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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2006 6:21    Onderwerp: 30 Januari Reageer met quote

December 30

1916 Rasputin is murdered

Sometime over the course of the night and the early morning of December 29-30, 1916, Grigory Efimovich Rasputin, a self-proclaimed holy man, is murdered by Russian nobles eager to end his influence over the royal family.

Rasputin, a Siberian-born muzhik, or peasant, who underwent a religious conversion as a teenager and proclaimed himself a healer with the ability to predict the future, won the favor of Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra through his ability to stop the bleeding of their hemophiliac son, Alexei, in 1908. From then on, though he was widely criticized for his lechery and drunkenness, Rasputin exerted a powerful influence on the ruling family of Russia, infuriating nobles, church orthodoxy, and peasants alike. He particularly influenced the czarina, and was rumored to be her lover. When Nicholas departed to lead Russian forces in World War I, Rasputin effectively ruled the country through Alexandra, contributing to the already-existing corruption and disorder of Romanov Russia.

Fearful of Rasputin’s growing power (among other things, it was believed by some that he was plotting to make a separate peace with the Germans), a group of nobles, led by Prince Felix Youssupov, the husband of the czar’s niece, and Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, Nicholas’s first cousin, lured Rasputin to Youssupov Palace on the night of December 29, 1916.

First, Rasputin’s would-be killers gave the monk food and wine laced with cyanide. When he failed to react to the poison, they shot him at close range, leaving him for dead. A short time later, however, Rasputin revived and attempted to escape from the palace grounds, whereupon his assailants shot him again and beat him viciously. Finally, they bound Rasputin, still miraculously alive, and tossed him into a freezing river. His body was discovered several days later and the two main conspirators, Youssupov and Pavlovich were exiled.

Not long after, the Bolshevik Revolution put an end to the imperial regime. Nicholas and Alexandra were murdered, and the long, dark reign of the Romanovs was over.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2006 6:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 30. Januar

1914

1915
Schwere französische Verluste in den Argonnen
10000 Russen in den Karpathen gefangengenommen

1916
Der deutsche Erfolg südlich der Somme
Vergebliche russische Angriffe bei Uscieszko

1917
Ergebnislose französische Angriffe auf Höhe 304
Günstiger Verlauf neuer Kämpfe an der Aa
Der bisherige Gesamterfolg der U-Boote
Ein englischer Zerstörer vernichtet
Beschlagnahmte feindliche Handelsschiffe in den Häfen der Mittelmächte
Erfolgreiche Unternehmungen im Görzischen
Das französische Truppentransportschiff "Admiral Magon" versenkt

1918
Der Col del Rosso in den Händen der Italiener

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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2010 15:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Tsar Nicholas to his wife Alexandra written wuring WW I

Telegram.
Sevatapol- 30 January, 1915.
Have visited all the fortifications and batteries on the north side. Saw a few wounded who have recovered. Pleasant, warm weather...


Telegram.
Sevastopol. 30 January, 1915.
Warm thanks for letter. Drove round the southern batteries in a car. I had inspected some of them in 1913. In the town I saw wounded officers and men from the front, sent here for treatment. A magnificent day. I am leaving now. Good-night. Tender embrace.

Nicky.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/january15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2010 1:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting, 30 January 1918

WESTERN FRONT (CASUALTIES).


HC Deb 30 January 1918 vol 101 cc1557-8 1557

§ 52. Mr. OUTHWAITE asked the Prime Minister whether the excess of British casualties on the Western Front during the last nine months over those sustained by the French Forces is due to the action taken by the Chamber of Deputies after the failure of the French offensive in April last, when the Minister of War was forced publicly to promise that the French Army would stand on the defensive until American reinforcements arrived; and can he state why no similar provision was made for the conservation of British man-power?

§ Mr. BONAR LAW This is a question to which, in view of the statements which have repeatedly been made on the general military position, I do not think it right to give any answer.

§ Mr. OUTHWAITE Can the right hon. Gentleman give an assurance that steps will be taken to conserve British manpower on the Western front similar to those taken by the French Government with such success?

§ Mr. BONAR LAW I think the only possible answer to that is that if the men in command of our Armies did not to the fullest extent possible attempt to save life they ought not to be there, and if the Government did not insist on them doing so the Government ought not to be there.

§ Mr. OUTHWAITE Is it not the fact that we lost something like half a million more men than the French last year, and does not that in itself show the necessity of some inquiry as to the methods of our command?

§ Mr. BONAR LAW It is obvious that if I had the figures in my head I would not give them, but, apart from that, anyone who has considered military operations must realise that there may be occasions when one branch of the Army is fighting more severely than another branch, and that it is right that it should do so.

§ Mr. PRINGLE In view of the statement made by the Minister of National Service 1558 in introducing the Military Service Bill, does not the right hon. Gentleman see that it is important to have an authoritative statement from the Government on this subject of casualties?

§ Mr. BONAR LAW We had as authoritative a statement as could be given. The Government fully realise the necessity, not merely from the humanitarian porn: of view, but from the point of view of winning the War and afterwards, of conserving our man-power to the utmost possible limit.

§ Mr. OUTHWAITE Is it not the fact that French papers have frequently pointed out the excessive losses suffered by our troops?

§ Mr. SPEAKER The right hon. Gentleman has no responsibility for that.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jan/30/western-front-casualties
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2010 2:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The disposition of the lands of the former Ottoman Empire were also considered. These discussions included competing European and American aims generally, and competing nationalist Zionist and Arab claims in Palestine. The latter were conditionally agreed to previously by the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement on 3 January 1919. On 30 January the Conference decided that the Arab provinces should be wholly separated from the Ottoman Empire and the newly conceived mandate-system applied to them. This decision clashed with the expectation of Faisal's Arab delegation that his state would include Palestine, and the conditional understandings reached in the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Peace_Conference,_1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry Morgenthau, United States Diplomacy on the Bosphorus: The Diaries of Ambassador Morgenthau, 1913-1916

January 30, Friday:
Nias called and told me about the Imperial Ottoman Bank. They have five million
pounds capital, two million reserve, and only one and a half million deposits. They have 70
branches and started them because they received 2,000 pounds a year each for receiving taxes
etc. He says peasants save a few pounds and keep them at home in gold, that all they strive
for are prime necessities, that they have no ambition for comfort or wealth and even
prosperous ones will not buy beds to sleep in. His bank directors are old fogies in London
and Paris. Djavid Bey is travelling around to reach the source of funds and will get to know
what and who they are and lose his reverence. I discussed the widening of social circle by the
invasion of Greeks etc. Dr. Gates of Robert College lunched with us and then he,
Schmavonian and I discussed Article IV. Gates consents to abrogation of rights of forum.
Evening, attended a ball at the English embassy and met the same set as yesterday. Helen
insisted on remaining until 12:40. Henry went home early, [and I] talked with many of them,
met Talaat, Enver, Garroni, Moncheur, etc. Nias told me private bankers here are really
money lenders at high rates of interest. They charge 200 per cent and upwards. He told me
vegetable vendors borrow one Turkish Lira and pay four cents a day interest.

http://www.gomidas.org/gida/index_and_%20documents/MorgRecords_index_and_documents/docs/MorgenthauDiaries1914.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 30 January 1902

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902, which was to run for five years before being renewed, was primarily directed against the potential shared menace posed, it was believed, by France and (most probably) Russia in the Far East. The alliance obligated either power to remain neutral if one or other found itself at war. However, should either power be obliged to fight a war against two or more powers, the other signatory was obliged to provide military aid.

The alliance was renewed in 1905 to take into account Japan's recent successful war against Russia.

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1902 (Main Points)

Article 1
The High Contracting parties, having mutually recognized the independence of China and Korea, declare themselves to be entirely uninfluenced by aggressive tendencies in either country, having in view, however, their special interests, of which those of Great Britain relate principally to China, whilst Japan, in addition to the interests which she possesses in China, is interested in a peculiar degree, politically as well as commercially and industrially in Korea, the High Contracting parties recognize that it will be admissible for either of them to take such measures as may be indispensable in order to safeguard those interests if threatened either by the aggressive action of any other Power, or by disturbances arising in China or Korea, and necessitating the intervention of either of the High Contracting parties for the protection of the lives and properties of its subjects.

Article 2
Declaration of neutrality if either signatory becomes involved in war through Article 1.

Article 3
Promise of support if either signatory becomes involved in war with more than one Power.

Article 4
Signatories promise not to enter into separate agreements with other Powers to the prejudice of this alliance.

Article 5
The signatories promise to communicate frankly and fully with each other when any of the interests affected by this treaty are in jeopardy.

Article 6
Treaty to remain in force for five years and then at one years' notice, unless notice was given at the end of the fourth year.

The Renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1905 (Main Points)

The Governments of Great Britain and Japan, being desirous of replacing the Agreement concluded between them on the 30th of January 1902, by fresh stipulations, have agreed upon the following Articles, which have for their object:

1.The consolidation and maintenance of general peace in the regions of Eastern Asia and India;

2.The preservation of the common interests of all Powers in China by insuring the independence and integrity of the Chinese Empire and the principle of equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations in China;

3.The maintenance of the territorial rights of the High Contracting Parties [viz., Britain and Japan] in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India, and the defence of their special interests in the said regions:

Article I
It is agreed that whenever, in the opinion of either Great Britain or Japan, any of the rights and interests referred to in the preamble of this Agreement [i.e., items a, b, c above] are in jeopardy, the two Governments will communicate with one another fully and frankly, and consider in common the measures which should be taken to safeguard those menaced rights or interests.

Article II
If, by reason of an unprovoked attack or aggressive action, whenever arising, on the part of any other Power or Powers, either Contracting Party should be involved in war in defence of its territorial rights or special interests mentioned in the preamble of this Agreement, the other Contracting Party will at once come to the assistance of its ally, and will conduct war in common, and make peace in mutual agreement with it.

Article III
Japan possessing paramount political, military and economic interests in Korea, Great Britain recognizes the right of Japan to take such measures of guidance, control and protection in Korea as she may deem proper and necessary to safeguard and advance those interests, provided always that such measures are not contrary to the principle of equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all nations.

Article IV
Great Britain having a special interest in all that concerns the security of the Indian frontier, Japan recognizes her right to take such measures in the proximity of that frontier as she may find necessary for safeguarding her Indian possessions.

Article V
The High Contracting Parties agree that neither of them will, without consulting the other, enter into separate arrangements with another Power to the prejudice of the objects described in the preamble of this Agreement.

Article VI
As regards the present war between Japan and Russia, Great Britain will continue to maintain strict neutrality unless some other Power or Powers should join in hostilities against Japan, in which case Great Britain will come to the assistance of Japan and will conduct the war in common, and make peace in mutual agreement with Japan.

Article VII
The conditions under which armed assistance shall be afforded by either Power to the other in the circumstances mentioned in the present Agreement and the means by which such assistance is to be made available, will be arranged by the military and naval authorities of the Contracting Parties who will from time to time consult one another fully and freely upon all questions of mutual interest.

Article VIII
The present Agreement shall, subject to the provisions of Article VI, come into effect immediately after the date of its signature, and remain in force for ten years from that date.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/anglojapanesealliance1902.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The war at sea: AD 1914-1915

From the start of the war both Britain and Germany have done their utmost to cut off the other's maritime supply lines. For Britain this is relatively easy. A heavily mined English Channel can prevent vessels from reaching the North Sea and the Baltic from the south. And fleets can be on permanent patrol to protect the only other means of access, around the north of Scotland.

Britain, by contrast, has the entire north Atlantic as access to the outer world. The only way to apply any sort of stranglehold here is by submarine warfare - a task which Germany now undertakes with astonishing success, given the very recent development of the submarine as a practical sea-going vessel.

The first victim of a German submarine is claimed in a chivalrous encounter on 20 October 1914. A U-boat (or Unterseeboot) surfaces to confront the British merchant ship Glitra. The crew are ordered into their lifeboats, whereupon the German captain fires his torpedo into the empty vessel.

But matters will not long remain so civil. Ships begin to be sunk without warning, including on 30 January 1915 two passenger liners, the Tokomaru and the Ikaria. In February Germany declares that all the waters round the British Isles are a war zone, in which not even neutral ships will be immune from attack.

http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=qbo
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly Quote

'Those who live by the sword shall perish by the sword' say the Scriptures, and it may well be that in the progress of events the working class of Ireland may be called upon to face the stern necessity of taking the sword (or rifle) against the capitalist class..."
- The Worker (socialist newspaper) 30 January, 1915. Reprinted in P. Beresford Ellis (ed.), "James Connolly - Selected Writings", p. 210.

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/James_Connolly
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ASHTON TERRITORIALS - The 9th BATTALION of the MANCHESTER REGIMENT.

The Headlines of the Reporter Published 30th January 1915.

ASHTON TERRITORIALS READY FOR THE TURKS!

Reporter: - The Turkish advance on Egypt has begun. The Ashton Territorials are among the British troops in Egypt, and letters have been published in the Reporter from time to time expressing their readiness to meet the Turks whenever they cared to come. The Territorials are stationed in Cairo, which is about 50 miles on the west side of the Suez Canal. The Turks are on the east side of the canal, and it is extremely unlikely they will get to the canal itself. They will probably be annihilated before they can get near to it.



A LETTER FROM A STALYBRIDGE MAN IN CAIRO.

An interesting letter from Egypt has been received by friends in Stalybridge from Private S.E. GARSIDE of "A" Company stationed at Kasr-el-Nil, Cairo. Private GARSIDE resides at Cheetham Hill Road, Stalybridge, and before joining the Army was employed at Messrs Summers' Globe Iron works. He writes: - " I suppose you will be wondering why I joined the Terriers for foreign service. Well, I don't quite know myself. I had been unsettled ever since the war started, and all the time you were playing at the forge, I was up at the Barracks every day, and down at the Drill Hall at night, waiting my turn to be sworn in, and it came at last on the 1st September. I was sworn in on the Tuesday, and on the Wednesday was sent to Bury, and on the Wednesday following, the 9th of September, we left Bury for Southampton, and arrived there on the 10th. We set sail the same night for Egypt. The Barracks we are in at Cairo are a grand building; it is two miles round it, and is composed entirely of granite, and then cement to make it level, and then painted all colours. Inside there are two squares, each one four times as big as the square at Ashton barracks, it is three storeys high, and all around the squares run a veranda to each storey, and there are about 100 rooms to each storey, and I must say they are rooms. There are 16 men to each room, and there is plenty of room for them all. As far as soldiering here is concerned, I have never gone through so much in my life as I am going through now. We are finishing our training. We have four more days to do, and then we shall have to wait and see what will happen. Some of the officers say we shall have to stay here until the war is over. Last night we heard we shall have to go out and have a brush with the Turks. I hope so, for it is very trying here, nothing but hard work from morning till night, day after day. On Thursday we went out at 7am, and never got back until 7 at night. We went 28 miles across the desert, with nothing to eat but half a dozen biscuits and a piece of cheese and cold water to drink. We are going through the mill, I can tell you. It is hard work in the sun marching. We are not at it ten minutes any day before we can wash ourselves in our own sweat. It is a good job I am of a hard nature, or I should not fancy my chances much. I am eating like a horse, as you see there cannot be much the matter with me, in fact, I am in the Pink. I hear the Stalybridge lot have been testing the Germans; good luck to them. I thought we should have been there before them, and I think we should have been but for those Turks. We have had strict orders to remain here, so you see we might have a smack at something after all, and if we can't have a German, well, then we must have a Turk. This place is full of Turks, Germans and Austrians. I was one of the escort to take 240 German and Austrians to Alexandria last week. Oh, I have had some fine times on escort duty, I can tell you, and I suppose we shall have to take the rough with the smooth. I have received the parcel from Summers' all right, and a grand parcel it is, and I have written to the forge thanking all our workmates for such a fine Christmas present, one of the best here."

http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1915page1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Connolly: "Can Warfare Be Civilized?"
From The Worker, 30 January 1915.

The progress of the great war and the many extraordinary developments accompanying it are rapidly tending to bring home to the minds of the general public the truth of the Socialist contention that all war is an atrocity, and that the attempt to single out any particular phase of it as more atrocious than another is simply an attempt to confuse the public mind.

We in this journal and our predecessor, the Irish Worker, have consistently stood upon that principle. We have held, and do hold, that war is a relic of barbarism only possible because we are governed by a ruling class with barbaric ideas; we have held, and do hold, that the working class of all countries cannot hope to escape the horrors of war until in all countries that barbaric ruling class is thrown from power; and we have held, and do hold, that the lust for power on the part of that ruling class is so deeply rooted in the nature and instinct of its members, that it is more than probable that nothing less than superior force will ever induce them to abandon their throttling grasp upon the lives and liberties of mankind.

Holding such views we have at all times combated the idea of war; held that we have no foreign enemies outside of our own ruling class; held that if we are compelled to go to war we had much rather fight that ruling class than any other, and taught in season and out of season that it is the duty of the working class in self-protection to organize its own force to resist the force of the master class. The force available to the working class is two-fold, industrial and political, which latter includes military organization to protect political and industrial rights. “Those who live by the sword shall perish by the sword” say the Scriptures, and it may well be that in the progress of events the working class of Ireland may be called upon to face the stern necessity of taking the sword (or rifle) against the class whose rule has brought upon them and upon the world the hellish horror of the present European war. Should that necessity arise it would be well to realize that the talk of ‘humane methods of warfare’, of the ‘rules of civilized warfare’, and all such homage to the finer sentiments of the race are hypocritical and unreal, and only intended for the consumption of stay-at-homes. There are no humane methods of warfare, there is no such thing as civilized warfare; all warfare is inhuman, all warfare is barbaric; the first blast of the bugles of war ever sounds for the time being the funeral knell of human progress.

A few illustrations will suffice to drive home these points. One concerns the outcry over the alleged use of what are known as dum-dum bullets. It is alleged by both sides that the others are using those bullets and that they inflict a most grievous wound, and as they inflict such a serious wound they are opposed to the rules of ‘civilized and humane warfare’. The same persons who raise this cry will calmly read of the firing of shrapnel into a body of troops and will exult in the result. Yet a shrapnel shell contains 340 bullets which scatter in all directions, tearing off legs and arms, rending and bursting the human bodies, and in general creating wounds which no surgical science can hope to cure. How hypocritical, then, is the presence of horror over the grievous wound inflicted by a dum-dum bullet!

Of like character is the outcry over the bombardment of undefended towns. One would think to read such diatribes that it was not a recognized practice of all naval warfare. For generations the public of these islands have been reading of Great Britain sending punitive expeditions against native tribes in Africa, the islands of the ocean, or parts of Asia. It may be that some benighted native has stolen a cask of rum from the compound of a missionary, and thrown a stone at the holy man of God when the latter demanded the return of the cask in question. Immediately a British man-of-war is ordered to that coast, opens fire upon and destroys the whole town, indiscriminately massacring the majority of its inhabitants, women and old men, and babes yet unborn, all to punish one or two persons for a slight upon a British subject. That thousands of British subjects are subjected to worse slights at home every day of their lives is a matter of not enough consequence to move a policeman, let alone a battleship. Yet up and down the world the British fleet has gone carrying out such orders, and bombarding such undefended places without ever moving the inkslingers of the jingo press to protest.

It all depends, it appears, upon whose houses are being bombarded, whose people are being massacred, whose limbs are torn from the body, whose bodies are blown to a ghastly mass of mangled flesh and blood and bones. The crime of the Germans seems to consist in believing that what is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

But what is the theory of the matter? We have before us the work of M. Bloch on Modern Weapons and Modern War, the famous work in which the methods and results of modern warfare were analysed and foretold long before they had been brought to the test of practical trial on modern battlefields. This author, a Pole but a Russian subject, foretold most of the phenomena accompanying modern campaigns, and has lived to see the results he predicted in a large measure embodied in the practice of armies actually in conflict.

To arrive at such a wonderful accuracy in prediction he was compelled to undertake a systematic investigation of all the conditions of modern warfare on land and sea with modern weapons. On the question of undefended towns he has this to say, and all who have read his works bear witness to his scrupulous impartiality and freedom from national bias.

It must be remembered that, as is shown by the practice of manoeuvres, the principle that undefended towns are not subject to bombardment is not acknowledged, and in a future war no towns will be spared. As evidence of this the following case may be cited. On 24 August 1889, the following letter was addressed by the commander of the Collingwood to the Mayor of Peterhead:

“By order of the Vice-Admiral commanding the 11th Division of the Fleet, I have to demand from your town a contribution of £150,000 sterling. I must add that in case the officers who deliver this letter do not return within the course of two hours the town will be burnt, the shipping destroyed, and factories ruined.”

This letter was printed in all the newspapers and called forth no protest. It is evident then that England will not refrain from such action when convenient, and as her voice is the most important in naval matters, the other Powers will certainly follow her example.

M. Bloch here cites as an example the course taken by a British fleet in the course of naval manoeuvres, and as such manoeuvres are always carried out strictly according to official handbooks it is safe to assume that in the bombardment of undefended towns we have a practice authorized by the British Admiralty. Yet whether authorized by British or German practice or theory, how brutal, how repulsive, how murderous it is.

Up to the present no such bombardment has yet taken place, for, of course, the East Coast towns bombarded were all defended by entrenchments and garrison artillery, but what lover of humanity can view with anything but horror the prospect of this ruthless destruction of human life.

Yet this is war: war for which all the jingoes are howling, war to which all the hopes of the world are being sacrificed, war to which a mad ruling class would plunge a mad world.

No, there is no such thing as humane or civilized war! War may be forced upon a subject race or subject class to put an end to subjection of race, of class, or sex. When so waged it must be waged thoroughly and relentlessly, but with no delusions as to its elevating nature, or civilizing methods.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1915/01/warfrcvl.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From ‘The War Illustrated’, 30th January, 1915: 'Triumph of the Aeroplane in the War'
by Claude Grahame-White and Harry Harper

The Future of Aerial Warfare

Military aeroplanes were, at the outbreak of the present war, efficient in two only of the five uses for which they are destined in future warfare. They were able, firstly, to act as scouts; and, secondly, to direct the fire of artillery; but there were no fighting, armoured aeroplanes worthy of the name, and no machines suitable for attacking successfully a strongly-fortified position, nor were there aircraft capable of the rapid transport of troops. From the point of view of a perfected aeroplane — of machines which should carry out all these tasks — the war has come five years too soon.

The scouting aeroplane, on which designers have concentrated, their attention, is the most practical of flying craft. It has braved wind and fog, rain, and even snow, and has run the gauntlet of hostile gun fire. From the severest test, under most arduous conditions, it has emerged triumphant. It is possible for an aviator, using a high-speed machine, to reach an enemy's position that is three days' march away, observe the disposition of his forces, and then return to headquarters — all within a space of three hours. More than once, when rapidity in scouting has been essential, the aeroplane has done work of supreme importance.

Lees en kijk verder op http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Air_War/Aeroplane_Triumph_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Profumo

John Dennis Profumo (vaak Jack Profumo genoemd) (30 januari 1915 - Londen, 10 maart 2006) was een Brits politicus.

Profumo was van Italiaanse adellijke afkomst. Hij droeg de titel van baron, een titel die hij te danken had aan zijn vader, die oorspronkelijk van Sardinië afkomstig was. Hij gebruikte zijn titel echter nooit.

Hij begon zijn politieke loopbaan in 1940 toen hij voor de Conservatieve Partij lid werd van het Britse Lagerhuis. Hij stemde tegen de regering van toenmalig premier Neville Chamberlain en voor de komst van de regering van Winston Churchill.

In 1960 werd hij minister van defensie in de regering van Conservative-premier Harold Macmillan. In 1961 had hij een korte affaire met de 19-jarige callgirl Christine Keeler. Daar deze tegelijkertijd een affaire bleek te hebben gehad met een attaché van de ambassade van de Sovjet-Unie werd dit een zaak van nationale veiligheid. Vooral ook omdat hij hierover in het parlement niet de waarheid had verteld, moest Profumo in 1963 zijn ministerschap neerleggen. De hele kwestie ging de geschiedenis in als de Profumo-affaire. Mede vanwege deze perikelen viel het kabinet van MacMillan het jaar daarop in 1964.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Profumo
Zie ook http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRprofumo.htm
Zie ook http://www.w8.nl/profumo.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Colonel Edward M. House

1915 January 30 Colonel Edward M. House, Wilson's good friend and advisor, sails to Europe on the Lusitania to try to mediate a peace settlement. Both sides still feel they can get what they want and are unwilling to settle the conflict so quickly.

http://www.humanitas-international.org/holocaust/1915tbse.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Saturday 30th January 1915 - Beautiful morning, sky downy white and pale blue. Battalion Route march under Major Clough down Wyming Brook Rd, Moors, Wyming Brook Rd. Warm, little snow still on ground, no coats. Washed up, Townsend obliged, and Copplestone. Potatoes and ran 1.30 for bus. Hillsborough 2.50pm, saw Wednes beat Wolves 2-0. Good game, class tells. 25,000 present. About 30,000 at Bramall Lane. Robertson and Glennon scored beautiful goals 1st half. McLean absent. Saw J. Price. Home. Enjoyed little music, chat with Pater and Mater. On Wkend pass, went to Lyceum with Tom 7.30-10.30, to see Peter Pan by J.M. Barrie. Children’s piece, delicious, 1st rate piece of work. Peter Pan and Wennie[sic] and 2 brothers flew wonderfully thro’ air. Germans would have enjoyed it. The Pirates bold were just like children conceive them. Childhood is sweeter than manhood. They play at soldiers, we murder. 8th week at Redmires completed.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 De watersnood - Uit het dagboek van de pastoor.

Zondag 30 januari 1916: twee H. Missen in de kerk, de mannen op de tribune en op het zangkoor. Vier H. Missen in de grote zaal van Hotel Van Diepen, (het hotel op de dijk) voor de vrouwen, de oude mannen en de kinderen. De tocht van de mensen naar de kerk ging moeilijk: door het lage water konden de schuiten met veel volk niet vooruit en raakten aan de grond.

http://volendaminvogelvlucht.wordpress.com/boekfragmenten/1916-de-watersnood/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Dunsire



Robert Dunsire VC (24 November 1891 - 30 January 1916) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Dunsire was born in November 1891 to Thomas and Elizabeth Anderson Dunsire at Buckhaven in Fife. He was 23 years old, married to Catherine Pitt, and a private in the 13th Battalion, The Royal Scots (The Lothian Regiment), British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC for his actions during the Battle of Loos, on 26 September 1915.

Citation: For most conspicuous bravery on Hill 70 on 26th Sept., 1915. Pte. Dunsire went out under very heavy fire and rescued a wounded man from between the firing lines. Later, when another man considerably nearer the German lines was heard shouting for help, he crawled out again with utter disregard to the enemy's fire and carried him in also. Shortly afterwards the Germans attacked over this ground.
—London Gazette, No. 29371, 16 November 1915

He later achieved the rank of corporal. He was killed in action at Mazingarbe in France on 30 January 1916.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Scots Museum, Edinburgh Castle, Scotland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Dunsire & http://www.methilheritage.org.uk/content/pages/robert-dunsire-vc.php
Zie ook http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9914592
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 29 Jan 2011 21:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Capt. Ken CC Taylor DSO - 1888-1916

Ken Taylor was born in Montreal on 20 March 1888, and was a land surveyor prior to enlisting in the 29th Battalion on 11 Nov.1914.

He was seriously wounded in the chest,arms, and head, by grenades and bullets, on 30 January 1916, while leading the Brigade bombers in a raid.

He was awarded the DSO on the 29 February 1916, and Mentioned in Dispatches on 25 May 1916.

He was killed in action on 12 September 1916.

http://www.goldiproductions.com/angloboerwarmuseum/Boer35_medals6_taylor.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

30 januari 1916 - Kortrijk - De zucht naar vrede openbaart zich overal - waar men het niet verwachten zou.

In een coiffeurswinkel te Kortrijk, terwijl een kerel me inzeepte zag ik op een bordje dat voor mij was opgehangen: Wij wensen de heren allen een Vrede-jaar!

De scène bij de coiffeur helemaal reconstrueren -

Staan wachten 3 1/4 uur flauwe praat in tegenwoordigheid van Duitse officier en dan als comble geen haar snijden 's zondags.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0017.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 30 Januari 1917.

Borkel en Schaft. Het was in den nacht van Vrijdag op Zaterdag dat een clubje van 6 a 7 personen met zwaar beladen vrachten alhier grenswaarts togen om hunne smokkelwaar in klinkende specie aan de Duitschers om te zetten. Nog eenige honderden meters hadden zij af te leggen en dan konden zij zich in eene groote winst verheugen, hadden niet onze wakkere militaire hulpkomiezen hen den weg versperd.
Zakken met smokkelwaar rolden over den grond en een ieder nam ijlings in de duisternis de vlucht; doch een tweetal een Belg en een Duitscher werd gearresteerd en alhier voorloopig in den amigo gestopt. De smokkelwaar, bestaande uit een groote partij kaarsen, zeep, plantenvet en margarine, werd in beslag genomen. De smokkelhandel wordt alhier nog op niet geringe schaal voortgezet waarmede zooveel geld is te verdienen dat het de sterksten zoude doen wankelen.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hr. Ms. M 1 (1917)



Hr. Ms. M 1 was een Nederlandse onderzeeboot die van 30 januari 1917 tot 1931 dienst heeft gedaan bij de Nederlandse marine. De M 1 is de enige Nederlandse onderzeeboot uit M 1-klasse (UC I-klasse). De M 1 was niet zoals andere andere onderzeeboten bij de Nederlandse marine bedoeld als patrouillesschip. De M 1 was ingericht als mijnenlegger, de M in de naam staat dan ook voor mijnenlegger.

M 1 als UC 8 - De M 1 is in Duitsland gebouwd door scheepswerf A.G. Vulkan in Hamburg en trad in dienst van de Duitse marine in juli 1915 als de UC 8. Op 4 november van datzelfde jaar liep de UC 8 vast bij Terschelling als gevolg van slechte navigatie. Het schip werd door Nederland geborgen, maar omdat Duitsland op dat moment in oorlog was en Nederland neutraal, niet teruggegeven aan Duitsland. Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd de UC 8 door Nederland van Duitsland gekocht.

M 1 in Nederlandse dienst - De kennis die werd vergaard door de aanschaf van de M 1 werd gebruikt in de Nederlandse onderzeeboot O 8, die op een vergelijkbare wijzen als de M 1 is verkregen maar dan van de Britse marine. Ook werd de Zeiss periscoop uit de M 1 overgezet naar de O 8 en werd de periscoop van de O 8 in de M 1 gezet.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hr._Ms._M_1_(1917)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BRITISH FISHING VESSELS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

WETHERILL, smack, 46grt, 30 January 1917, 25 miles NNW from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

MERIT, smack, 39grt, 30 January 1917, 20 miles N by E from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

W. A. H., smack, 47grt, 30 January 1917, 32 miles NW from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

TREVONE, smack, 46grt, 30 January 1917, 30 miles NW by N from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire 2 lives lost including Skipper

HELENA AND SAMUEL, smack, 59grt, 30 January 1917, 30 miles NNW from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

EUONYMOUS, smack, 59grt, 30 January 1917, 34 miles NW from Trevose Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrFV1917-18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

United States Shipping Board

The United States Shipping Board was established as an emergency agency by the Shipping Act (39 Stat. 729), 7th September 1916. It was formally organized 30th January 1917.
The Board was abolished, effective 2th March 1934 and replaced by the U.S. Shipping Board Bureau within the Department of Commerce, which in turn was replaced by the United States Maritime Commission on 29th June 1936 by Executive Order Number 6166 and act (10 June 1933).

http://www.ibiblio.org/maritime/media/index.php?cat=701
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

30-01-1918 - Tram heeft last van bar winterweer

http://www.nuentoen.nl/fotos/99394/tram-heeft-last-van-bar-winterweer.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian 9.45 inch Trench Mortar Emplacement, Cite St Pierre, 30 January 1918



Description : A heavy trench mortar emplacement, constructed by the No. 2 Section of the 3rd Australian Tunnelling Company close to Counter Trench at Cite St. Pierre, near Lens, from material salvaged from enemy dumps. The camouflage netting is rolled back to show the projecting barrel of the gun, which had a range of 2,400 yards and fired a shell weighting 152lbs.
Identified, in the trench, left to right: unidentified British soldier (Tommy), 11th Division; Major A. Sanderson DSO MC; unidentified British soldier (Tommy), 11th Division.

Location: Cite St. Pierre, near Lens, France.
Comment: This is a 9.45 inch Heavy Mortar.
Date: 30 January 1918

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Australian9.45inchTrenchMortarEmplacementCiteStPierre30January1918.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alexander Blok: "The Scythians" (1918)

Millions are you – and hosts, yea hosts, are we,
And we shall fight if war you want, take heed.
Yes, we are Scythians – leafs of the Asian tree,
Our slanted eyes are bright aglow with greed.

Ages for you, for us the briefest space,
We raised the shield up as your humble lieges
To shelter you, the European race
From the Mongolians’ savage raid and sieges.

Ages, yea ages, did your forges’ thunder
Drown even avalanches’ roar.
Quakes rent Messina and Lisbon asunder –
To you this was a distant tale – no more.

Eastwards you cast your eyes for many hundred years,
Greedy for our precious stones and ore,
And longing for the time when with a leer
You’d yell an order and the guns would roar.

This time is now. Woe beats its wings
And every adds more humiliation
Until the day arrives which brings
An end to placid life in utter spoliation.

You, the old world, now rushing to perdition,
Yet strolling languidly to lethal brinks,
Yours is the ancient Oedipean mission
To seek to solve the riddles of a sphinx.

The sphinx is Russia, sad and yet elated,
Stained with dark blood, with grief prostrate,
For you with longing she has looked and waited,
Replete with ardent love and ardent hate.

Yet how will ever you perceive
That, as we love, as lovingly we yearn,
Our love is neither comfort nor relief
But like a fire will destroy and burn.

We love cold figures’ hot illumination,
The gift of supernatural vision,
We like the Gallic wit’s mordant sensation
And dark Teutonic indecision.

We know it all: in Paris hell’s dark street,
In Venice bright and sunlit colonnades,
The lemon blossoms’ scent so heavy, yet so sweet,
And in Cologne a shadowy arcade.

We love the flavour and the smell of meat,
The slaughterhouses’ pungent reek.
Why blame us then if in the heat
Of our embrace your bones begin to creak.

We saddle horses wild and shy,
As in the fields so playfully they swerve.
Though they be stubborn, yet we press their thigh
Until they willingly and meekly serve.

Join us! From horror and from strife
Turn to the peace of our embrace.
There is still time. Keep in its sheath your knife.
Comrades, we will be brothers to your race.

Say no – and we are none the worse.
We, too, can utter pledges that are vain.
But ages, ages will you bear the curse
Of our sons’ distant offspring racked with pain.

Our forests’ dark depths shall we open wide
To you, the men of Europe’s comely race,
And unmoved shall we stand aside,
An ugly grin on our Asian face.

Advance, advance to Ural’s crest,
We offer you a battleground so neat
Where your machines of steel in serried ranks abreast
With the Mongolian savage horde will meet.

But we shall keep aloof from strife,
No longer be your shield from hostile arrow,
We shall just watch the mortal strife
With our slanting eyes so cold and narrow.

Unmoved shall we remain when Hunnish forces
The corpses’ pockets rake for plunder,
Set town afire, to altars tie their horses,
Burn our white brothers’ bodies torn asunder.

To the old world goes out our last appeal:
To work and peace invite our warming fires.
Come to our hearth, join our festive meal.
Called by the strings of our Barbarian lyres.


30 January 1918

Note: Kurt Dowson, who translated Blok’s famous poem writes: ‘The October Revolution inspired three great poets: Alexander Blok, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Sergey Yessenin. Possibly, Yessenin was less in need of stimulation than the two others – his roots were firmly in the soil and in popular tradition. Mayakovsky, the expressionist, lived and wrote by the Revolution and burnt out when the revolution had lost its impetus. Alexander Blok, the Russian intellectual in the Dostoyevskian tradition, believed in the Messianic mission of the Russian revolution. His poem The Scythians is perhaps the clearest expression of this dichotomy inherent in the Russian revolution: internationalism as well as nationalism. To this day this conflict remains unresolved. Many books have been written on it – learned studies by Socialists and Non-Socialists but Alexander Blok’s The Scythians, possibly, contributes more to the understanding of the Russian outlook than long essays by the cream of Sovietologists.’
Describing himself, Kurt Dowson adds: ‘an uncommitted Socialist who for some years belonged to G.D.H. Cole’s circle and within the context of Socialist controversies takes his stand by issues and not by wings, has always felt attracted by Slavonic poetry. As he is of Central European extraction, this may not be surprising. In his professional activities he is a financial and economic journalist (Fleet Street) who by translating occasionally a poem hopes to atone for the aid he renders by his professional activities to tycoons, investors and speculators.’


http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/isj/1961/no006/blok.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"THE ROANOKE LEADER", Roanoke, Randolph County, Alabama, issue of Wednesday, January 30, 1918

Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Enloe have received news that their son Page, who was attending school in Massachusetts, has joined the army aviation service.

Basil Hoke and James A. Bramblett of this city, left Monday for Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., reporting for duty, having enlisted in the cavalry branch of the army service. Both are under- age and have volunteered. Mr. Hoke was a member of the mechanical force of the Leader when he cast his lot with Uncle Sam's forces.

http://files.usgwarchives.org/al/randolph/newspapers/newspape827gnw.txt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Franz Baron Rohr von Denta

(...) In February 1917 he was ordered to command 1 Army in place of General Arz von Straussenberg who became Supreme commander of the K.u.K Army. He was promoted to Feldmarschall on 30 January 1918 following the armistice with Romania.

Rohr von Denta retained this command until 15 April 1918, when a peace treaty with Romania caused I Army to be disbanded. (...)

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/denta.htm
Zie ook http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/marshals.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Jan 2011 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Th. Rothstein: "Our Martyred Dead"
Source: The Call, 30 January 1919

Two of our noblest and greatest have fallen—fallen on the battlefield of Revolution at the dastardly hands of Socialist traitors to the cause of the working class. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, whose very names were a programme and an inspiration, are no more! They were foully assassinated and their corpses mutilated by a reactionary mob of soldiers and bourgeois civilians_ let loose, like a pack hounds, by the Scheidemann-Ebert Government against the Berlin revolutionary proletariat and its devoted leaders. The crime is crying to heaven, and the names of its authors and instigators will be execrated throughout the ages to come along with those of a Gallifet and a Cavaignac. Yet the Gallifets and the Cavaignacs were the avowed enemies of Socialism and of the struggling proletariat, and they owed no debt of honour to those whom they killed except the one that is due from one human being to another. But the Scheidemanns and the Eberts and the unspeakable Noskes, each pretending and perhaps sincerely believing himself to be a Socialist, and knowing in his heart of hearts that he is unworthy even to tie the lace on the boots of either Liebknecht or Luxemburg—they have assassinated them, the glory of international Socialism, the valiant, the immortal; assassinated them by the dirty, blood-stained, and criminal hands of the common enemy; assassinated them while helpless in their charge—an act of cowardice. What a sacrilege! Not all the waters of the ocean will ever wash the crime off the Scheidemann-Ebert gang, Thrice accursed will their memory live in all future history and cause abhorrence in every proletarian breast.

Karl Liebknecht! His name was applauded during the war by the false tongue of every Jingo, bourgeois and Socialist, in the Allied countries, who dared claim him as one of their own. We international and revolutionary Socialists knew better. He was ours, not theirs. Long before the war, almost from his childhood, almost from his cradle—did not some of the best Russian Revolutionists of the time stand round it?—he had been ours: and ours alone. He was ours when, in his youth, still a student, he carried on a Socialist propaganda among his school-fellows; he was still more ours when he, already a barrister, defended, in the celebrated Königsberg trial, his comrades “guilty” of having helped the Russian Revolution by smuggling literature over the frontier and giving shelter to fugitives; he became still more than ours, he became our leader, when he, alone in the German Socialist. Party, already moth-eaten by opportunism, raised the banner of the German Revolution against Kautsky and even Bebel; and he became our hope and guiding star when he, once more alone, shouted out: “No“ in the Reichstag at the voting of the first war credits. He was the first in Germany—nay, in the world—to have ventured into the streets with a cry; “Down with the war!“—and that, in soldier’s uniform; and he shared with the five Russian Bolshevik members of the Duma the undying glory of having been arrested for his revolutionary agitation against the war, unseated, sentenced to a long term of hard labour, deprived of his “civic honour,“ and struck off the roll of barristers. To him, prison was a familiar abode, while freedom he regarded as a gift of the gods to be used in the service of the proletariat.

What shall we say, of Rosa Luxemburg, our dear, dear friend, the unique woman, plainly marked in every way as a genius, a revolutionary, a servant of the proletariat? A child of Russo-Polish Jewry, she studied at Zurich University and obtained her degree of doctor of political economy by a thesis on the economic development of. Poland, which placed her at once in the front rank of Marxist writers. In Poland she founded the Polish Social Democracy in opposition to the un-Marxist and patriotic Polish Socialist Party; in Germany, where she acquired citizenship by means of a fictitious marriage, she joined the left wing and soon became one of its most prominent leaders. She led the campaign against Bernstein when he became opportunist, and she fought Kautsky when he, too, succumbed to the tactics of adaptation. What force of character, dialectical skill, knowledge, mind, lay in that frail body of hers and what incomparable beauty of a great intellect and a great soul shone in those dark eyes and played over that lofty forehead of hers! She was a revolutionary—a Marxist revolutionary—to the very bottom of her soul, and all her ardour and all her remarkable talents were consecrated to the one cause, the cause of Socialism.

Neither Karl Liebknecht nor Rosa Luxemburg were any longer in the prime of their lives. The one was 47, the other must have been over fifty. Yet so young in spirit were they that their death seems to have cut them down only at the beginning of their career. Indeed, they were just entering upon a new life—the life of the actual revolution, of the actual struggle for the establishment of Socialism. Just on the threshold of the most glorious phase of their activity they are smitten down by traitors who but yesterday pretended to be their comrades-in-arms. What Imperialist Kaiserdom did not dare do at the beginning of the war has been accomplished by its successors, the Socialists of Treason, using the old tools of reaction to fight down the proletarian revolution. One can almost reconstruct the sinister scene without having seen it. For weeks past the entire bourgeois Press, from, the most Conservative to the most “Radical,“ howled against the Spartacus leaders, demanding their blood and taunting the Government with indecision and cowardice. At last, the two most prominent among them fell into their hands as prisoners. Here was a chance for the officer in command of the “victorious“ troops. Should he really take them to the authorities for imprisonment and trial? Would he not rather cut the Gordian knob in the old militarist-Junker fashion by doing away with them on the. spot? Away with them then. He knocked Liebknecht violently on the head, but did not kill him. The friends of the escort seek to excuse the murder by the statement that Libknecht attempted to escape and that because he ran, he was shot in the back. This, however, is denied by the Independents, who say that no attempt to escape was made, and that Liebknecht was actually shot in the forehead at short range. And probably much the same treacherous brutality befel Rosa Luxemburg. In vain does the Government wax indignant and threaten punishment to the guilty parties. It is they, the Eberts and the Scheidemanns themselves, who are guilty of the foul murder; it is they who have let loose the powers of reaction against the working class. They mobilised the bourgeoisie and the Junker officers to fight the Revolution, and have succeeded in attaining not only a political victory; but also a personal victory over their bitterest enemies.

But one does not employ the powers of hell with impunity. The blood of the victims will form an impassable barrier between the Scheidemannites and the masses of the proletariat, and the Scheidemannites will become more than ever the prisoners of those whom they have employed. Their hour of retribution will come swiftly. There will be a second revolution and the assassins will be hurled into the abyss of infamy to which they belong. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg have died the death of martyrs. Long live the International Socialist Revolution!

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1919/01/30.htm
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Manifesto of the German Spartacists
Source: The Call, January 30, 1919

The following manifesto is not only of intrinsic historical value out will be particularly interesting to our readers as being one of the last things signed by our heroic comrades, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.

“Revolution has broken out in Germany. The masses have risen; the soldiers, who in four years had been driven to butchery by the capitalist profiteers, and the workers, who have been exploited, oppressed, and starved. That terrible instrument of oppression, that scourge of humanity which constituted Prussian militarism, has been hurled to the ground; its most conspicuous representatives and consequently those most responsible for the war, the Kaiser and the Crown Prince, have fled the country. Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils have been formed, every where.

“Workers of all countries ! We do not say that in Germany all power is now effectively in the hands of the working people, that the proletarian revolution has already gained a complete victory. All those Socialists who in August, 1914, abandoned our most precious possession, who for four years have betrayed both the German working class and the international still occupy seats in the government. But at this moment, workers of all countries, it is the German working class itself that addresses you. We think we have the right to present ourselves to you in their name. From the first days of this war we endeavoured to fulfil our international duties by combating with all our force this criminal government and exposing it as the real criminals of this war.

“Now we are justified before history, before the International, before the German workers. The masses approved our policy with enthusiasm and larger and larger sections are recognising that the hour for settling accounts with the dominant capitalist class has struck. But the German working class cannot carry this great work to a successful conclusion by itself. It can only struggle and, conquer by calling upon the solidarity of the workers of the whole world.

“Comrades of the belligerent countries! We recognise your situation. We know very well that just now your governments, having achieved victory, are largely dazzling the popular mind by the apparent splendour and glory of victory. We know that on account of these military successes they are able to make people forget the causes and purposes of this assassination. But we also know another thing. The blood and bones of your working class has been sacrificed terribly. The workers are tired of this horrible carnage; they are now returning to their hearths and homes, where they only find poverty and misery, whereas fortunes of milliards have accumulated in the hands of certain capitalists. The working class understands that the war was carried on also by your Governments in the interests of the money bags. And it also recognises that your Governments, just as ours, when they speak of the ‘rights of civilisation,’ the ‘defence of small nations,’ have in view only the benefit of the capitalist class. The proletariat of your country will understand that the peace of so called ‘right’ of the ‘society of nations’ leads to the same vile and base rapacity as the peace of Brest-Litovsk. Here, as there, the same shameless greed, the same readiness to oppress, the same determination to exploit to the utmost limit the brutal preponderance of murderous weapons. The imperialism of all countries knows not the meaning of conciliation. It knows but one right—the profits of the capitalist class; but one language—the sword; but one means—violence. And when they talk now in your country, as in ours, of ‘a league of nations,’ of ‘disarmament,’ of the ‘rights of small nations,’ of the ‘liberty of peoples to dispose of themselves’, these are only the habitual lying phrases of the dominant class—useful as a soporific for the vigilance of the proletariat.

“Workers of all countries! This war must be the last. We owe it to the 12,000,000 of assassinated victims, to our children, to humanity,”

The manifesto then points to the terrible sufferings and ruination of Europe engendered by the war and to the fact that the dominant class is incapable of bringing about real peace or of assuring to the tortured peoples work, food, rights, and freedom. Only Socialism can accomplish this. Socialism, alone can heal the wounds caused by the war and substitute fraternal solidarity for the present day hatreds and discord. The manifesto then continues:—

“If the representatives of the working class were to stretch forth their hands to conclude peace beneath the banner of Socialism, it would be concluded in a few hours. There would then be no divergencies regarding the Left Bank of the Rhine, nor about Mesopotamia, Egypt, or the colonies. There would be but one people the working humanity of all races and all tongues. There would then be only one right—the equality of all men. There would only be one aim—the prosperity and progress of all. Humanity is faced by the alternatives—dissolution into capitalist anarchy or renaissance by social revolution. The hour for decision has struck. If you believe in Socialism it is time to prove it by acts ....

“Workers of all countries! If we call on you now to a common struggle it is not in the interests of the German capitalists, who, under the designation of the ‘German nation,’ seek to escape the consequences of their crimes: We only so in our interest as in yours. Reflect! Your victorious capitalists are ready to repress in blood our revolution, which they are as much afraid of as your own. You, yourselves, have no more freedom as a result of ‘victory.’ It has but riveted your chains. If your governing classes succeed in strangling the proletarian revolution in Germany as in Russia, they will then turn against you with double fury. Your capitalists hope that victory over us and over revolutionary Russia will enable them to chastise you and to establish on the grave of Socialism a millenium Empire of Exploitation. That is why we cry to you—‘Forward to the struggle! forward to action!’ The time for empty manifestations, platonic resolutions, and sonorous words has passed. The hour for action has struck for the International. We call on you to elect everywhere Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils which will take political power into their own hands and, acting all together, will establish peace.

Neither Lloyd George nor Poincaré, neither Sonnino, Wilson, Erzberger, nor Scheidemann should conclude peace. Only beneath the triumphant flag of the Socialist world revolution should peace be made.

“Workers of all countries! We call on you to carry out the work of Socialist liberation, to restore to violated humanity a human shape, and to realise the phrase with which we formerly often greeted and parted from one another—The International will save the human race!

(Signed) CLARA ZETKIN,
ROSA LUXEMBURG,
KARL LIEBKNECHT,
FRANZ MEHRING”

http://www.marxists.org/history/international/social-democracy/call/1919/30.htm
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Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 30 Januari 1919.

Borkel en Schaft.

- Aangaande den toestand der vrouw uit Hamont, welke alhier een bezoek wilde komen afleggen en door het overijld schieten van een Belgisch soldaat door een kogel in den hals werd getroffen kan men melden dat haar toestand bevredigend is.

- De heer Jansen alhier, wiens zoon vier jaar gediend heeft in het Belgisch leger, heeft sedert den wapenstilstand niets meer van hem vernomen, zoodat men het ergste te vreezen heeft.

- Ook alhier zal worden overgegaan tot het instellen van een burgerwacht.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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1919: The 40-hours strike

The 40 Hours strike led by the Clyde Workers' Committee was the most radical strike seen on Clydeside in terms of both its tactics and its demands.

(...) By 30 January 1919, 40,000 workers in the engineering and shipbuilding industries in Clydeside were out on strike. In addition electricity supply workers in Glasgow had also gone on strike in sympathy, as had 36,000 miners in the Lanarkshire and Stirlingshire coalfields. It was reported that during the first week of the strike not a single trade in the Clydeside area was left unaffected by strike action. The rapid spread of the strike was attributed to the large-scale deployment of flying pickets by the CWC, largely made up of discharged servicemen.

On 29 January 1919, after a rally of strikers in Glasgow and a march to George Square, a deputation from the CWC managed to secure a meeting with the Lord Provost of Glasgow. At this meeting the strike leaders requested that the Lord Provost ask the Council to compel employers to grant workers a 40-hour week. The Lord Provost was unable or unwilling to give the deputation a reply to their question without consulting colleagues, and asked them to return on 31 January when he assured them he would be able give them a reply. (...)

http://libcom.org/history/1919-the-forty-hours-strike
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T. E. Lawrence to his family

Paris, 30.i.19

I got your letter yesterday, and will answer it this morning, while waiting up here for breakfast. I'm living at the Continental, which is half an hour's walk from the Majestic and Astoria, the British quarters, and this morning I found a taxi, which is a rare thing. In consequence I have ten unexpected minutes. About work - it is going on well. I have seen 10 American newspaper men, and given them all interviews, which went a long way. Also President Wilson, and the other people who have influence. The affair is nearly over, I suspect. Another fortnight, perhaps. Everybody seems to be here, and of course it is a busy time. I have had, personally, one meal in my hotel since I got to Paris! That was with Newcombe, who turned up unexpectedly. Bliss, of the Beyrout College is here, and proving a very valuable assistant of the Arab cause. Tell Arnie I haven't seen a bookshop yet. I cannot come to England to meet Bob, but if he came to Paris could see him. I'm always in my room (98, at the Continental) before 10 a.m. (unless out at breakfast as today) and after 11.30 p.m.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1919-20/190130_family.htm
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Festive scene at the Paige dealers' banquet, Jan. 30, 1919, during the Chicago Auto Show.
Motor Age magazine, Feb. 6, 1919



http://www.wcroberts.org/Paige_History/1919_Paige.html
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Times of London, 30 January 1919



http://www.turkishcoalition.org/issues_ar_archive.html
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Spain in Morocco: 1890-1919

(...) In December 1918 the parliamentary government of Spain decided to renew attempts at the occupation of the Spanish Protectorate through a gradual military advance. Between 1915 and 1918 El Raisuli took advantage of the uneasy peace between him and Spanish troops in the area to undermine Spanish influence in the western zone of the protectorate. Furthermore, during the First World War German agents had persuaded El Raisuli to reorient efforts to raid the French Protectorate, and the end of the war now mean that El Raisuli had a large stock of German surplus armament ready to engage Spanish assets. General Damaso Berenguer, previously Minister of War, was assigned to overview operations in Morocco in 1919.16 30 January 1919, thanks to Berenguer, General Manuel Fernández Silvestre was named General Commander of Melilla and ordered to begin a series of advances out of Melilla, with the ultimate goal of capturing the Riffian capital of Ajdir.

In order to promote the occupation of the Spanish Protectorate, and at the same time appease workers at home who were in no condition to be pressed into service, the Spanish Ministry of War founded the Spanish Foreign Legion in early 1920. The legion was put under the command and guidance of Lieutenant Colonel Millán Astray, who chose as his second in command Major Francisco Franco. Both of these men were notable officers in the Regulares – Spanish army units composed of native enlisted soldiers –, and both recognized the need for a body of men dedicated to victory in Morocco. Within days of the opening of the first recruitment posts in Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia, over 400 Spaniards joined the legion led by the hopes of food and steady pay. The legion offered adventure and a chance for glory, and from the very beginning was seen as an elite unit. Recruits were organized into banderas, a little less than battalion size, with two rifle companies, one machine gun company, a sapper platoon and a transport and supply unit. During training, the legion promoted unity and patriotism towards Spain and the effects were seen immediately. (...)

http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=battle_alhucemas
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Lincoln Day Proclamation - January 30, 1919

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS
By His Excellency Calvin Coolidge, Governor.
A PROCLAMATION

Fivescore and ten years ago that Divine Providence which infinite repetition has made only the more a miracle sent into the world a new life, destined to save a nation. No star, no sign, foretold his coming. About his cradle all was poor and mean save only the source of all great men, the love of a wonderful woman. When she faded away in his tender years, from her deathbed in humble poverty she dowered her son with greatness. There can be no proper observance of a birthday which forgets the mother. Into his origin as into his life men long have looked and wandered. In wisdom great, but in humility greater, in justice strong, but in compassion stronger, he became a leader of men by being a follower of the truth. He overcame evil with good. His presence filled the nation. He broke the might of oppression. He restored a race to its birthright. His mortal fame has vanished, but his spirit increases with the increasing years, the richest legacy of the greatest century.

Men show by what they worship what they are. It is no accident that before the great example of American manhood our people stand with respect and reverence. And in accordance with this sentiment our laws have provided for a formal recognition of the birthday of Abraham Lincoln, for in him is revealed our ideal, the hope of our country fulfilled.

Now, therefore, by the authority of Massachusetts, the 12th day of February is set apart as

LINCOLN DAY

and its observance recommended as befit the beneficiaries of his life and the admirers of his character, in places of education and worship wherever our people meet with one another.

Given at the Executive Chamber, in Boston, this 30th day of January, in the Year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, and of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred and forty-third.

Calvin Coolidge

By His Excellency the Governor,
Albert P. Langtry
Secretary of the Commonwealth.

God save the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=3595
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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

On 30 January the Conference decided that the Arab provinces should be wholly separated from the Ottoman Empire and the newly conceived mandate-system applied to them. This decision clashed with the expectation of Faisal's Arab delegation that his state would include Palestine, and the conditional understandings reached in the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Paris_Peace_Conference,_1919
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Alison T. Hopkins at the White House gates on New Jersey Day, January 30, 1917.



http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/suffrage/nwp/history.html
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Lat Pau (30 January 1918)

http://www.lib.nus.edu.sg/LEBAO/1918/LP0010563.PDF
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Samuel Benfield Steele



Samuel Benfield Steele was born in Purbrook, Ontario, in 1849. He joined the Canadian Militia during the Fenian troubles of 1866, and in 1870 he travelled west with the Red River Expedition. In 1873, Steele was one of the first to join the newly created North West Mounted Police. During his career as a mounted policeman he was involved in many of the pivotal events in western Canada. He helped rid the West of whiskey traders who were preying on native peoples; he maintained law and order among construction workers employed to build the Canadian Pacific Railway; Steele's Scouts forced Big Bear to release his hostages during the North-West Rebellion, and participated in the battle at Steele's Narrows (the last battle fought on Canadian soil); and he established the authority of the Canadian government during the Klondike gold rush and applied Canadian law and justice throughout the Yukon.

In 1900, Lord Strathcona chose Colonel Steele to lead Strathcona's Horse to South Africa during the Boer War, and in 1915 Major-General Steele trained and took overseas the Second Canadian Division. Judged too old for action on the front, he was placed in command of training all Canadian troops in Britain. When the First World War ended in 1918, Steele prepared to return to western Canada. While he was arranging for a home in Calgary, he fell victim to an influenza epidemic, and died in London on January 30, 1919.

http://www.glenbow.org/exhibitions/online/libhtm/jan30.htm
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Mahatma Gandhi

1948 - On 30 January Gandhi is assassinated in New Delhi while on his way to his evening prayer meeting. His assassin is a Hindu extremist who opposes Gandhi's willingness to engage in dialogue with Muslims.

The same evening Nehru makes a radio address to the nation. "Gandhi has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere," he says. "The father of our nation is no more. No longer will we run to him for advice and solace. ... This is a terrible blow to millions and millions in this country. ...

"Our light has gone out, but the light that shone in this country was no ordinary light. For a thousand years that light will be seen in this country and the world will see it. ... Oh, that this has happened to us! There was so much more to do."

http://www.moreorless.au.com/heroes/gandhi.html
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Rückblick auf den 30. Januar 1933 - Ernennung Hitlers zum Reichskanzler

Am 30. Januar 1933 wurde Adolf Hitler von Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg zum Reichskanzler ernannt. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt rechnete kaum jemand damit, dass Adolf Hitler Deutschland und Europa in eine Katastrophe führen und sein Regime erst 12 Jahre später, mit dem Sturm alliierter Truppen auf Berlin, enden würde...

http://www.radiobremen.de/wissen/geschichte/ns-zeit/machtergreifung104.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archive, 30 January 1915: Life on the home front in Manchester

Manchester faces an influx of wounded soldiers and a recruitment shortage, as a plea is made for a mobile soup kitchen for the front line

The Lancashire Lasses’ Soup Kitchen. Mrs. Jerningham Moorat, wife of Major Harry Moorat, 7th Battalion King’s Own Royal Lancaster Regiment, and member of the First-aid Nursing Yeomanry Corps (now doing splendid work at the front), is, as we have already stated, anxious to take as near to the trenches and firing lines as possible a motor soup kitchen, to supply soup, tea, cocoa, and coffee to the wounded who are able to take refreshment, as soon as first-aid has been rendered, and to others. £400 is the initial expense of the motor soup kitchen, but its value to the troops is incalculable.

“Not a farthing of the public money will be wasted,” she writes, “and all services given are quite voluntary. If only some patriotic wealthy person would come forward and help be royally! Accounts will be strictly kept, and can be seen at any time. Those who cannot give money could perhaps spare gifts in kind, such as crockery, rubbers, dessert or tea spoons - all would be a great help. It shall be called ‘The Lancashire Lasses’ Soup Kitchen.’ I have already to thank many for their donations.” The Amersham branch of the Union of London and Smith’s Bank are kindly undertaking the receipt of contributions.

Lees verder op https://www.theguardian.com/world/the-northerner/2015/jan/30/first-world-war-home-front-manchester
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ROMANOV FAMILY: ON THIS DATE IN THEIR OWN WORDS. ANASTASIA ROMANOV, 30 JANUARY, 1915.

30 January, 1915. Tsarskoe Selo. My dear Papa Darling! I thank you very much for the kisses. I write to you so seldom, but [it is because I do not have] enough time. We just got back from riding. I taught Ortipo to “serve” and today to give paw, she does is so well, the darling. Now we will go to our infirmary. In the morning we went to Anya’s. The nurses Olga and Tatiana went to Petrograd. Tatiana Andreyevna, the one with Aunt [Olga], she wrote to me that when you were at Aunt’s you smoked a cigarette, she kept it and gave the ashes to the officers, and the ashtray was hers. Uncle Petya had breakfast with us. I am happy that I will see you soon. I give you a very big kiss. Your loving daughter, 13 year old Nastasia. Shvybzik. ANRIKZS. May God keep you. Sleep well.

http://www.theromanovfamily.com/anastasia-romanov-1915-letter-to-her-father/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

30 January 1915 – Unrestricted

Artikel over de SM U-20.

Lees het op http://ww1blog.osborneink.com/?p=5296
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914-1918: Ein rheinisches Tagebuch - Quellen aus Archiven des Rheinlands

Stadtarchiv Troisdorf, Pressesammlung: Siegburger Kreisblatt vom 30. Januar 1916

Verjährungsfristen werden verlängert.
– Die Verjährungsfrist der ärztlichen Forderungen aus den Jahren 1912 und 1913 ist, wie die Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift meldet, im Hinblick auf die Kriegsverhältnisse durch Bundesratsverfügung bis zum Schluß des Jahres 1916 hinausgeschoben worden.


http://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/20619

Stadtarchiv Solingen, Bergische Arbeiterstimme 30. Januar 1917

Die Carbonitfabrik Schlebusch sucht Arbeitskräfte

http://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/35119

Stadtarchiv Düsseldorf, „Tagebuch Willy Spatz“ 1914-1919

Dienstag, den 30. Januar - Zu wiederholten Malen lesen wir zumteil Bekanntes über die Schwierigkeiten der augenblicklichen Volksernährung, mit der es allerdings höchst traurig bestellt ist. Wir finden da folgendes: Die Versorgungsschwierigkeit dieses Jahres hat ihren Grund in der schlechten Kartoffelernte. Auch die Transportverhältnisse haben sehr ungünstig eingewirkt. Die Schätzungen über die Getreideernte gehen soweit auseinander, daß am 15. Febr. 1917 eine neue Bestandsaufnahme nötig ist. Die Kartoffelvorräte werden sich genau erst feststellen lassen, wenn die Mieten geöffnet sind u. das Saatgut ausgelesen ist. Trotz der günstigen Körnerernte stehen wir infolge der Kartoffelmißernte bezüglich der gesamten verfügbaren Nährwerte an Getreide u. Kartoffeln schlechter als im Vorjahr.

Lees vooral verder! http://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/28084
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 30 Jan 2017 11:37, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 30, 1916 (Sunday)

- A German zeppelin bombed Paris, killing six civilians and wounding another 30 people.

- The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence ended between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and British diplomat Henry McMahon concerning the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.

- The Italian air squadron 71a Squadriglia was established in Torino as Italy's first fighter squadron.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_1916#January_30.2C_1916_.28Sunday.29

Schade Bombardement 30 Januari 1918 - (Frankrijk - Île-de-France - Paris)

Fotootje... http://nl.tracesofwar.com/artikel/57087/Schade-Bombardement-30-Januari-1918.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 30 Jan 2017 11:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sonntag, 30. Januar 1916 – Wieviel Koffein darf koffeinfreier Kaffee noch enthalten?

Der Verband der Kantonschemiker und Stadtchemiker der Schweiz traf sich zu einer zweitägigen Sitzung in Genf.

Kaffee kaufte man im Ersten Weltkrieg in der Regel in speziellen Geschäften. Wie der Auszug aus dem Protokoll der Kantons- und Stadtchemiker der Schweiz zeigt, waren aber auch Ersatzprodukte wie koffeinfreier Kaffee oder Kaffee-Ersatz aus Zichorien.

Alleen échte koffieleuten mogen hier doorklikken... https://zeitfenster1916.ch/2016/01/30/sonntag-30-januar-1916/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Jan 2017 11:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bornem in WOI - Dagboek van Pater van Doninck

Zondag 30 januari 1916 (dag 546)
In het dorp hangen verschillende aanplakbrieven te lezen over aardappelen en allerhande levensmiddelen, die niet boven de gestelde prijs mogen verkocht worden.
De gemeente Lippelo heeft gisteren patatten moeten leveren aan Weert en ook aan Malderen.
Bugemeester Cammaert, die geen haast gemaakt had met de verordening van notenbomen te leveren, hopende dat ze evenals verleden jaar zou ingetrokken worden, kreeg vandaag aanzegging ze zodra mogelijk te doen leveren op straf van boete. De eigenaars moeten ze zelf uitdoen en leveren.
Kanon de hele dag hoorbaar ten zuidwesten.

http://www.wo1bornem.be/dagboek-pater-van-doninck/detail/nws-330-van-maandag-24-januari-1916-tot-en-met-zondag-30-januari-1916
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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