound constitution, Cpl Smith died on the 8th inst. He was buried with military honours in the soldiers’ plot of the Wandsworth Cemetery, amongst others of all the services whose resting places will be marked by a public memorial at the end of the war. His comrades from Tooting and Australians from different hospitals attended the funeral. There were many wreaths.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn03feb1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 11:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Infantryman, February 1916

http://www.ir23.org/kit/3-westfront-1916.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EXTRACTS FROM A STATEMENT BY TROTSKY ON POLAND AT THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE

3 February 1918
First of all, I must make it clear that neither the German nor the Austro-Hungarian delegation raised the question of inviting the representatives of the Polish Government to the negotiations as representatives of an independent State. That question was only raised when the Russian delegation drew the attention of the other side to the complete contradiction in their attitude, in that the German and Austro-Hungarian Governments, acknowledging in words the sovereign rights of the Polish State, at the same time failed to raise the question of inviting the Polish Government to negotiations concerning the destiny of Poland.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/February/3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 11:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zionist Organization Statement on Palestine
Paris Peace Conference
(February 3, 1919)


PROPOSALS PRESENTED TO THE PEACE CONFERENCE

The Zionist Organization respectfully submits the following draft resolutions for the consideration of the Peace Conference:

1. The High Contracting Parties recognize the historic title of the Jewish people to Palestine and the right of Jews to reconstitute in Palestine their National Home.

2. The boundaries of Palestine shall be as declared in the Schedule annexed hereto.

3. The sovereign possession of Palestine shall be vested in the League of Nations and the Government entrusted to Great Britain as Mandatory of the League.

4. (Provision to be inserted relating to the application in Palestine of such of the general conditions attached to mandates as are suitable to the case.)

5. The mandate shall be subject also to the following special conditions:

1. Palestine shall be placed under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment there of the Jewish National Home, and ultimately render possible the creation of an autonomous Commonwealth, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

Lees verder op http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/zoparis.html
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Fritz Kempf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2010 23:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wat verteld de Wiki ons?

1917 - De voltooiing van de Tritton's Light Machine of de Tritton Chaser.
1917 - Het uitbreken van de Slag om Rome (3 februari - 4 februari 1916)

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Ypres Salient on Pictures
Discover the Salient - Meet the men


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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Feb 2010 23:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915: Veljko Cubrilovic, Danilo Ilic and Misko Jovanovic, Archduke Ferdinand’s assassins

On this date in 1915, three of the Black Hand conspirators who had assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo the previous June were hanged for treason and murder as the World War that assassination ignited engulfed Europe.

You could say it was too little, too late.

Ironically, the gunman who actually got the Archduke, Gavrilo Princip, was too young to receive the death penalty under Austro-Hungarian law — barely short of his 20th birthday (There seems to be some uncertainty as to Princip’s actual date of birth, so he might in fact have been 20 years old. The court, at any rate, took him for 19.), a more liberal standard for capital responsibility than even present-day human rights standards require.

In fact, that was true of five of the eight student nationalists convicted; the Slavs’ barbarous oppressor accordingly punished them for murdering the heir to its throne and involving it in a ruinous war with prison sentences of no more than 20 years. Three of the underaged five (Princip included) contracted fatal tuberculosis cases in custody during World War I; the other two, Cvijetko Popovic and Vaso Cubrilovic, outlived the Habsburg Empire by decades.

Three remained, old enough to swing for turning Europe into a charnel house: Vaso’s older brother Veljko (a schoolteacher), Danilo Ilic (a newspaper editor) and Misko Jovanovic (a businessman).

But if their names aren’t familiar, and their comedy assassination plot succeeded almost in spite of themselves, these forgotten radicals still rank among the midwives of modernity for the global cataclysm unleashed by their deed, for its calamitous aftershocks of nationalism and ideology, and for the second war that succeeded the horrors of the first.

According to John S. Craig’s Peculiar Liaisons, Gavrilo Princip left his poetry scrawled on the wall of his cell.

Our ghosts will walk through Vienna
And roam through the palace
Frightening the lords


All things considered, he sold himself short.

http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/02/03/1915-veljko-cubrilovic-danilo-ilic-and-misko-jovanovic-archduke-ferdinands-assassins/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2011 17:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 3 Februari 1914.

Valkenswaard. Tot ons genoegen vernemen wij van bevoegde zijde dat in onze gemeente eene algemeene dorpsharmonie zal opgericht worden. Wij wenschen het comité veel succes met zijn onderneming en twijfelen niet aan de welwillende medewerking der werkende leden van voorheen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2011 17:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering Today - 3 February

On this day in 1915 (during the First World War), these eleven men from the Isle of Lewis lost their lives in the service of King & Country. They perished with the sinking of HMS Clan Macnaughton, which struck a mine northwest of Ireland. RIP.

DONALD FINLAYSON
Last address in Lewis: 19 Aird Tong,
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS "Clan MacNaughton"
Service number: 2289A
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 29
Drowned in sinking of ship Clan MacNaughton
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14
Lewis Memorial: Back

Leading Seaman JOHN MACLEOD
Last address in Lewis: 25 Aird Tong,
Son of Mrs. P. MacLeod, of 25, Aird of Tong, Stornoway, and the late Peter MacLeod.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS "Clan MacNaughton"
Service number: 3092A
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 23
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14
Lewis War Memorial: Stornoway, Back Division, plaque 7

Seaman DONALD CAMPBELL
Last address in Lewis: 7 Arnol,
Son of Norman Campbell; husband of Christina Campbell, of 26, North Bragar, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 4018B
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 40
Drowned in sinking of ship Clan MacNaughton
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14
Local memorial: West Side, Bragar

Seaman DONALD MORRISON
Last address in Lewis: 41 Borve,
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 2395D
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 46
Died in sinking of Clan MacNaughton
Left six orphans
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial, panel 14
Local memorial: North Lewis, Borve

Seaman KENNETH MACAULAY
Last address in Lewis: 3 Breasclete,
Son of George and Christina Macaulay, of 3, Breasclete, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 4971B
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 30
Drowned in sinking of ship Clan MacNaughton
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14
Lewis Memorial: East Loch Roag, Callanish

Seaman DONALD FINLAYSON (jnr)
Last address in Lewis: 11 Brue,
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 2289A
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 22
Drowned in HMS Clan MacNaughton
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial, panel 14

Seaman DUGALD KENNEDY
Last address in Lewis: 2 Calbost,
Son of Donald and Kate MacKay Kennedy, of 2, Calbost, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 5424A
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 17
Drowned in sinking of the Clan MacNaughton
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14
Local Memorial: Pairc, Kershader

Seaman NEIL MORRISON
Last address in Lewis: 9 Calbost,
Son of John and Marion Morrison
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 22
Drowned in sinking of the Clan MacNaughton
Was a survivor of the sinking of the Hermes
Local Memorial: Pairc, Kershader

Seaman DONALD CAMPBELL
Last address in Lewis: 26 North Bragar
Son of Norman Campbell; husband of Christina Campbell, of 26, North Bragar, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 4018B
Date of death: February, 3th, 1915 at the age of 40
Died in sinking of ship
Memorial: Chatham Naval Memorial
Memorial reference: 14

Seaman DONALD MARTIN
Last address in Lewis: Portvoller,
Son of William and Mrs. Martin, of Port Voller Point, Stornoway.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 6803/A
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 21
Enlisted after outbreak of war and had just completed 3 months' service
Drowned in sinking of ship
Memorial: Chatham Naval, panel 14
Lewis Memorial: Point (Garrabost)

Seaman DONALD MURRAY
Last address in Lewis: 33 South Dell,
Son of Murdo and Catherine Murray, of South Dell, Ness; husband of Mary McDonald Murray, of 33, South Dell, Ness, Island of Lewis.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, HMS Clan MacNaughton
Service number: 3275C
Date of death: 3 February 1915 at the age of 37
Left widow and 5 children
Memorial: Chatham Naval
Memorial reference: 14
Local memorial: North Lewis, Cross

http://atlantic-lines.blogspot.com/2009/02/remembering-today-3-february.html
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Photoplay Magazine, Feb. 1915

http://www.archive.org/details/PhotoplayMagazineFeb.1915
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Evening Post, Volume LXXXIX, Issue 28, 3 February 1915





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19150203.2.57
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Calcutta Club - Calcutta - 1915



During the Raj, whilst the preferred club of the burra sahibs of the Indian Civil Service and the military was the United Services Club, the upper echelons of the British mercantile class frequented the Bengal Club. Reflecting perhaps, the mores of the time but no doubt reinforced by the inherent snobbery of gentlemen's clubs, both these clubs were 'Europeans only' and denied membership to Indians, irrespective of their social status.

Following an incident at the Bengal Club when Rajen Mookherjee, an esteemed Indian guest of the then Viceroy of India Lord Minto, was denied entry into the Dining Room on account of his race, a group of leading lights in Calcutta, both Indian and European determined to form a new club. Thus the Calcutta Club was formed in 1907 on the basis of a membership policy not dicatated by race. It allowed both Indians and Europeans the opportunity to socialise and mingle. The clubhouse was designed by architect Mr Thornton and was formally opened by the then Governor of Bengal Sir Thomas Carmichael on 3 February 1915.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/23268776@N03/3406319256/sizes/z/in/photostream/
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The 16th Battalion AIF at Anzac, Gallipoli

The ship reached Albany, Western Australia, on 27 December, and Aden in the Persian Gulf on 20 January 1915. The unit diary noted that Private Robinson in ‘F’ Company had died from pleurisy and measles. On 21 January, a band and ‘F’ Company went ashore for his funeral. Private Harold Robinson, the battalion’s first casualty of the war, age 18, son of James and Lila Robinson of Noarlunga, South Australia, was buried in the Maala Cemetery, Yemen.

On 3 February 1915, the battalion disembarked at Alexandria, Egypt. They travelled by train to camp at Heliopolis and remained there, undergoing training, until early April.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/s_sixteenth.html
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Chief of Naval Operations

The post of chief of naval operations (CNO) was established on 3 February 1915 to give the navy a military chief "charged with the operations of the Fleet and with the preparations of plans for use in war." Legally, the CNO was only an adviser to the secretary of the navy, but the structure was adequate during World War I. The CINCUS (an unhappy acronym for commander in chief, changed after Pearl Harbor to COMINCH) was, in practice, the commander of the Atlantic, the Pacific, or the Asiatic Fleet. In March 1942 the titles of CNO and COMINCH merged in the person of Ernest J. King. His administration resulted in a general order abolishing COMINCH to vest CNO with clear supremacy.

http://www.answers.com/topic/chief-of-naval-operations
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THE INFLUENCE OF MILK FEEDING ON MORTALITY AND GROWTH, AND ON THE CHARACTER OF THE INTESTINAL FLORA
Leo F. Rettger, submitted: 3 February 1915

Abstract - Throughout the investigations upon which a large part of this paper is based the favorable influence of milk feeding on mortality and growth was most apparent. Mortality from all causes was frequently reduced to at least one-half of what obtained among the chicks that received no milk, while the milk-fed chicks in some experiments gained twice as much in weight as those that were without this article of diet. Although the influence of milk feeding was less pronounced on the mortality of chicks that were artificially infected with Bacterium pullorum, quite an appreciable difference in mortality was always noted if the milk was fed at least one or two days before the first administration of the bouillon cultures of the organism in question.

Practically the same results were obtained, whether sweet or sour milk was fed, and no differences could be observed in the relative value of ordinary sour milk and of the so called bulgaricus product. Hence, the unique properties of this food exist in the milk as such, rather than in any milk acids or milk bacteria that may be present.

Milk and lactose diet exert a very important influence on the character of the intestinal bacteria, especially in white rats and in the common domestic fowl. Within a few days after the ingestion of milk or lactose a transformation of the flora takes place in which the usual mixed bacterial flora give way to ones that are more simplified, and in which Bacillus acidophilus and Bacillus bifidus are, as a rule, prominent. It is to be assumed that milk has this influence in virtue of the large amount of lactose which it contains. Other carbohydrates, besides milk sugar, failed to bring about such a transformation.

The ingestion of foreign bacteria, even in large numbers, does not of itself bring about an elimination or displacement of the common intestinal microörganisms. Vastly more important is the influence of diet, especially milk and lactose. The feeding of Bulgara tablets or other preparations which contain as the supposedly active agent the bacillus of Metchnikoff and Mazé, without due regard to the use of milk, can, therefore, be of little, if indeed of any, value. The beneficial effects which it is claimed have been derived from the use of yoghurt, and other oriental sour milk products have in all probability been due to the milk as such, rather than to the bacteria which they contained. This view is strongly supported by the extensive milk feeding experiments on chicks which are recorded in this paper, and also by the results which show the influence of milk and of lactose feeding on the intestinal flora of white rats and of the common domestic fowl

http://jem.rupress.org/content/21/4/365.abstract
De PDF: http://jem.rupress.org/content/21/4/365.full.pdf+html
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Officer training report: William Binning's report at the end of his officer training, 3rd February 1915 .



2nd Lieutenant William B. Binning (1896 - 1916), Scottish Rifles 9th Div. Machine Gun Corps, 28th Bn.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/8648?CISOROOT=%2Fgwa&CISOPTR=8648&DMSCALE=37.50000&DMWIDTH=600&DMHEIGHT=600&DMMODE=viewer&DMFULL=0&DMOLDSCALE=9.37500&DMX=0&DMY=0&DMTEXT=&DMTHUMB=1&REC=1&DMROTATE=0&x=53&y=35
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The moon's mean longitude and the eclipse of Feb. 3, 1916



http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1915AJ.....29...65R
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Dadaism in Zurich

At the same time as both a pre-Revolution Lenin and a Ulysses-obsessed Joyce were staying in Zürich, a group of maverick European intellectuals was also seeking refuge in the city from the bloodshed and misery of World War I. In 1915, Hugo Ball, a writer and theatre-director, had arrived from Munich with his partner Emmy Hennings, a dancer and singer. It seemed to them, as to many horrified by the brutality of war, that Western civilization had finally lost all reason; with a group of like-minded friends, they made an arrangement with the owner of the Meierei tavern at Spiegelgasse 1 to use the pub’s backroom for a “literary cabaret” to demonstrate to the people of Zürich and the world the moral bankruptcy of Western culture. On Saturday, February 3, 1916, Ball, Hennings, the Romanian poet Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp (an artist from Franco-German Alsace), and a handful of other emigrés inaugurated the Cabaret Voltaire with a night of wild music, poetry and dance, intended to satirize art and literature by placing unreason against reason, anti-art against art. On June 15, they published a magazine with contributions from Kandinsky, Modigliani and others, and presented themselves as “Dada”, the most significantly meaningless name they could find, picked at random out of a dictionary (dada is French for “hobby-horse”).

Dada’s poignant absurdities aptly expressed the mood of dislocation and crisis seizing Western society, and the movement spread rapidly. In New York, Dada was centred at Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery “291”, meeting point for Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and others. In Berlin, Dadaists such as George Grosz relentlessly lampooned high society, and were the initiators of the brand-new technique of photomontage. In the Netherlands, Dada became De Stijl, led by Mondrian. In 1920, some of the Zürich Dadaists moved to Paris and there formed the Surrealist movement, which later attracted artists such as Dalí and Miró. The greatest legacy of Dada was its liberating influence in overturning previously unquestioned strictures of style and order, not only in art and writing but across society as a whole. What is both appropriate and extraordinary is that such a movement should have emerged from – of all places – neutral, bourgeois Zürich.

http://www.isyours.com/e/guide/zurich/dada.html
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Alexander Buckley

Alexander Henry Buckley VC (1891 - 1918) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

(...) During the First World War, Buckley enlisted in the First Australian Imperial Force on 3 February 1916 and, after completing basic training, in June he was sent to England among a draft of reinforcements and allocated to the 54th Battalion, which was attached to the 14th Brigade.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Alexander-Buckley/101873636520718
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New Zealand tunnellers on board the Ruapehu



Members of the New Zealand Tunnelling Company on board the troop ship Ruapehu, on Christmas Day, 1915. The troops had left New Zealand on 18 December and arrived in Plymouth, England, on 3 February 1916. A month later they became the first New Zealanders to reach the Western Front in France.

The Tunnelling Company was largely made up of quarrymen, gold miners from Waihi and Karangahake, Railways and Public Works Department labourers, and coal miners from the West Coast of the South Island. They gave their commander, Major J.E. Duigan, some disciplinary headaches, but their experience was crucial in the underground war around Arras.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/new-zealand-tunnellers-on-board-the-ruapehu
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Down Home Rag (The Versatile Four, February 1916) Ragtime Band

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfDubf6TnHc
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President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in the official relations with Germany. February 3, 1917.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USA_bryter_de_diplomatiska_f%C3%B6rbindelserna_med_Tyskland_3_februari_1917.jpg
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President Wilson's Speech to Congress Regarding Unrestricted U-Boat Warfare, 3 February 1917

Reproduced below is Woodrow Wilson's speech to Congress on 3 February 1917 announcing America's breaking off of diplomatic relations with Germany following the latter's decision to re-introduce a policy of unrestricted U-boat warfare two days earlier.

Wilson's speech followed the despatch of a diplomatic note to the U.S. Secretary of State, Robert Lansing. In the note the German government announced a re-opened German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare (initially introduced and then rapidly abandoned in 1916 owing to U.S. protests).

In effect the policy set in place a blockade of Britain and her European allies, to be applied to belligerent and neutral shipping alike. The German government argued that such a policy was implemented only as an aggressive form of defence.

President Woodrow Wilson's Address to Congress, 3 February 1917

The Imperial German Government on the 31st day of January announced to this Government and to the Governments of the other neutral nations that on and after the 1st day of February, the present month, it would adopt a policy with regard to the use of submarines against all shipping seeking to pass through certain designated areas of the high seas, to which it is clearly my duty to call your attention.

Let me remind the Congress that on the 18th of April last, in view of the sinking on the 24th of March of the cross-channel steamship Sussex by a German submarine without summons or warning, and the consequent loss of lives of several citizens of the United States who were passengers aboard her, this Government addressed a note to the Imperial German Government, in which it made the following declaration:

If it is still the purpose of the Imperial German Government to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of submarines without regard to what the Government of the United States must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but one course it can pursue.

Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether.


In reply to this declaration the Imperial German Government gave this Government the following assurance:

The German Government is prepared to do its utmost to confine the operations of war for the rest of its duration to the fighting forces of the belligerents, thereby also insuring the freedom of the seas, a principle upon which the German Government believes now, as before, to be in agreement with the Government of the United States.

The German Government, guided by this idea, notifies the Government of the United States that the German naval forces have received the following orders: In accordance with the general principles of visit and search and destruction of merchant vessels recognized by international law, such vessels, both within and without the area declared a naval war zone, shall not be sunk without warning and without saving human lives, unless these ships attempt to escape or offer resistance.

But [it added] neutrals cannot expect that Germany, forced to fight for her existence, shall, for the sake of neutral interest, restrict the use of an effective weapon if her enemy is permitted to continue to apply at will methods of warfare violating the rules of international law.

Such a demand would be incompatible with the character of neutrality, and the German Government is convinced that the Government of the United States does not think of making such a demand, knowing that the Government of the United States has repeatedly declared that it is determined to restore the principle of the freedom of the seas, from whatever quarter it has been violated.


To this the Government of the United States replied on the Sth of May, accepting, of course, the assurance given, but adding:

The Government of the United States feels it necessary to state that it takes it for granted that the Imperial German Government does not intend to imply that the maintenance of its newly announced policy is in any way contingent upon the course or result of diplomatic negotiations between the Government of the United States and any other belligerent Government, notwithstanding the fact that certain passages in the Imperial Government's note of the 4th inst. might appear to be susceptible of that construction.

In order, however, to avoid any misunderstanding, the Government of the United States notifies the Imperial Government that it cannot for a moment entertain, much less discuss, a suggestion that respect by German naval authorities for the rights of citizens of the United States upon the high seas should in any way or in the slightest degree be made contingent upon the conduct of any other Government, affecting the rights of neutrals and non-combatants. Responsibility in such matters is single, not joint, absolute, not relative.


To this note of the 8th of May the Imperial German Government made no reply.

On the 31st of January, the Wednesday of the present week, the German Ambassador handed to the Secretary of State, along with a formal note, a memorandum which contained the following statement:

The Imperial Government therefore does not doubt that the Government of the United States will understand the situation thus forced upon Germany by the Entente Allies' brutal methods of war and by their determination to destroy the Central Powers, and that the Government of the United States will further realize that the now openly disclosed intention of the Entente Allies gives back to Germany the freedom of action which she reserved in her note addressed to the Government of the United States on May 4, 1916.

Under these circumstances, Germany will meet the illegal measures of her enemies by forcibly preventing, after February 1, 1917, in a zone around Great Britain, France, Italy and in the Eastern Mediterranean, all navigation, that of neutrals included, from and to England and from and to France, etc. All ships met within the zone will be sunk
.

I think that you will agree with me that, in view of this declaration, which suddenly and without prior intimation of any kind deliberately withdraws the solemn assurance given in the Imperial Government's note of the 4th of May, 1916, this Government has no alternative consistent with the dignity and honour of the United States but to take the course which, in its note of the 18th of April, 1916, it announced that it would take in the event that the German Government did not declare and effect an abandonment of the methods of submarine warfare which it was then employing and to which it now purposes again to resort.

I have therefore directed the Secretary of State to announce to his Excellency the German Ambassador that all diplomatic relations between the United States and the German Empire are severed and that the American Ambassador to Berlin will immediately be withdrawn; and, in accordance with this decision, to hand to his Excellency his passports.

Notwithstanding this unexpected action of the German Government, this sudden and deplorable renunciation of its assurances, given this Government at one of the most critical moments of tension in the relations of the two Governments, I refuse to believe that it is the intention of the German authorities to do in fact what they have warned us they will feel at liberty to do.

I cannot bring myself to believe that they will indeed pay no regard to the ancient friendship between their people and our own or to the solemn obligations which have been exchanged between them, and destroy American ships, and take the lives of American citizens in the wilful prosecution of the ruthless naval program they have announced their intention to adopt. Only actual overt acts on their part can make me believe it even now.

If this inveterate confidence on my part in the sobriety and prudent foresight of their purpose should unhappily prove unfounded: if American ships and American lives should in fact be sacrificed by their naval commanders in heedless contravention of the just and reasonable understandings of international law and the obvious dictates of humanity, I shall take the liberty of coming again before the Congress to ask that authority be given me to use any means that may be necessary for the protection of our seamen and our people in the prosecution of their peaceful and legitimate errands on the high seas.

I can do nothing less. I take it for granted that all neutral Governments will take the same course.

We do not desire any hostile conflict with the Imperial German Government. We are the sincere friends of the German people, and earnestly desire to remain at peace with the Government which speaks for them.

We shall not believe that they are hostile to us unless and until we are obliged to believe it; and we purpose nothing more than the reasonable defence of the undoubted rights of our people.

We wish to serve no selfish ends. We seek merely to stand true alike in thought and in action to the immemorial principles of our people, which I have sought to express in my address to the Senate only two weeks ago-seek merely to vindicate our right to liberty and justice and an unmolested life.

These are the bases of peace, not war. God grant that we may not be challenged to defend them by acts of wilful injustice on the part of the Government of Germany.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_wilson.htm
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Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

In January 1917, Germany announced that it would lift all restrictions on submarine warfare starting on February 1. This declaration meant that German U-boat commanders were suddenly authorized to sink all ships that they believed to be providing aid of any sort to the Allies. Because the primary goal was to starve Britain into surrendering, the German effort would focus largely on ships crossing the Atlantic from the United States and Canada.

The Housatonic

The first victim of this new policy was the American cargo ship Housatonic , which a German U-boat sank on February 3, 1917. In response, President Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany the same day. The escalation was serious and turned out to be a major step toward the United States’ entry into the war.

http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww1/section8.rhtml
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Food Rationing 3rd February 1917

Britain was running very short of basic foodstuffs in the winter of 1917. This was largely because of the difficulty of bringing-food from overseas during wartime

Reports appeared in newspapers on 3 February 1917 that the government's food controller, Lord Devonport, wanted to avoid compulsory rationing but that there was a very urgent need to economize. People were asked to restrict their eating to no more than 4lb of bread or food made from 3lb flour, 2lb 8 oz of meat (including bacon and sausages) and 12 oz of sugar a week. There was no shortage, people were told, of fish or eggs.

Newspapers published recipes for nourishing food that required less meat, like a savoury meat roll made with minced meat, bread and eggs or a stew made with chestnuts. People were encouraged to eat more pulses, for example lentil soup, and to have herrings for breakfast instead of bacon.

http://www.hibbert-assembly.org.uk/food/rationing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2011 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medium Mark A

De Medium Mark A werd ook wel eens door zijn snelheid Whippet genoemd, was een lichte Britse tank uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Op 3 februari 1917 was het prototype voltooid van wat toen Tritton's Light Machine of de Tritton Chaser heette. Om de besturing zo simpel mogelijk te houden, was eerst gekozen voor een systeem waarbij de chauffeur eenvoudigweg naar keuze één van beide rupsbanden afremde. Men ontdekte dat daarbij erg veel energie verloren ging. De gewenste hoge snelheid kon alleen goedkoop bereikt worden door twee Tylor 45pk JB4 dubbeldekkerbusmotoren te installeren, één voor iedere rupsband. Toen bleek dat men ook kon sturen door de ene motor meer gas te geven dan de andere. Men bracht daarop beide functies onder in één stuurwiel, dat zowel de benzinetoevoer naar beide motoren regelde als de remmen activeerde, iets wat in theorie erg praktisch leek, maar in de praktijk erg theoretisch bleef. Bij het draaien zetten de meeste chauffeurs aan één kant de motor maar liever helemáál uit, dan het risico te lopen een van de eigen soldaten te pletten als men de relatieve aandrijving fout zou inschatten. Overigens kon de tank ook nog (zij het zeer langzaam) aangedreven worden als één van beide motoren uitviel, want de transmissie stond toe de kracht over beide rupsbanden te verdelen, door een gekoppelde aandrijving met een maximale overdracht van 12 pk (die zelfs normaal was bij het gewoon rechtuitrijden, omdat anders de chauffeur iedere fluctuatie in motorvermogen had moeten compenseren).

Uit eigen huis... http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Medium_Mark_A
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Herman Heijermans

(...) Op 15 december 1894 verscheen in De Telegraaf zijn eerste schets onder het pseudoniem Samuel Falkland jr.. Dit pseudoniem, de naam van de Engelse dichter en politicus Falkland uit de zeventiende eeuw, had ook zijn vader al gebruikt.

Sinds 1896 zouden zijn Falklandjes in het Algemeen Handelsblad verschijnen. De laatste 'Falkland' verscheen in die krant op 3 februari 1917. Hij had er honderden geschreven, pittige stukken vol humor, die onder de naam Schetsen in negentien bundels tussen 1898 en 1915 heruitgegeven werden. (...)

http://www.kunstbus.net/literair/herman+heijermans.html
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Gerrit Borgers, Paul van Ostaijen. Een documentatie


Bij de onlusten die op 3 februari 1918 in Antwerpen uitbraken, heeft de schrijver en kunsthistoricus Ary Delen ook Paul van Ostaijen betrokken. Deze botsingen tussen aktivisten en hun tegenstanders ontstonden na een ‘volksraadpleging’ in de Beurs, waar Borms de zelfstandigheid van Vlaanderen had uitgeroepen. Op de Meir werden de flaminganten door een grote menigte, waaronder ook Delen, uitgejouwd en aangevallen. Picard vermeldt dat het er ‘in ieder geval warm’ toegegaan schijnt te zijn en besluit: ‘Ongelukken zijn er niet geweest; de Antwerpse politie schijnt verstandig te zijn opgetreden.’

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/borg006paul01_01/borg006paul01_01_0031.php
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Bernard Artigau

Sous Lieutenant Bernard Artigau was a French World War I flying ace credited with twelve aerial victories. He later became an airline pilot in South America, and returned to serve his nation again in World War II.

(...) On 3 February 1918, Artigau again teamed with Guérin to down an enemy plane over Nogent l'Abbesse. A promotion to Adjutant for Artigau came in March. Artigau then tallied back to back triumphs on 11 and 12 April.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Artigau#1918
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THE ATTITUDE OF THE AALAND ISLANDERS.

As early as the 20th August, 1917, the Delegates of the Communes of the Islands
assembled at Finström and decided to bring to the notice of the Swedish Government and
Parliament that the population of the Aaland Islands, for special reasons, keenly desired
that the Islands should be reunited to the Kingdom of Sweden. This resolution was
communicated to the Swedish Government on 27th November.

In December, at about the time when Finland declared its independence, the Aaland
Islanders were preparing to take a plebiscite in favour of their reunion with Sweden. This
plebiscite took place on 31st December; every man and woman of age was given the right to
take part. More than 7,000 Aaland Islanders expressed the wish that the Islands should be
reunited to the Kingdom of Sweden. On the 3rd February, 1918, a deputation was received
by the King of Sweden and communicated the results of this plebiscite to him.

Bron: Report of the International Committee of Jurists entrusted by the Council of the League
of Nations with the task of giving an advisory opinion upon the legal aspects of the
Aaland Islands question, October 1920
, http://www.ilsa.org/jessup/jessup10/basicmats/aaland1.pdf
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Letter to Trevelyan from J. Pollack McCale, an old friend from Harrow School (3rd February, 1918)

Do you in the utter tosh you write at a time critical for our country, wish to turn Europe into a commune with Lenin as Prime Minister and Ramsay MacDonald as deputy? Do you wish to introduce us to the luxuries of Bolshevism, murder, rapine and pillage, or do you merely wish to see you own country ruined.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUtrevelyan.htm
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PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE

Committee/Commission on the League of Nations (February 3, 1919 - February 13, 1919)

3 February 1919 arbitration and plans for establishment of the permanent international court (to consider matters "which the parties recognize as suitable for submission to it for arbitration" Article XII) as well as three months cooling off period and dispute settlement through the Executive Council, all are mentioned in Hurst-Miller Draft (who were technical experts for the GB and USA respectively).

3 February 1919 Italian Draft: International Court of Justice were to be composed of judges appointed by all member-states for 6 years; consideration of individual cases through panels (president, vice-president, 1 judge chosen from the full Court by each party, and 4 other judges chosen by the judges themselves from their own numbers by secret ballot. Jurisdiction established through: 1) compromis; or 2) unilaterally by one party with authorization from the Council. Rules determined by parties in cases brought by compromis.

http://www.worldcourts.com/pcij/eng/timeline.htm
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Seattle's Newspapers Report on the Strike, Feb 1- Feb 13, 1919



http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/strike/news.shtml
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Oprichting van de Frontpartij

Op 3 februari 1919 werd in Antwerpen ‘Het Vlaamsche Front’, ook wel Frontpartij genoemd, opgericht. De partij kwam rechtstreeks voort uit de ‘Frontbeweging’, en stelde van in den beginne haar rangen ook open voor gewezen activisten. In hetzelfde jaar ontstonden nog verscheidene andere afdelingen elders in Vlaanderen. Bij de parlementsverkiezingen van 1919 stuurde de partij meteen twee voormannen van de Frontbeweging, Adiel Debeuckelaere en Hendrik Borginon, naar de Kamer. In 1925 werd met Herman Vos een eerste activist verkozen.

Het kernprogramma werd gevormd door de eisen voor zelfbestuur, nooit meer oorlog en godsvrede (samenwerking tussen gelovigen en vrijzinnigen). De partij staat organisatorisch evenwel zwak. Bovendien bleek al snel dat het gemeenschappelijke oorlogsverleden onvoldoende was om een samenhangende partij te vormen. ‘Het Vlaamsche Front’ vormde een vrij heterogeen gezelschap en kampte dan ook voortdurend met spanningen tussen radicalen en gematigden en tussen katholieken en vrijzinnigen, die de partij uiteindelijk fataal zouden worden.

http://www.vlaamsbelang.org/50/44/
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Red Terror

Lord Kilmarnock, the British ambassador in Copenhagen, sent Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary, reports of what was taking place in Russia. This report written on 3rd February, 1919, was based on information received by a Frenchman who had just escaped from the country.

Night after night the counter-revolutionaries held secret meetings to plot against the Bolsheviks, but never once was a serious attempt made to carry through the conspiracy. The starving condition of the people quite paralyzed their will-power.

Recently many of the Red Guards themselves were being shot on account of the crimes which they had committed. An effort was being made to carry out the principles of "communism" on a more ideal basis, and though there was no effective restraint on plundering and thieving on the part of the Red Guards, still it happened now that selfish thieves, i.e., thieves who stole and refused to share the spammer with the other Guards, were shot by their comrades
.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSterror.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De nasleep van de oorlog voor Liman von Sanders
door zelfbenoemde allesweter en superintellectueel Fré Morel

Nadat de 'Groote Oorlog' in 1918 in het voordeel van de geallieerden was beslecht, werd Liman von Sanders door zijn rancuneuze geallieerde tegenstanders op 3 februari 1919 als oorlogsmisdadiger op Malta vastgezet. Hij werd beschuldigd van betrokkenheid bij de Armeense genocide, een beschuldiging die echter niet bewezen kon worden.

Het was juist mede door zijn persoonlijke tussenkomst geweest dat de Armeniërs van Constantinopel en Smyrna enigszins gespaard bleven! Nadat ook Sir Ian Hamilton - zijn Engelse tegenstander in de slag om de Dardanellen - zich voor hem had ingezet werd hij op 26 juli 1919 uit zijn eenzame opsluiting bevrijd waarna hij in augustus 1919 terugkeerde naar Berlijn.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/gallipoli/buitenlandse-inmenging/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 16:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels: In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

3 februari 1916 - Grote beroering op de Kommandantur te Kortrijk - Geen passen meer voor 't Generaal-Gouvernement en deze die gegeven waren, worden weer ingevraagd - handelsreizigers vertellen dat ze in Gent gekomen niet uit de statie [het station] gelaten werden en met de eerstvolgende trein terug moesten keren - in Brussel is dit ook gebeurd. Die maatregel moet naar alle waarschijnlijkheid in verband zijn met de grote Duitse aanval hier op 't Westerfront, - waarvan alsaan [voortdurend] spraak is.
Anderen beweren dat er valse passen in omloop zijn - of dat het eenvoudig een maatregel is om de grote troepenbeweging te vergemakkelijken.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0018.php
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February 3, 1916 - The Parliament Building is burning down
by Ronald Wolf

While the First World War raged on in the European countries, on the home front Canadian’s were battling their own battle. The enemy was flames and the victims were seven people and Ottawa’s $1.8 million (CND) Parliament buildings.

This historic day started on Feb. 3, 1916 at 8:37 p.m. when a fire started in the Centre Block. Unlike the news headlines of the day which stated “Parliament Buildings Destroyed by Fire” and “Parliament Buildings Gone” not all was lost. In fact, the library and departmental buildings were spared the licking flames of destruction.

You remember the old saying an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure? Well, this was never so true. It was Alpheus Todd (1821-1884) who insisted that the library had iron fire doors and clerk Connie MacCormac’s quick thinking when she slammed the doors shut before running to safety.

Almost immediately, speculation of a spy swept through the land like a wheat fire. It was a good assumption but such was not the case. The Royal Commission concluded that it was an accidental fire and careless smoking in the House of Commons Reading Room.

Unfortunately, the lives of seven people perished in this historic fire. They include two guests of House Speaker Albert Sévigny and his wife returned to get their fur coats and was found dead in a corridor. A policeman and two government employees were crushed by a fallen wall. Bowman Brown Law, the Liberal Member of Parliament for Yarmouth, N.S., died near the House of Commons Reading Room. The body of René Laplante, Assistant Clerk of the House of Commons, was found in the building two days after the fire.

The timing of the fire simply couldn’t have happened at a worse time. The library was littered with old newspapers and magazines while the Centre Block’s wooden walls were just oiled and the floors just varnished.

The Parliament Buildings burned while members debated on the fish marketing’s. Canada’s 8th Prime Minister Robert Borden (1854-1937) escaped by crawling on his 62 year-old hands and knees along smoked filled corridors. With a tremendous crash, the House of Commons roof collapsed followed by the Victoria Clock Tower’s demise at 1:21 a.m. The cost of the fire is unknown but the fire will never be forgotten as it is carefully preserved in Canadian history. (...)

http://www.thealgomanews.ca/Columns/It%92s+Our+History,+Our+Country/Feb.+3,+1916++The+Parliament+Building+is+burning+down.str?7184
Zie ook: http://canadaonline.about.com/od/parliament/p/parlbldgsfire.htm
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Feb 2014 16:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 16:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dagboek Raphaël Waterschoot, 1916

3 februari 1916 donderdag
De oorlog is een jaar en half bezig. De 19de oorlogsmaand begint vandaag. Geene uitkomst te zien.

Leesvoer! http://oorlogsdagboek.org/1916%20oorlogsdagboek%201916/scannen0017.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Feb 2014 16:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1916 Streetcar Incident (Notre Dame Archives)

At the beginning of the 20th century, Notre Dame students, faculty, and administrators would often grumble about the Hill Street Car: overcrowding, aging equipment, erratic timetables, and rude conductors. The streetcar operators often complained of the students: overcrowding the cars, not paying fares, and playing pranks. In early February 1916, it all came to a head.

Mooi verhaal! Lees verder op http://www.archives.nd.edu/about/news/index.php/2013/streetcar-1916/
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Interneringszegels

Van elk van de beide interneringszegels zijn er ongeveer 65.000 aangemaakt. Hoeveel er werkelijk zijn gebruikt is niet bekend. De groene zegel werd toegepast in de periode van 3 februari tot 24 februari 1916. De bruine zegel was bedoeld voor maart 1916, maar werd nooit officieel gebruikt.

Plaatjes kijken (en waarschuwingen lezen!) op http://www.filavaria.nl/internering.htm
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SOLDIERS AND LAND - SIR R. HAGGARD'S MISSION - LONDON, February 2 (1916)

Sir H. Rider Haggard, who is undertaking a mission to South Africa and Aus- tralia to enquire concerning the facilities for settling discharged sailors and soldiers on the land, was entertained on Tuesday by the Royal Colonial Institute at luncheon at the Hotel Cecil prior to his departure.

Lotd Curzon, who presided in proposing the health of Sir Rider Haggard, paid a tribute to his work as an Empire builder and a practical farmer. His present great Empire duty would probably be Sir Rider's most famous work. He earnestly hoped that Great Britain, after the war, would not slip back into the old groove. There ought to be an entire readjustment of the basic principles of public life. The settlement of soldiers on the land was one of the most urgent problems. Possibly 2,000,000 soldiers would return after the war, and as a re- sult the labor market would become congested, and wages would fall, while the majority of the people would be poorer than they were under existing artificial conditions. After living in the open air the soldiers would not be likely to return to factories or offices. They would want to settle down in a healthy life on the land and to bring up families. Thus they would be continuing their service to the State, and it was the business of the Government to provide for them. The economic possibilities of the farming areas of England were restricted, and the majority of the soldiers must be guided elsewhere. We want to keep them British citizens, and we want them to rear British families in British lands. (Cheers.)

Lord D'Abernon (Sir Edgar Vincent) urged Sir Rider to pay special attention to the more difficult problem of the emi gration of women. British statesmen unduly neglected the most important sub- ject of Imperial communications, but pro- bably Sir Rider would find the Dominion Governments more ready to discuss it.

Sir Rider Haggard, in reply, said:—The land as the nursery of the people is the most vital of all the post-war problems. The Empire cannot live by trade alone. My visits to the Dominions have presented endless visions of vastness and richness. Anglo-Saxons might fill the world if they availed them- selves of vast territories like Australia, Canada, and South Africa. The great need of the Empire is population. After the Boer war 250,000 emigrants left, of whom 123,000 went to the United States. Why should our soldiers go to America or the Argentine? We want to keep everyone for the Empire. Tens of thousands of surplus women from Great Britain can be spared for the Dominions. We must have cheap cable communication, which is one of the strongest bonds of Empire. I am aware of the difficulties in the way and I do not intend to interfere with existing schemes. Possibly I shall write a book upon the Empire and its lands.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/8687232
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GODDERIS HENRI

Geboren te Pollinkhove op 18/12/1891
als zoon van Petrus en Dujardein Octavie
Gehuwd met Beuselinck Madeleine en Torrelle Maria
Overleden te Pervijze op 02/01/1963
Begraven te Pervijze
Inwoner van Pervijze van 1922 tot overlijden

MILITAIRE STEEKKAART
soldaat milicien klas 1911 speciaal contingent 1915 - stamnummer 18870 - 2° Jagers te Paard
Hij werd ingelijfd op 17 juli 1915 te Fécamp waar hij begon aan zijn opleiding.
Op 3 februari 1916 werd hij ingedeeld bij de reservetroepen van het 2° Jagers te Paard en op 3 maart 1916 kwam hij aan het front.
Op 12 december 1916 werd hij overgeplaatst naar het 4° Jagers te Paard waar hij tot het einde van de oorlog als verkenner dienst deed.
Op 16 september 1919 werd hij gedemobiliseerd.

http://www.pervijze.be/oudstrijders/GodderisH.htm
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