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24 Januari
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2006 7:05    Onderwerp: 24 Januari Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 24. Januar

1914

1915
Erfolgreicher Angriff bei Borzymow
Ein englischer Schlachtkreuzer und S. M. S. "Blücher" gesunken

1916
Feindliche Fliegerangriffe auf Metz und Bitolja
Dover und Hougham mit Bomben belegt
Einnahme von Skutari und Podgoritza
Kämpfe bei Kut el Amara

1917
Günstig verlaufende Kämpfe bei Riga
Geländegewinn beiderseits der Aa
Der Verlauf des Seegefechts in den Hoofden

1918
Reichskanzler Graf Hertling über Wilsons 14 Punkte
Zwei deutsche Minensuchboote gesunken

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2006 7:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 24

1915 British and German navies battle at the Dogger Bank


German naval forces under Admiral Franz von Hipper, encouraged by the success of a surprise attack on the British coastal towns of Hartlepool and Scarborough the previous month, set off toward Britain once again, only to be intercepted by a squadron of British cruisers led by Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty on the morning of January 24, 1915, near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea.

Knowing his Scouting Squadron would be overpowered by the British, Hipper turned his boats around, figuring his ships would be able to outrun the British boats in pursuit. Beatty’s cruisers were faster than von Spee anticipated, however, and caught up to the Germans within an hour. At about 9 a.m., the British flagship, HMS Lion, opened fire on the Germans from a distance of more than 20,000 yards. The lead German ship, Seydlitz, was soon ablaze; 192 of its crew members died but the ship itself was saved despite the damage. Of the four German ships in Hipper’s squadron, only the oldest and biggest, the Blucher, was sunk, killing 782 men. The demise of the Blucher was captured on moving film; an engraving of a still in the film, of its sailors sliding off the sinking ship into the sea, was later used to adorn silver cigarette cases sold as souvenirs in Britain.

The Lion herself took a beating, but only 15 British sailors were killed in the battle, which ended later that same day when Beatty, fearful of running into German mines and believing the enemy was setting up for a submarine attack, turned his ships around and let the rest of Hipper’s squadron escape.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 20 Jul 2006 20:58    Onderwerp: Re: 24 Januari Reageer met quote

Hauptmann @ 24 Jan 2006 8:05 schreef:

1917
Günstig verlaufende Kämpfe bei Riga


Riga in 1917

http://video.google.nl/videoplay?docid=-1390198586010950329
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag bij de Doggersbank (1915)

De Slag bij de Doggersbank is een zeeslag tussen de Britse en de Duitse marine tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog op 24 januari 1915.

Vooraf
De sterkteverhouding tussen de Britse en Duitse oorlogsvloot (ca. 3 tegen 2) maakte het voor de Duitsers vrijwel onmogelijk de Britse blokkade tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog te doorbreken. Aanvankelijk beperkte men zich tot prikacties. De slag bij Helgoland was een Duitse nederlaag geweest, daar de Duitse slagkruisers wegens laag water niet konden uitvaren. Wel was het de Duitsers gelukt mijnen te leggen, waardoor het Engelse slagschip Audacious was gezonken en waren de Engelse kustplaatsen Yarmouth en Scarborough beschoten. Een rechtstreekse confrontatie tussen beide vloten vond begin 1915 bij de Doggersbank plaats.

De slag
Op 24 januari 1915 was een Duits eskader (bevelhebber Franz von Hipper) bestaande uit de slagkruisers Seydlitz, Moltke en Derfflinger en de pantserkruiser Blücher, ondersteund door 4 lichte kruisers en 18 torpedoboten op weg naar de Engelse oostkust voor een verkenningstocht en zo mogelijk om beschietingen op kustplaatsen uit te voeren, toen het op de Noordzee ter hoogte van de Doggersbank werd verrast door een dubbel zo sterk Brits eskader onder bevel van David Beatty en bestaande uit de slagkruisers Lion, Tiger, Princess Royal, New Zealand en Indomitable met 7 lichte kruisers en 35 torpedobootjagers. De Britten hadden lucht van de Duitse operatie gekregen door Duitse radioberichten te decoderen, terwijl de Duitsers veronderstelden dat de Engelse slagkruisers zich in de haven bevonden om te bunkeren.

Het was nog donker, toen Beatty's slagkruisers rond 7 uur ’s morgens de Doggersbank bereikten. Hipper was volkomen verrast, toen de Britten het vuur openden. Onzeker over de sterkte van de vijand liet hij zijn schepen keren, zonder echter de snelheid te verhogen om bij het aanbreken van de dag de situatie te kunnen overzien. Dat bleek een tactische fout. Om 8.45 uur meldde zijn vlaggenschip Seydlitz aan het opperbevel in Wilhelmshaven: “Positie 053 δ links midden, koers zuidoost, 20 zeemijl, 8 grote schepen, 1 kleine kruiser, 12 torpedoboten in zicht.” Er leek geen ontkomen aan, want het achterste schip in de linie, Blücher, haalde slechts 23 knopen.

Beatty naderde snel en stuurde parallelkoers. Om 9.30 uur meldde Seydlitz: “083 δ zuidoost, 21 zeemijl. Er volgen 7 vijandelijke kleine kruisers, 26 torpedoboten, daarachter nog meer rookwolken. Verwacht aanval pas in de Duitse Bocht.” Doch om 10 uur volgde: “In westnoordwest 1ste vijandelijk pantserkruiser-eskader in zicht.” En om 10.08 uur: “Ben in gevecht met het 1ste pantserkruiser-eskader in 109 δ, stuur koers zuidoost. Seydlitz.” waarna om 10.33 uur een oproep om assistentie volgde: “Positie 113 δ, stuur koers zuidoost, 23 zeemijl. Ben in gevecht met het 1ste vijandelijke pantserkruiser-eskader in noordnoordwest. Verzoek om bijstand van eskaders en flottieljes.” Het opperbevel antwoordde hierop dat de vloot zou uitlopen, maar dat zou natuurlijk nog uren in beslag kunnen nemen.

Ondertussen was het gevecht in volle gang. Een granaat van Lion trof de Seydlitz in de achterste geschutstoren en deed de daarin liggende kruitvoorraad ontvlammen. Het vuur sloeg over naar de geschutstoren ernaast, waarop ook deze uitbrandde. Matroos Wilhelm Heidkamp zette de munitiemagazijnen onder water, zodat het schip niet de lucht in ging. Hij verbrandde daarbij zijn handen en zijn longen en stierf hieraan na de oorlog. Lion zelf werd door Derfflinger getroffen en viel stil; de elektrische installatie was vernietigd zodat alleen nog met vlagsignalen gecommuniceerd kon worden. Een melding van onderzeebootgevaar deed de Engelsen aanvankelijk koers wijzigen in noordoostelijke richting, waarna een vlagsignaal van Lion om de strijd te hervatten verkeerd werd begrepen. Het gevolg hiervan was dat het Britse vuur zich geheel op de Blücher concentreerde, die als laatste schip in de Duitse linie al voortdurend was bestookt en nauwelijks vaart meer maakte, terwijl het gros achter de horizon verdween. Een poging Blücher te redden zou gezien de krachtsverhouding, mede door het uitvallen van vier zware kanons op Seydlitz tot de ondergang van het gehele eskader hebben kunnen leiden. Anderzijds was een kans gemist de lamgeslagen Lion, die door Indomitable moest worden weggesleept, te vernietigen. Het Duitse vlaggenschip Seydlitz meldde aan het opperbevel: “Positie 12.45 uur 054 ε, stuur koers zuidoost. Gevecht voor het moment afgebroken. Blücher verloren. Vijand peilt noordnoordoost.” En het Duitse luchtschip “L5”, dat zich boven het strijdtoneel bevond meldde: “Positie 13.07 uur 036 β. Blücher gekenterd. Vijandelijke torpedoboten en kruisers in de buurt. Vijand trekt zich terug in richting noordwest.”'

Achteraf
De Royal Navy was niet gelukkig met de afloop. Men had dan wel een Duitse kruiser (hoewel dit geen dreadnought was) tot zinken gebracht, maar de hoofdmacht laten ontsnappen. De onderlinge communicatie tussen de schepen bleek zeer te wensen over te laten. Verder was het aantal treffers ver onder de maat - van de 243 34 cm granaten die Lion afvuurde, troffen er maar 4 doel - en bleek het nieuwe systeem “firing director” voor synchroonvuur, waarmee Tiger was uitgerust, niet te werken. Maar men zag door de geringe schade aan de eigen schepen de zwakte van constructie en pantser over het hoofd, waarvan de gevolgen zich anderhalf jaar later, tijdens de zeeslag bij Jutland, zouden openbaren. Bij de Duitsers daarentegen bracht het inferno op Seydlitz een constructiefout aan het licht, die leidde tot verbetering van de beveiliging tegen steekvlammen binnen de gevechtstorens van de schepen.

De Britten verloren 50 man; aan Duitse zijde bedroegen de verliezen 951 man, allen op Blücher en Seydlitz. Het was het eerste treffen van slechts twee gedurende de gehele Eerste Wereldoorlog tussen dreadnoughts van de strijdende partijen.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_de_Doggersbank_(1915)
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Fritz Kempf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2010 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wat verteld de Wiki ons!

1915 - Slag bij de Doggersbank (zeeslag tussen de Britse en de Duitse marine)
1917 - Duitse vliegende aas Leopold Reimann sneuvelt, toen de vleugels van zijn Albatros D.III afbraken.
1916 - Oskar Niedermayer en Werner von Hentig weten een vriendschap verdrag tussen het Duitse Rijk en Afghanistan te ondertekenen met de Habibullah Amir Khan . Het uiteindelijke doel van de Niedermayer-Hentig Expedition was de indienststelling van Afghanistan in de Eerste Wereldoorlog aan de zijde van de Centrale mogendheden wat uiteindelijk nooit zou geslaagd zijn geweest.
1918 - Britse vliegende aas Harry Gosford Reeves crashte tijdens het testen van zijn Nieuport 27 en overleefde de klap niet.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS
24 JANUARY 1918

Page 19

PURCELL, Pte Robert, Takapuna, 2nd, Wellington, Battn, while in London on leave from the Command Depot at Codford, was run over by a motor bus near Windmill St, Tottenham Court Rd, and killed. The Coroner’s jury returned a verdict of accidental death.

GAVIN, Capt Noel John Hay, RAMC, MC & Bar, Wellington, who died in France on 1 November met his death as the result of an accident. His horse bolted and fell, throwing the Captain on his head and fractured his skull. He died very shortly after reaching a casualty clearing station. Capt GAVIN had been in England on leave and had been back in France only a few days before he met his death. He had been attached for some time to the 14th Royal Irish Rifles.

ABRAHAM, Capt A T, MC, Manchester Regt, edlest son of the late Rev T P Abraham, rector of Risby, Suffolk, was killed in action on 29 October, aged 32. At one time he was farming in NZ and he left the Dominion to take up land in Vagros Island, B.C. On the declaration of war he joined the Canadian Infantry as a private, so that he saw service very early in 1915. At the first battle of Ypres he was badly gassed. Recovering, he returned to the front, remaining there until he was commissioned to the Third, Manchester, Regt. In June of this year he was awarded the Military Cross, the next month he received his first promotion and his captaincy was bestowed on him 10 days before he was killed.

FRANKAU, 2nd Lieut P E, Rifle Brigade, killed in action while attached to the Cameronians, was the second son of the late novelist ‘Frank Danby’. In 1911 he married Miss Frances B Miller of Te Puke, NZ. Early in life Lt Frankau gave up his scholastic career in order to devote himself to farming and exploration. He had travelled considerably and finally had settled in Rhodesia, enlisting at the outbreak of war in the Rhodesian Contingent. He obtained his commission in April 1915.

Page 21

Out of 26 men from Patea who joined the Main Body of the NZ Expeditionary Force, only three are alive unwounded and at the front. All the others have either been killed or invalided home.

A very sad story concerning the return of a soldier has been told at Eltham recently. On his arrival, the returned man was surprised and disappointed at there being no friends or relatives to meet him. On his way to Wanganui on the train he learned that during his absence his father and mother had both died, also a brother and that the home had now changed hands.

Lees verder op http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn24jan1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 12:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The London Regiment
Battalions of the Territorial Force


3/4th Battalion
Formed in Hoxton in January 1915. Record similar to 3/2nd Bn.
24 January 1917 : landed at Le Havre.
12 September 1918 : disbanded in France, troops going to 2/2nd Bn.

http://www.1914-1918.net/london.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 13:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thursday 24, 1924:

St. Petersburg, Russia is renamed Leningrad.

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/24-january/on-this-day.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 13:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917: Het verhaal van Coen de Koning

Coen de Koning had al de Elfstedentocht van 1912 gewonnen. Daaraan was een geurtje blijven hangen, omdat hij door een andere wedstrijdrijder werd beschuldigd van het overtreden door de regels. De Koning greep de Tocht aan om wraak te nemen. Hieronder staat het verhaal, dat De Koning zelf heeft geschreven in zijn persoonlijke memoires.

"In 1917 kwam er weer ijs. Ik woonde toen in Leur bij Breda. Door de oorlog 14 -18 kon ik mijn werk niet doen en was gedoemd thuis te blijven. Mijn patroon, Stefan Sijmons in Den Haag, stuurde mij elke maand mijn salaris, doch niets doen beviel mij niet en op het einde van 1916 kreeg ik een tijdelijke betrekking op het gemeentehuis in Etten-Leur. Ik moest meehelpen aan het distributieapparaat, eerst twee dagen in de week en later moest ik elke dag komen. Nu was de burgemeester niet zo erg gemakkelijk, maar daar gaf ik niets om. Ik zorgde dat ik mijn werk goed deed. Woensdagavond 24 januari 1917 kreeg ik bericht dat op zaterdag 27 en zondag 28 januari 1917 het Nederlands kampioenschap in Veendam zou worden gereden, waaraan ik graag zou deelnemen en op dezelfde zaterdag zou ook de Friese Elfstedenwedstrijd en -tocht worden gereden."

Lees beslist verder op http://elfstedenwiki.vpro.nl/page/1917:+Het+verhaal+van+Coen+de+Koning
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 13:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, Or The London Charivari, Vol. 152, January 24, 1917

From the "Standing Orders" of a Military Hospital:—
"Officers confined to their beds will have their meals in their rooms."

Extract from a letter just received from H.Q. in France:—
"C.O.'s will take care that all ranks know that they must never parade before an Officer—Brigade, Regimental or Company—unless properly dressed, wearing at least a belt."

OF COURSE.—A friend in the Guards tells me that the new food restrictions do not affect the men in the trenches very seriously. Our brave soldiers are so inured to hardships by now that they willingly forgo seven-course dinners.

NOT STARVING.—While on the subject of food, the picture published on page 6 of to-day's issue refutes the idea that the Hun is starving. It represents the KAISER looking at some pigs. The KAISER can be distinguished by a x.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14093/14093-h/14093-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Jan 2010 13:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 24 januari 1965 sterft de Britse staatsman Winston Churchill, een van de prominentste politieke figuren van de 20e eeuw. Hij ontving de Nobelprijs voor de Literatuur 1953 voor zijn vele boeken over de Engelse en de wereldgeschiedenis. Churchill was minister van Zeevaart en premier van het Verenigd Koninkrijk gedurende de Tweede Wereldoorlog en van 1951-1955.

Hij stond bekend als aartsconservatief en met name zijn houding t.av. vrouwen werd hem niet in dank afgenomen. Berucht zijn zijn uitspraken over vrouwen in het parlement.

Bijvoorbeeld naar de conservatief Nancy Astor die ooit zei : "Als ik uw vrouw was dan zou ik gif in uw koffie doen." Churchill atwoordde "Nancy, als ik uw man was dan zou ik het opdrinken."

Naar het labourparlementslid Bessie Braddock die opmerkte: "Sir, u bent dronken." Churchill: "En u bent lelijk mevrouw, maar morgenochtend ben ik weer nuchter."

http://www.beleven.org/vandaagdedag/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 16:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sándor Ferenczi to Sigmund Freud

Budapest, January 24, 19181

Dear Professor,

You can imagine that I have wracked my brains enough over how I could bring you provisions from here. But my last conversation with Dr. Freund instructed me that ithttp://www.stiwotforum.nl/viewtopic.php?t=11230&start=30 would be downright dangerous—for me and for the cause—to attempt to transport such wares as baggage. The only thing that is possible to do here is the following: I will have that material picked up by the military, then deposit it with Dr. Freund, who will then let it gradually get to Vienna in small portions (five to six kg. each). I concede that this solution is not so brilliant as the one suggested by Fräulein Schwarz, but, on the other hand, it is also less dangerous.
Here everything is quiet again. The Bolsheviki danger has been eliminated for the time being.
(...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=ZBK.026.0260A
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2010 16:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons - Written Answers - 24 January 1918

NERVE-STRAINED SOLDIERS.

HC Deb 24 January 1918 vol 101 cc1167-8W 1167W

Mr. KING asked the Under-Secretary of State for War whether any steps have been taken in consequence of a conference held before Christmas between the War Office and certain alienists and other medical men, in which the latter brought forward proposals for the retention under military control up to the time of complete recovery of all cases of transitory uncertifiable loss of balance due to the strain of battle; whether it is intended to provide new institutions for the treatment of such soldiers, while they remain in the Army, which shall be mainly under the charge or supervision of lunacy experts; if so, how many men are to be accommodated in each institution; and what provision will be made in order that, if unfit for military service, they may he speedily discharged to the Disablement Department of the Pensions Ministry and afforded facilities, with as little risk of delay and detriment as possible for their return to self-supporting industrial life?

Mr. MACPHERSON Steps are being taken to find suitable premises for the purpose indicated. The institutions will be provided with staffs of neurological experts.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1918/jan/24/nerve-strained-soldiers#S5CV0101P0_19180124_CWA_28
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 24 januari 1914
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Balkan

Het persbureau van het Russische ministerie van buitenlandsche zaken publiceert de volgende zonderlinge geschiedenis.

Dezer dagen noodigde de Duitsche consul te Erzeroem eenige Turksche notabelen uit tot een schietwedstrijd. Dit gaf aanleiding tot een gerucht onder de Armeniërs, dat er een pogrom te duchten was. Een paniek maakte zich van hen meester, er onstond groote verwarring in de stad en de huizen van de andere vreemde consuls werden gevuld met vluchtelingen.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-24-1-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Senate Vote #193 (Jan 24, 1914)

TO AMEND S. 48, BY REDUCING FROM $40,000,000 TO $25,000,000 THE AMOUNT PRESIDENT IS AUTHORIZED TO BORROW ON THE CREDIT OF THE U. S. TO DEFRAY EXPENSES AUTHORIZED BY THIS ACT. (P.2247-2, 2249-1)

http://www.govtrack.us/congress/vote.xpd?vote=s63_2-193
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wereldkampioenschappen kunstschaatsen 1914

De Wereldkampioenschappen kunstschaatsen is een evenement dat georganiseerd wordt door de Internationale Schaatsunie.

Voor de mannen was het de negentiende editie. Dit kampioenschap vond plaats op 21 en 22 februari 1914 in Helsinki, Finland.

Voor de vrouwen was het de negende editie en werd gehouden op 24 en 25 januari 1914, voor de paren was het de zevende editie en werd gehouden op 25 januari 1914. Deze kampioenschappen vonden beide plaats in Sankt Moritz, Zwitserland.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wereldkampioenschappen_kunstschaatsen_1914

Opika von Méray Horváth



Méray HorváthOpika von Méray Horváth (Arad, 30 december 1889 - Boedapest, 25 april 1977) was een kunstschaatsster die voor Hongarije deelnam toen dit land nog deel uitmaakte van de dubbelmonarchie Oostenrijk-Hongarije.

Opika von Méray Horváth was de tweede Hongaarse vrouw die aan de Wereldkampioenschappen kunstschaatsen deelnam. Bij haar eerste deelname op het WK van 1911 in Wenen werd ze tweede achter haar landgenote Lily Kronberger die voor de vierde keer wereldkampioene werd. Op de drie volgende kampioenschappen, het WK van 1912 te Davos, het WK van 1913 te Stockholm en het WK van 1914 te Sankt Moritz werd ze wereldkampioene. Het aanbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog maakte een eind aan haar schaatscarričre. Hierna zou ze als taallerares werkzaam zijn.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opika_von_M%C3%A9ray_Horv%C3%A1th
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn liefste lief. Brieven van Jean-Louis Pisuisse aan Fie Carelsen

Eenrum, 24 Januari 1915.
's Avonds halftien.
Mijn allerliefste Schat,

Nu krijg je ineens weer 'n veel fatsoenlijker brief van me, beter leesbaar dan de vorige. Ik schrijf dezen onder de opwekkende tonen van een piano, 'n viool en 'n fluit, bespeeld door drie veelbelovende jodenjongens uit Groningen, die er wel eens naast zagen en blazen maar, wie daarop let, is 'n kniesoor. Het is hier vreeselijk aardig, erg primitief zooals ik dat in 't noorden gewend ben, maar leuk. 'n Groot en heel geschikt publiek, dat ook talen verstaat, tenminste apprecieert en in 'n zaal waar 't makkelijk zingt, schoon er veel rook hangt. We zijn hier 1 uur van Groningen af met 'n klein proestend automobieltje aangekomen, dat ons straks ook nog terugbrengt, als het dan tenminste in 's hemelsnaam maar niet steken blijft. Dan slapen we nog lekker in de Doelen en behoeven morgen pas om drie uur uit Groningen weg. Van dien tijd zal ik onder meer gebruik maken om die gezellige interneerings-koefnoenners17 eens op hun vestje spugen18 (gratis en met 'n vrijbiljet), de varkens. Jan geniet van deze eerste ondervinding ten plattelande en houdt gewichtige gesprekken met god-en-ieder-goed mensch. We kregen hier zooeven ook weer een brief uit Leek, om daar op te treden. Als 't een beetje loopen wil met die kleine plaatsjes zit er altijd nog 'n aardig verdienstetje in. Hier van Eenrum bijvoorbeeld, waar ik voor f 15.- boekjes verkocht, blijft er toch altijd 'n kleine honderd pop voor me over. En als je eenmaal weet, hoe je die luidjes moet bezighouden en je hebt geen al te beroerde zaalakoestiek, is het werk ook niet vermoeiend. Dat zie je: anders ging ik waarachtig nog niet 'n briefje zitten krabbelen! Jouw brief is hier nog niet aangekomen. Die zal ik naar Groningen laten opzenden. Dan heb ik hem in elk geval morgen nog.. Hoe heeft mijn kleine pop het, zoo alleentjes. Is Marietje Meunier al bij je geweest. Doe haar mijn groeten en breng haar mijn condoleantie19 over. Jan en ik denken om 't zeerst om de fleschjes20, maar gisteren na 't eten hadden we 't heusch allebei vergeten, of liever, ik dacht dat ik m'n fleschje in m'n schouwburgkoffertje had, maar lauw... Enfin, nu staat het op 't oogenblik vlak voor m'n neus en doet me aan Fiepsje denken! Dag, lieve kleine snoes van me. Ik vind het toch maar leuk, dat ik zoo echt van jou hou! Maar elken dag schrijven doe ik je niet, hoor. Want dan wordt je maar verwend!! Dag, muizekontje! De groeten aan De Vozen21. Heel veel lieve zoenen van je trouwe Man.

p.s. Er zijn hier in Eenrum vreeselijk veel aardige meisjes! Jan is niet uit de zaal weg te slaan..

Noten:
17interneerings-koefnoenners; Engelse militairen zijn in Groningen geďnterneerd. Zij hebben vrijbiljetten gekregen (koefnoen; kost niets).
18hun vestje spugen; hun hard de waarheid zeggen.
19mijn condoleantie; met het overlijden van haar man Maurice Meunier, op 20 januari 1915.
20de fleschjes; om zichzelf wat te matigen in het drankgebruik heeft Pisuisse kleine maatflesjes (van Fie gekregen?) om zijn rantsoen te bepalen; zie hiervoor ook de volgende brieven.
21de Vozen; Jan C. de Vos jr. en Nora de Vos-de Poorter.


http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/pisu001mijn01_01/pisu001mijn01_01_0012.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 January 1915: The Battle of Dogger Bank

News Account by a Gunner of the Arethusa:

I might mention that we were well within range of the Germans during this time, who apparently could not spare one of their 11-inch guns for us, which was a good thing, as one from them would not leave much of the Arethusa, I think. Their shells were beginning to fall a little too near us for safety, and we really thought we were in for it as first one big one fell just short -- this was my side (port). The next came with a horrible, shrieking noise and passed over the ship just abaft the mast and damaged our port aerial. I then began to think that the next would find the range, but fortunately it passed just astern. We had a very warm time for awhile, and you must understand that the Arethusa is quite unprotected, and we have no protection but only light shields at our guns-- in fact, the shield of my gun has twice been burst in by the sea.

The German ships appeared to be on fire more than once, and at last there was no doubt about one of them -- the Blücher. It was then that our turn came, and as her fire slackened we quickly came up with her and started with our bow six-inch with lyddite. This is a terribly destructive shell, and when our big ships were firing, their shells on exploding caused clouds of yellow smoke. Our starboard battery of four-inch also came into play, but unfortunately all this time I had to stand idly by with a shell in my arms, as none of the guns on our side got a chance; this was rather trying.

The Blücher was now out of action, and the Arethusa gave the coup de grâce by slipping in two torpedoes at her just as we slewed around. These caused frightful havoc, one bursting in the engine-room and the other just below the fore turret, and rapidly caused her to capsize. She was before this a battered wreck on deck, practically all her gun crews were killed, and her officers drove the men from the stoke-hole at their sword points to reman the guns. This was told us by the German prisoners aboard, and one or two of them have wounds which they said had been caused by their own officers' swords . . .

The Blücher, which had capsized, was lying awash, with her side just out of the water and men standing on it, while all around there seemed hundreds swimming and drifting in cork jackets toward us. We were very close; in fact, it seemed dangerously so. I shall never forget the sight, nor what followed later. I think it was more affecting than anything Anyway, we started to drag them in up the ship's side, and in this way and by the boats we got 123 on board, while the destroyers also saved a lot. Some were badly burned. We got six officers in the above.

Shortly after we got our boats a terrible sight came along, which was a lot of Germans being swept along in the water and who had evidently drifted off in another direction when we picked the others up. In this case they were sweeping by the ship, and we could only save one or two -- several drowned before our eyes, although having life-belts on. Then the destroyers came up and picked up a lot. By this time our battle cruisers had disappeared after the Germans, and we turned about and started to go for all we were worth back to the Lion, the Indomitable having already gone back. There was, of course, great danger to her from submarines, and it was a very anxious time from Sunday night until we got to Rosyth about 4 a.m. on Tuesday.

An officer of the Sandfly:

We had a beastly night on Saturday; you could not see a thing except at intervals and you had to look out as best you could. Our next ahead's stern light went out and it was an awful job to keep touch with the flotilla. We joined up with the flotilla at 6.50 and at 7 a.m. we sighted some craft in the demi-light on our starboard bow. As the light got better we made out the enemy battle cruisers making our way, and none of us felt very happy as we appeared to be up against a strong force of battle and light cruisers and torpedo craft. I was wet through, having come up quickly without an oil-skin, which I won't do again even though I am a bit late on the forecastle; also suffering a bit from seasickness. I suppose at a pinch one can fight well even though it's on an empty stomach and no sleep and wet through, but I am blowed if you can if you are feeling seasick.

A bit later we made out some heavy ships on our port side (we were steaming north). These might have been Germans for all we knew in the Sandfly. The German ships came on for a bit as we were screening the big ships, being between them and the enemy, but as soon as they caught sight of the Lion and that lot they altered course 16 points and made off towards the Fatherland as quick as they could. We could not get at their flotilla, so we had to form astern of our battle cruisers and leave it to them. After this we were only spectators of the fight.

About 9 a.m. our leading ships fired ranging shots from the fore turrets, but they fell short; about 9.30 it seemed that the enemy were within range, and at 9 45 the Tiger and Lion seemed to be firing their whole broadsides regularly, and about 10 a.m. the Lion, Tiger, New Zealand, and Princess Royal were all in action. It was very hard to see much from where we were, as our bridge was washing down, and one could not keep binoculars dry. As far as we could see our shots were straddling them all right, and theirs seemed to be all around our two leading ships, especially the Tiger. We could not make out the hits, though we knew some shots must be hitting. The light was very good indeed and just suited us, as we could use the superior range of our guns.

I can't say I was very impressed with the action, as it looked just the same as any squadron firing one has ever seen in peace time. I have no doubt it was quite exciting enough, though, in the battle cruisers or to anyone who had not seen ships engaged before. At 11.50 we sighted a Zepp. Our ships seemed to have edged in and headed them off to the northwards a bit. All this time we had been following up astern and only able to look on and watch the flashes and fall of shot. About the progress of the action and damage each side was doing we could tell very little, except that their shooting seemed jolly good.

At 11.10 we came up to the Lion, who had fallen out of the line and was listing a good deal to port. Otherwise she seemed perfectly all right. However, she was obviously out of action, and it did not cheer us up at all as, for all we knew, our other three might be getting the worst of it. The first flotilla boats formed a screen round the Lion and after this we were out of the fighting altogether, and much to our annoyance we had to let the whole concern drift away to the eastward, spitting out flame and smoke at each other quite in the approved style. Our main care was now guarding the Lion from torpedo attack, and we steamed slowly northwest. No one tried to attack us though, as I fancy after Heligoland they are a bit chary of our destroyers. Certainly our new boats are beautiful boats, with three 4-inch guns. The admiral shifted his flag to the Acheron. At 2 p.m. the remainder of our ships appeared astern of us and overhauled us, and the Acheron as she passed signaled that the Blücher was sunk, which bucked us up. Later the Indomitable took the Lion in tow and all destroyers screened her from submarine attack, and we all steamed home slowly. None of our other ships showed the least signs of having been engaged.

The destroyers that went on had the most interesting time, as they saw the Blücher sink and picked up the survivors. Had bombs dropped at them while doing it. They (our destroyers) say the Derfflinger and Seydlitz were both badly on fire and awfully badly knocked about, and they wonder how they managed to steam away, but they have 13-inch armor, which must have saved them.

From a survivor from the Blücher:

Shots came slowly at first. They fell ahead and over, raising vast columns of water; now they fell astern and short. The British guns were ranging. Those deadly waterspouts crept nearer and nearer. The men on deck watched them with a strange fascination. Soon one pitched close to the ship and a vast watery pillar, a hundred meters high one of them affirmed fell lashing on the deck. The range had been found. Dann aber ging's los!

Now the shells came thick and fast with a horrible droning hum. At once they did terrible execution. The electric plant was soon destroyed, and the ship plunged in darkness that could be felt. 'You could not see your hand before your nose,' said one. Down below decks there was horror and confusion, mingled with gasping shouts and moans as the shells plunged through the decks. It was only later, when the range shortened, that their trajectory flattened and they tore holes in the ship's side and raked her decks. At first they cane dropping from the skies. They penetrated the decks. They bored their way even to the stoke-hold.

The coal in the bunkers was on fire. Since the bunkers were half empty the fire burned merrily. In the engine-room a shell licked up the oil and sprayed it around in flames of blue and green, scarring its victims and blazing where it fell. Men huddled together in dark compartments, but the shells sought them out, and there death had a rich harvest.

The terrific air-pressure resulting from explosion in a confined space, left a deep impression on the minds of the men of the Blücher. The air, it would seem, roars through every opening and tears its way through every weak spot. All loose or insecure fittings are transformed into moving instruments of destruction. Open doors bang to, and jamb -- and closed iron doors bend outward like tin plates, and through it all the bodies of men were whirled about like dead leaves in a winter blast, to be battered to death against the iron walls.

In one of the engine rooms -- it was the room where the high velocity engines for ventilation and forced draught were at work -- men were picked up by that terrible Luftdruck, like the whirl-drift at a street corner, and tossed to a horrible death amidst the machinery. There were other horrors too fearful to recount.

If it was appalling below deck, it was more than appalling above. The Blücher was under the fire of so many ships. Even the little destroyers peppered her. 'It was one continuous explosion,' said a gunner. The ship heeled over as the broadsides struck her, then righted herself, rocking like a cradle. Gun crews were so destroyed that stokers had to be requisitioned to carry ammunition. Men lay flat for safety. The decks presented a tangled mass of scrap iron....

The Blücher had run her course. She was lagging lame, and with the steering gear gone was beginning slowly to circle. It was seen that she was doomed. The bell that rang the men to church parade each Sunday was tolled, those who were able assembled on deck, helping as well as they could their wounded comrades. Some had to creep out through shot holes. They gathered in groups on deck awaiting the end. Cheers were given for the Blücher, and three more for the Kaiser. 'Die Wacht am Rhein' was sung, and permission given to leave the ship. But some of them had already gone. The British ships were now silent, but their torpedoes had done their deadly work. A cruiser and destroyers were at hand to rescue the survivors. The wounded Blücher settled down, turned wearily over and disappeared in a swirl of water.

http://www.gwpda.org/1915/dogger.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Shakespear (explorer)

Captain William Henry Irvine Shakespear (29 October 1878 - 24 January 1915), was an English civil servant and explorer who mapped uncharted areas of Northern Arabia and made the first official British contact with Ibn Sa'ud, future king of Saudi Arabia. He was the military adviser to Ibn Saud from 1910 to 1915, when he died in the Battle of Jarrab, against Ibn Rashid.

(...) In January, 1915, at the Battle of Jarrab, Shakespear's friend Ibn Sa'ud asked him to retreat to a place of safety before the fighting began. He declined to do so. He was struck by a bullet and killed. The victorious Rashidis cut off his head. His solar helmet was handed over to the Ottoman authorities and hung on one of the main gates of Medina as proof of the Al Sau'ds' collaboration with the British. His grave can be found in down town Kuwait City near the Al Hamra Tower.

It has been suggested by some authorities, notably St. John Philby, that the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire might have been very differently directed if Shakespear had survived, i.e. the British would have supported and armed Ibn Sa'ud rather than Sherif Hussein ibn Ali.

"His death... was a great loss to his country, but it was a disaster to the Arab cause. It must certainly be reckoned in the small category of individual events which have changed the course of history. Had he survived to continue a work for which he was so eminently suited, it is extremely doubtful whether subsequent campaigns of Lawrence would ever have taken place in the west..."
- Arabia, H. St. John Philby, London (1930), pp 233 - 234.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespear_(explorer)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1915

24th January 1915 - The question of Russian co-operation over the Dardanelles business came up again and I had a long interview with the Grand Duke and Prince Koudacheff.

The former told me that the position in the Caucasus had been considerably eased by Russian successes, and he laid stress on the fact that he had made no suggestion as to the methods we should employ in rendering assistance to draw off the Turks from that theatre, and had never guaranteed any Russian co-operation, glad as they would of course be to give it should opportunity occur.

The Russian General Staff pointed out that their Black Sea Fleet, in view of the delay in building of their dreadnoughts, of the scarcity of their destroyers, and of lack of 'up-to-date' submarines, was only the equal of the Turkish Fleet (including, of course, Goeben and Breslau). Even, they added, that equality would only be reached when all the units could work together, and the absence of one or two of them would at once place the balance -in favour of the Turks. The construction of their ships was such that they could only carry a four days' supply of coal. Coaling at sea was rendered extremely difficult by bad weather and the heavy seas which are met with in winter in the Black Sea. The nearest coaling base was 24 hours' sail from the entrance to the Bosphorus.

However much they wished to co-operate with the British Fleet, their hands were tied.

The strength of Turkish batteries covering the Bosphorus, given the number and calibre of their guns as compared with those of the Russian Fleet, was such as to give very little hope of success for the latter.

The question of military co-operation by Russia, which would be the most efficacious help she could render to the Allied forcesafter the forcing of the Dardanelles - was one she could only undertake at the expense of her forces employed on the principal theatre of war, by the deprival from that theatre of at least two army corps.

Regarding the Caucasus - the absolute defeat of Turkey could not be accomplished there; even the taking of Erzeroum would not effect this.

An improvement in the Black Sea naval forces by the addition of the dreadnought Imperatritza Marie and up-to-date destroyers and submarines could only be effected by the coming month of May.

The Grand Duke laid great emphasis on the importance to the Allied cause of action against Turkey, as the crippling of that country would, of course, have a most telling effect in the Balkans.

He could not promise support, either naval or military, but would naturally use every endeavour, should opportunity present itself, to strengthen the hands of the Allies.

(N.B. - Eventually, of course, it was found that Russia, owing to a conglomeration of difficulties, could give no help in this theatre.)

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From Marie Curie's letters to Irčne Curie

Poperinghe, 24 January 1915
[Near Dunkirk]

Dear Irčne,

After various wanderings, we’ve arrived here, but we can’t make an attempt at working until we’ve made some modifications at the hospital. They want to build a shelter for the car and a partition to create the radiology room in a big ward. That all holds up the work, but it’s difficult to do otherwise. In Dunkirk, German planes dropped some bombs that killed a few people, but the populace is scarcely frightened. At Poperinghe too these accidents happen, but less often. We hear the guns grumbling almost constantly. It’s not raining, a bit of frost. We were welcomed at the hospital with extreme cordiality, I have a nice room and they give me a fire in a stove at the side. I’m better off than at Furnes, I’ll eat at the hospital. With a hug,



http://www.aip.org/history/curie/brief/06_quotes/quotes_12.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

1916, 24 januari - De stoomtrawler 'Plejaden' (IJM 44) van Visserij Maatschappij Praxis uit IJmuiden vergaat op de Noordzee met man en muis, vermoedelijk nadat het schip op een zeemijn moet zijn gelopen.
Bron: 'De Zee' (1916)

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=1&d=24
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the Ambassador in Extraordinary Mission in Constantinople (Wolff-Metternich) to the Reichskanzler (Bethmann Hollweg)

Report - No. 29
Pera, 24 January 1916

In reference to the directive from 12 December of last year - No.949 [ A 35310.]

In response to my protests the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Halil Bey, categorically denied, that any significant number of forced conversions of Armenians to Islam had been attempted. The lower civil servants involved in those reported cases of encroachments had already been punished.

The assurances of the Minister are contradictory to the concurring reports which the Imperial Embassy has been repeatedly receiving concerning this question from different localities and from independent sources.

From the detailed statements of Vice-Consul Kuckhoff in Samsun, which have been confirmed from other sources, it can be concluded that in particular in the districts around the Black Sea the attempts to Islamize the Armenians, partly through persuasion and partly through threats, has been carried out on a very large scale.

Elsewhere, moreover, where numerous Armenians on their own initiative have decided to turn to Islam in order to avoid exile and the confiscation of their property, the authorities have not given any privileges for this gesture and have deported them despite their conversion.

Apparently it is feared that the real purpose of the Armenian deportations, that is the total extermination of the Armenian race, could be thwarted by further mass conversions.

Since then another, less conspicuous way, has been pursued.

In October of last year Consul Büge in Adana reported that the head of the local Turkish orphanage notified to the Christian pupils that in an Ottoman orphanage there was no room for a Christian religion and, therefore, those who did not convert to Islam were to leave the home. Upon hearing this the Christian children, with the exception of 14 young boys who have presumably converted to Islam, left the house.

Furthermore, the Armenian Patriarch informed us here in mid December that in Anatolia they had begun to allocate the female members of the deported Armenian families, whose male members had been murdered or had disappeared, to Moslem villages in groups in order to convert them to Islam. The War Ministry has also ordered all Armenians presently doing military service to become Moslems, and that they should already be given Moslem names, while the actual formalities are to be reserved for later in consideration of the war situation.

Finally, it is claimed that also here in the capital, Turks are often exerting pressure on Armenians so that they convert to Islam. Nevertheless, the number converting in relation to the total number of Armenians in the population is minimal. Apparently up until now only 20 Armenians have embraced Islam, amongst them especially those who are affluent in Anatolia and seek to save their wealth by means of their conversion.

Metternich

http://www.armenocide.de/armenocide/armgende.nsf/$$AllDocs-en/1916-01-24-DE-001?OpenDocument
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

General Staff - Intelligence Section
General Headquarters
The Force in Egypt
Cairo

24.1.16

Tomorrow is mail day, and as that is always a frantically busy one I am going to write to you before going to bed. Nothing much happening this week. The Medforce are now gone away from Cairo, which is a comfort: one could hardly move about for generals: we had 108 in Egypt! There is no real signs of the Turks' coming on. Of course they can see that it would be lunacy now we are so well prepared: just in the first moments of joy, when the Germans joined hand with the Bulgars, and the blockade of Turkey was ended, they thought about conquering Egypt. Now they have got sensible again. It is very difficult for them (lack of camels) to bring more than a small force down. George Lloyd, who came out with us, came back a short while ago, and worked in the Office for a fortnight. A man called Bolland, who is in the Sudan Agency, as a sort of secretary to Clayton, told me today that his people are living at 228 Woodstock Road (new-comers) and suggested that you might like to go and see them. I didn't undeceive him! Miss Bell is going to India for a week end in a few days time. Mr. Hogarth still in London.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1916/160124-family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 17:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

What is the largest temperature change in a 24 hour period?

On January 25th, 1916 residents of Browning, Montana were still adjusting to the largest 24 hour temperature change on record in the U.S.. On January 23rd and 24th, 1916 the temperature fell from a pleasant 44 degrees above zero to a bitter -56 degrees in 24 hours. That's a temperature change of an amazing 100 degrees in 24 hours and that's a record that still stands as the largest 24 hour temperature fluctuation in the U.S. (Source: NOAA's National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office)

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_largest_temperature_change_in_a_24_hour_period
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1st Camel Company [1st Camel Battalion]


Sinai 1916. Sgt Frederick Mercier - Imperial Camel Corps - 1st Camel Battalion [1st Company]. The original of this photo
was badly damaged by the 125 degree heat of the Dead Sea/Jordan Valley - digital restoration took 3 months!


Formed Egypt 24 January 1916 from the 4th and 8th Infantry Brigades. Assigned to 1st Camel Battalion 16 December 1916. Disbanded 25 July 1918. Personnel used to form 14th Light Horse Regiment.
Egypt, Western Desert, Sinai, Palestine

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/ww1/lt-horse/camel_regiments.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry Rawlinson



"In 1915, he was elevated to command of the British First Army but was taken off the front after questioning higher ranks about the tactics being used. Rawlinson was assigned to Gallipoli to organise the withdrawal of Allied forces that had become entrenched there. He performed this task better than others had thought possible and he was recalled to the Western Front to assume command of the Fourth Army on 24 January 1916...
During the war, Rawlinson was noted for his willingness to use innovative tactics. He organised one of the first major night attacks by a modern army in 1916. For a 1918 offensive, he combined attacks by aeroplanes and armoured units with the infantry."

http://www.armchairgeneral.com/forums/showthread.php?p=1719552
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sudirman



General Sudirman (January 24, 1916 - January 29, 1950; also spelled Soedirman) was the military commander of Indonesian forces during the country's fight for independence from the Dutch in the 1940s.

Sudirman was born in Bodas Karangjati village, Rembang, Purbalingga, Central Java, 24 January 1916. He studied at the Dutch Native School in Purwokerto, and then at a Muhammadiyah teacher training college in Surakarta. He worked as a teacher at the Muhammadiyah school in Cilacap.

During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia during World War II, Sudirman trained to become a battalion commander in Peta, the "homeland defense" army promoted by the Japanese. When Japan surrendered and Sukarno proclaimed Indonesian independence, he organized his Peta battalion into a Banyumas-based regiment of the Republican army to resist Dutch reoccupation of its former colony. The first major battle that he led was the Battle of Ambarawa against the British and the Dutch (November-December 1945). On 12 December he led a "coordinated attack" against British positions in Ambarawa, driving the British all the way to Semarang. The battle ended on 16 December.

On 12 November 1945 he was elected Commander-in-chief of the Army, a position he held until his death. During much of the next five years he was sick with tuberculosis, but led several guerrilla actions against the Dutch. He led the resistance to the Dutch attack on Yogyakarta, then the Republic of Indonesia's headquarters, in December 1948. Theodore Friend (2003) describes him as having "...a strangely blended samurai discipline, Marxist disposition, and raw courage."

Sudirman died in Magelang, 29 January 1950 at the age of 35. He was buried in Heroes' Cemetery in Semaki, Yogyakarta. He received the title of National Hero of Indonesia as an Independence Defender Hero. Sudirman was the first and the youngest General in Indonesia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudirman
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ENGLISH POETS: Second Lieutenant Hugh Reginald (Rex) FRESTON...



... born 25 July 1891, Tulse Hill, Surrey. Educated Dulwich College, Exeter College, Oxford. Served with 3rd (Attached 6th) Battalion, Royal Berkshire Regiment. Killed 24 January 1916, buried Becourt Military Cemetery, Becordel-Becourt, France.

~~~ THE QUEST OF BEAUTY AND OTHER POEMS (Blackwell, Oxford, 1915).
~~~ THE QUEST OF TRUTH AND OTHER POEMS (Blackwell, Oxford, 1916).
~~~ Markland, Russell, THE POETRY OF H. REX FRESTON: A PAPER (N. Ling & Co., 1916).

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/listbri2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1916

24th January 1916 - The Emperor much pleased with the visit of Major-General Callwell, who has come over to give us news of our operations in France and elsewhere, a visit which he thought most useful and hoped would be repeated. He said if it was in his power he Would insist on it, so I remarked that now his Majesty was a Field-Marshal of the British Army he had the opportunity.

Callwell is so able, tactful and sensible that he made his visit a complete success.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Byrnes, Sir Thomas Percy Francis (1893 - 1973)

Having declined a teaching post at Wesley in 1915, he enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 24 January 1916 and served on the Western Front with the 3rd Pioneer Battalion.

Suffering from tuberculosis, Byrnes returned home and was discharged on 26 December 1917.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A130372b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Black Sea

(...) In the campaign of 1916 the submarine Tulen, under Senior-Lieutenant Mikhail Kititsin, distinguished herself when she destroyed and captured six steamships, three launches and 21 sailing vessels. In September 1916, Kititsin attacked the heavily armed German transport Rodosto, forced it to surrender and towed it to Sevastopol. In September 1915, Admiral Ebergard hoisted his flag on the Empress Maria, the fleet's newest dreadnought, for its first campaign against the Turks; the powerful ship was fully capable of competing single-handedly against the Geben. On 24 January 1916, the Empress Maria appeared at the head of the fleet off Zongulak, but remained in a screened position since the main blow was delivered by eleven seaplanes from two seaplane carriers. Lying at the pier, the Turkish steamship Irmingard was sunk during the bombardment. (...)

http://www.neva.ru/EXPO96/book/chap11-3.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lajos Széchényi

Count Lajos Széchényi de Sárvár-Felsővidék (German: Ludwig Graf Széchényi von Sárvár und Felsövidék; 28 March 1868 – 14 April 1919) was an Austro-Hungarian diplomat of Hungarian origin serving as envoy to Bulgaria and the Netherlands during World War I.

(...) In 1909, Count Széchényi was selected to lead the diplomatic agency in Cairo with the title of Consul-General and remained in charge until the outbreak of war in 1914 when it was dissolved. During World War I, he entered military service and served in Serbia.[2]

In November 1916, Count Széchényi was appointed Minister of the Dual Monarchy at Sofia to succeed Count Tarnowski who had been appointed Ambassador to the United States. However, he was transferred to The Hague already in January the following year to make place in Sofia for Count Otto von Czernin, the younger brother of the Imperial Foreign Minister Count Ottokar von Czernin, and remained there until the end of the war, being accredited accredited also to Luxembourg.

After having lost much of his estates after the war, Count Széchényi died at Kaltenleutgeben on 14 April 1919 at the early age of 51.

Austro-Hungarian Minister to the Netherlands
In office - 24 January 1917 – 11 November 1918
Preceded by - Karl Freiherr von Giskra
Succeeded by - None

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lajos_Sz%C3%A9ch%C3%A9nyi
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 152, January 24th, 1917.



"I AM THE MAN."

["What is wanted is a moral deed, to free the world ... from the pressure which weighs upon all. For such a deed it is necessary to find a ruler who has a conscience.... I have the courage."
—Extract of letter from the GERMAN KAISER to his Chancellor, dated October 31st, 1916, and recently published in "The North German Gazette."]

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14093/14093-h/14093-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albatros D.III - Germany

Some of the first D.IIIs were supplied to Jasta 11, commanded by Baron Manfred von Richthofen. On January 24th, 1917, when von Richthofen was attacking an F.E.2b, a dangerous crack appeared in the lower wing of his machine. He was able to land safely, but his trust in Albatros designs was temporarily shaken, and he flew a Halberstadt D.II for a time. On the same day two pilots of the Jasta Boelcke were killed through similar wing failures. The source of the trouble lay in the single spar of the lower wing; it was positioned too far back from the leading-edge and tended to twist under stress. The D.III had inherited the structural weakness of the Nieuport Scout!

http://www.aviation-history.com/albatros/d3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Bernard James Glynn

Wednesday, January 24, 1917 - Rose 8:00 Breakfast 8:30 Parade 9:00 Machine Gun 9 - 10:30 & 3:30 - 4:30 Letter from Bert Watts Rc'd a lovely box from Mother/ A big box of chocolates, candy, horseshoe, towel & face cloth. They're always sending me something. How nice it is to be remembered. Goodnight 9:10 Retired

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/glynn/jan1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ernest Borgnine



Ermes Effron Borgnino (Hamden (Connecticut), 24 januari 1917) is een Amerikaanse acteur.

Hij werd geboren als de zoon van Carlo Borgnino and Anna Boselli die uit Italië naar Amerika waren geëmigreerd. Op tweejarige leeftijd scheidden zijn ouders waarna hij vijf jaar lang met zijn moeder in Italië verbleef alvorens zij naar Hamden terugkeerden. Na zijn schoolperiode in deze plaats, besloot hij op achttienjarige leeftijd zich voor de marine op te geven. Hij bleef tien jaar onder de wapenen en nam in 1945 afscheid. Vervolgens ging hij aan de slag in enkele fabrieken. Op een dag vond zijn moeder dat hij het eens moest proberen als acteur, aangezien hij volgens haar een grote uitstraling had.

Hij begon acteerlessen te volgen en speelde in verscheidene toneelstukken. In 1949 kwam zijn doorbraak: hij schitterde in het Broadway-toneelstuk Harvey. Enkele jaren later trok hij naar Los Angeles en begon er te werken aan zijn filmcarričre. Zijn eerste rol kwam in 1951, hij speelde Bill Street in The Whistle at Eaton Falls. In 1955 kreeg hij de rol van Marty Piletti in de film Marty. Hij won voor die rol een Academy Award en dat terwijl de andere genomineerden dat jaar James Dean, James Cagney, Frank Sinatra en Spencer Tracy waren.

Naarmate hij ouder werd, speelde hij vaker rollen in televisieseries of televisiefilms. Ondanks zijn hoge leeftijd is hij nog steeds in films te zien. Zoals Dominic Santini in Airwolf en gastrollen in onder meer Magnum, P.I., The Love Boat, Jake and the Fatman en 7th Heaven.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Borgnine
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Count Georg von Hertling on the Fourteen Points, 24 January 1918

Reproduced below is a summary of Count Georg von Hertling's speech to the German Reichstag on 24 January 1918 on the subject of the Fourteen Points. Count Hertling was appointed German Chancellor following the resignation of Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg and served as essentially a puppet leader acting under direction of the military high command led by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff.

In his 8 January 1918 speech to the U.S. Congress President Woodrow Wilson essentially unveiled the terms under which America would accept a negotiated peace settlement; these quickly became known as the Fourteen Points.

Hertling's initial reaction to Wilson's speech was on the whole conciliatory, indicating a willingness (albeit with caveats) to negotiate for peace along the lines outlined by the U.S. President.

Summary of Count Hertling's Speech to the Reichstag, 24 January 1918

(1) The negotiations at Brest-Litovsk prove "that we are quite ready to accept this proposal [President Wilson's first point, on no secret international agreements] and declare publicity of negotiations to be a general political principle."

(2) There is "no difference of opinion" with Mr. Wilson in respect to his second point, on freedom of the seas; but to realize this it would be well if the fortifications at Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Hong-Kong, and other places should be removed.

(3) The Central Powers are "in thorough accord with the removal of economic barriers which interfere with trade in a superfluous manner" and "condemn economic war."

(4) "The idea of limitation of armaments is entirely discussable."

(5) As to colonies, "Mr. Wilson's principles will encounter some difficulties in the realm of reality," but the "reconstitution of the world's colonial possessions" will "have to be discussed in due time."

(6) In respect to evacuation of Russian territory, "we are dealing with questions which concern only Russia and the four allied [Central] Powers."

(7) "The Belgian question belongs to those questions the details of which are to be settled by war and peace negotiations (Kriegs und Friedensverhandlungen)."

(8) "The integrity of our territory [including Alsace] offers the only possible basis of peace discussion. The occupied parts of France are a valuable pawn in our hands; forcible annexation forms no part of the official German policy."

(9 to 12) Mr. Wilson's points 9 to 12 touch chiefly Austria and Turkey.

(13) "It may be left to Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Poland to come to an agreement on the future constitution" of Poland.

(14) The German Government "is gladly ready, when all other pending questions have been settled, to begin the examination of the basis of... a bond of nations."

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints_hertling.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mary Louise Pickering Thomson diary entry dated 24 January 1918

Jan. [January] 24. Thur. [Thursday]– Very snowy day, stormy at night. Did up wash.
Jen cleaned upstairs floors. Made soldier’s pyjama suit.

http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/diaries/MPT/MPT_1918_0124
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Recipients of the Albert Medal - Individual awards

24 January 1918: Corporal James McCarthy, 1st Royal Irish Regiment. Ain Kanish, Palestine. Corporal McCarthy was cleaning grenades in his quarters when the fuse of one became ignited. He carried it out to throw it into a safe place, but, finding a number of men standing around, he realised that he could not throw it anywhere without injuring his comrades. He clasped the grenade in both hands and held it close to his side. The grenade exploded, killing Corporal McCarthy, who by his devoted courage saved his comrades from serious injury. Buried in Jerusalem war Cemetery, he was awarded the Albert medal in Gold.

http://www.1914-1918.net/grandad/albert.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE SINKING of the Tuscania

The liner Tuscania was delivered to its owners, the Anchor Line, at the beginning of 1915 for the joint service with Cunard from Glasgow to New York via Liverpool. Its maiden voyage on 6 February of that year was on this route which it carried on for the rest of its career. In September 1915, it helped rescue passengers for the Greek Line's ship Athini which had caught fire in the Atlantic.

She first undertook trooping duties in September 1916, carrying Canadian troops from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Liverpool. In August of the following year it brought 1,236 men of the 16th US Engineer Regiment from New York to Liverpool and two more successful voyages followed.

The ship left Hoboken, New Jersey, on her final voyage on 24 January 1918 carrying 2,013 American troops and a crew of 384. She joined Convoy HX-20 at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and proceeded to cross the Atlantic bound for Le Harve.

Lees verder op http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/tuscania.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 18:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Next of Kin Memorial Plaque

(...) Assisted by its specialist 'artistic' sub-committee, the ninth meeting of the General Committee arrived at a decision on 24 January 1918. Approval for the winning design was subsequently obtained from the Admiralty, War Office and the King. At the same time the design of the memorial scroll and its text were being considered in detail. The minds of the contemporary literary world were ransacked in an effort to obtain a satisfactory elegiac formula. According to the late Miss Rose Coombs, former Librarian at the Imperial War Museum, the solution came via the good offices of Sir Vincent Baddeley, the Admiralty representative on the General Committee, who sought permission to consult the Provost of King's College, Cambridge, Dr Montague Rhodes James. Sir Vincent remembered that he was supplied with a draft wording by return of post.

The results of the competition were officially announced in The Times for Wednesday 20 March 1918, the day before the beginning of the German 'Kaiserschlacht' offensive on the Western Front.



The prize-winning design - a description

Edward Carter Preston's prize-winning design (the Imperial War Museum holds an original model in plaster, catalogue reference MEDP/3) comprises the figure of Britannia, classically robed and helmeted, standing facing right, holding a modest laurel wreath crown in her extended left hand and supporting a trident by her right side with her right arm and hand. In the foreground a male lion stands facing right; the animal was originally described as 'striding forward in a menacing attitude' which may explain its unusually low profile.

'Menacing' or otherwise, the proportions of the beast, earlier queried by Sir Frederick Ponsonby (on behalf of King George V), deeply upset many including the officials at Bristol's Clifton Zoo.18 Above the lion's head was a blank rectangular panel in which the name of the deceased would 'by an ingenious method of casting' be inserted. To the right of Britannia's head and by the side of her right arm is a small sinuous dolphin, a reference to British sea-power and one that recalls the use of that same animal (in the singular) by Pegram in his prize-winning Jutland medallion.

At the lower right edge is a branch of oakleaves and acorns. The standard text is arranged around the edge of the piece: 'HE+DIED+FOR+FREEDOM+ +AND+HONOUR'. Within the exergue, in symbolic confrontation, a lion pounces on an eagle: a reference to the desired destruction of the Central Powers. Incorporated from Carter Preston's second model entry the exergue's contents had necessitated a personal interview between Sir Charles Holmes and the artist in London in January 1918. The original concern of Sir Charles Henry MP at the last meeting of the General Committee was that the German eagle should not appear too hopelessly humiliated. He argued that the imagery was anticipatory and potentially unhelpful with regard to future, post-war relations - admirable sentiments which were reiterated by Charles Marriott in the April 1918 issue of Land and Water. On the mass-produced plaques made available for distribution E Carter Preston's initials were embossed above the lion's right forepaw and a number (possibly an operative's or Ministry of Munitions factory number) was impressed by the animal's right rear paw.

http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.992/setPaginate/No
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

E. Belfort Bax: "The Law of Maximum" (24 January 1918)
Justice, 24th January 1918, p.8. (letter)

Dear Comrade, – “Tattler” has recently challenged me to show the margin of profit of retail prices over cost of production. The figures for this I am unable to give on an adequate scale for the moment, but here is an item I have just come across which may serve him to go on with: – Rice costs fr.15 per 100 kilogrammes in Indo-China; freight costs approximately fr.15; the wholesale price in France ranges about fr.180 per 100 kilos, while the retail price is from fr.220 to Fr.260.

As regards present war prices, a friend of mine was relating to me the other day a conversation he had recently had with a general importer in a large way of business at Marseilles who, on the subject of the high prices, smiled amiably at the idea of people being surprised at the state of affairs. He expressed himself facetiously as inclined to think that common instincts of human nature lay at the bottom of the trouble, the present time being an unusual opportunity for middlemen to turn to their advantage and one to which it was scarcely to be expected the average business man would close his eyes.

Now “Tattler” will hardly deny that even in normal times the “average business man” has precisely the same instincts as he has in war time, though maybe without such a rich field to gratify them. What I contend then is that, short of the elimination of the possibility of gratifying this instinct by the complete transformation of the capitalist into the Socialist system of production, distribution, etc., the only means of effectively curbing this instinct of the “average business man” whether wholesaler or retailer, is the application of a drastic Law of Maximum along the whole gamut of intermediaries between production and consumption, with severe penal sanctions for its infringement. The course of events during the last three years has more than ever confirmed me in this view which I have always held.

I cannot help suspecting that those who squirm at the notion of coercing the “business man” by a generally applied Law of Maximum are consciously or unconsciously influenced by their bondage to the ideas of John Bright and the Manchester school of the last century anent the wickedness and futility of laying a sacrilegious hand on the sacrosanctity of industrial and commercial profiteering. – Yours fraternally,

E. Belfort Bax

http://www.marxists.org/archive/bax/1918/01/maximum.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Self-determination"

Self-determination first appeared in The Times after its initial usage by Lloyd George (but before Wilson’s take) when depicting the Austrians as denying self-determination to the Czechs (24 January 1918) and Poles (9 February).

http://www.princeton.edu/~lisd/publications/abulof_workingpaper09.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Congress of the Communist International: "Letter of Invitation to the Congress"
First published: in Pravda and Izvestia on 24 January 1919

Dear Comrades,

The undersigned parties and organisations consider that the convening of the first congress of the new revolutionary International is urgently necessary. During the war and the revolution, not only has the complete bankruptcy of the old social-democratic parties, and with them the Second International, been glaring, not only has the incapacity of the intermediate elements of the old social democracy (called the ‘centre') to take effective revolutionary action become manifest, but it is further possible to see the outlines of the real revolutionary International taking shape at present. The very rapid rise of the world revolution, which constantly poses new problems, the danger of strangulation of this revolution under the hypocritical banner of the ‘League of Nations’, the attempts of the social-traitor parties to join together and further help their governments and their bourgeoisies in order to betray the working class after granting each other a mutual ‘amnesty’, and finally, the extremely rich revolutionary experience already acquired and the world-wide character of the whole revolutionary movement – all these circumstances compel us to place on the agenda of the discussion the question of the convening of an international congress of proletarian-revolutionary parties.

1. Aims and Tactics

Acknowledgment of the following principles, established in the form of a programme and drawn up from the programmes of the Sparcatus League in Germany and the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Russia, should in our view, serve as the basis for the new International.

1 The present period is that of the decomposition and collapse of the entire world capitalist system, and will be that of the collapse of European civilisation in general if capitalism, with its insurmountable contradictions, is not overthrown.

2 The task of the proletariat now is to seize State power. The seizure of State power signifies the destruction of the State apparatus of the bourgeoisie and the organisation of a new apparatus of proletarian power.

3 The new apparatus of power must represent the dictatorship of the working class and, in certain places, also that of the small peasants and agricultural labourers; it must, that is to say, be the instrument for the systematic overthrow of the exploiting class and its expropriation. Not false bourgeois democracy – that hypocritical form of domination of the financial oligarchy – with its purely formal equality, but proletarian democracy, with the possibility of realising the freedom of the toiling masses; not Parliamentarianism, but the self-administration of these masses by their elected bodies; not capitalist bureaucracy, but organs of administration created by the masses themselves, with the real participation of the masses in the administration of the country and in the activity of Socialist construction – that is the type of State the proletarian State should be. The power of the workers’ councils or the workers’ organisations is its concrete form.

4 The dictatorship of the proletariat must be the lever for the immediate expropriation of Capital, the abolition of private ownership of the means of production and its transformation into social property.

The socialisation (by this is meant the abolition of private property, which is handed over to the proletarian state and the socialist administration of the working class) of large-scale industry and the banks, its organising centres; the monopolisation of trade; the socialisation of big properties in the cities and large rural estates; the introduction of workers’ administration and the centralisation of economic functions in the hands of bodies representing the proletarian dictatorship – these are the essential problems of the day.

5 For the security of the socialist revolution, for its defence against its internal and external enemies, to help other national fractions of the fighting proletariat, etc., the complete disarming of the bourgeoisie and its agents, and the general arming of the proletariat, are necessary.

6 The world situation now requires the closest contact between the different parts of the revolutionary proletariat and the complete unity of the countries in which the revolution has triumphed.

7 The basic method of struggle is the mass action of the proletariat, including open struggle, arms in hand, against the state power of capital.

II. Relations with the ‘Socialist’ Parties

8 The Second International has split into three main groups: the avowed social-patriots who, throughout the imperialist war of 1914-1918, supported their own bourgeoisie and transformed the working class into the butcher of the world revolution; the ‘centre’, whose principal theoretician is Kautsky, and which represents a conglomeration of constantly wavering elements incapable of following a definite guiding line, and sometimes acting as real traitors; finally, the Left, revolutionary wing.

9 In relation to the social-patriots who everywhere, at the critical moment, fight the proletarian revolution arms in hand, only implacable struggle is possible. In relation to the ‘centre’, the tactic consists of detaching the revolutionary elements from it; criticism must be ruthless in order to expose its leaders. At a certain stage of development, an organisational break with the centre is absolutely necessary.

10 It is further necessary to ally with those elements of the revolutionary movement which, although they did not in the past belong to the Socialist Parties, today stand on the whole on the ground of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the form of council power. It is principally the syndicalist elements of the labour movement who are concerned here.

11 Finally, it is necessary to win over all those proletarian groups or organisations which, although they have not openly rallied to the revolutionary current, are nevertheless displaying a trend in that direction in their evolution.

12 Concretely, we propose that the representatives of the following parties, tendencies and groups should participate in the congress (fully-fledged members of the Third International will be parties of a different type which will place themselves wholly on its ground):

1 The Spartacus League (Germany).
2 The Communist Party (Bolshevik) (Russia).
3 The Communist Party of German Austria [Founded 3 Nov. 1918 in Vienna].
4 The Hungarian Communist Workers’ Party [Founded 14 Nov. in Budapest] .
5 The Finnish CP.[2]
6 The Polish Communist Workers’ Party [Founded 16 Nov. 1918 in Warsaw].
7 The Communist Party of Estonia [Founded in 1918].
8 The Latvian CP [Founded in 1918].
9 The Lithuanian CP [Founded in 1918].
10 The Byelorussian CP [Founded in 1918].
11 The Ukranian CP [Founded in 1918].
12 The revolutionary elements of the Czech Social-Democratic Party [3]
13 The Bulgarian Social-Democratic Party (Tesnjaki).
14 The Rumanian SDP.
15 The Left wing of the Serbian SDP.[4]
16 The Swedish Left SDP.
17 The Norwegian SDP.
18 For Denmark, the Klassenkampen group.
19 The Dutch CP.
20 The revolutionary elements of the Belgian Workers’ Party.[5]
21 and 22 The groups and organisations within the French socialist and syndicalist movement. [6]
23 The social-democratic Left of Switzerland.[7]
24 The Italian Socialist Party. [8]
25 The revolutionary elements of the Spanish SP.[9]
26 The revolutionary elements of the Portuguese SP.[10]
27 The British socialist parties[11] (above all, the current represented by MacLean).
28 Socialist Labour Party (Britain).
29 Industrial Workers of the World (Britain).
30 I.W. of Great Britain.
31 The revolutionary elements and workers’ organisations of Ireland.[12] 32 The revolutionary elements among the shop stewards (Britain).[13]
33 SLP (America).
34 The Left elements of the SP of America” (the tendency represented by Debs and the League for Socialist Propaganda).
35 IWW (America).
36 IWW (Australia).
37 Workers’ International Industrial Union (America).
38 The Socialist groups of Tokyo and Yokohama (represented by Comrade Katayama).
39 The Socialist Youth International (represented by Comrade Munzenberg).


III The Question of Organisation and the Name of the Party

13 The Third International’s basis is provided by the fact that in different parts of Europe groups and organisations of co-thinkers have already been formed which place themselves on a common platform and employ largely identical methods and tactics. These are, in the first place, the Spartacists and the Communist Parties of many other countries.

14 In order to achieve permanent liaison and methodical leadership for the movement, the congress will have to create a common fighting body, a centre of the Communist International, subordinating the interests of the movement in each country to the common interests of the revolution internationally. The concrete forms of organisation, of the delegations, etc., will be worked out by the congress.

15 The Congress will have to take the name of the ‘First Congress of the Communist International’, with the different parties becoming sections of the latter. At the theoretical level, Marx and Engels already considered the term ‘social democrat’ to be mistaken. The shameful collapse of the social-democratic International demands a break in that respect as well. Finally, the basic nucleus of the great movement is already constituted by a series of parties which have already taken this name. As a function of all these considerations, we propose to all fraternal organisations and parties to place on the order of the day the question of the convening of the international Communist congress.

With our socialist greetings.

The Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik): Lenin, Trotsky.
The Overseas Bureau of the Communist Workers’ Party of Poland: Karski.
The Overseas Bureau of the Communist Workers’ Party of Hungary: Rudnyanszky.
The Overseas Bureau of the Communist Workers’ Party of German Austria: Duda.
The Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Latvia: Rozin.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Finland: Sirola.
The Executive Committee of the Balkan Revolutionary Social-Democratic Federation: Rakovsky.
For the SLP (America): Reinstein.

Footnotes
2 Founded 29 August 1918 in Moscow by Finnish revolutionaries who took refuge in Russia after their defeat in the civil war.
3 These Left elements were organised into competing groups: Alois Neurath’s German social-democratic group, and the Left wing of the Czech social democrats led by former ‘social-chauvinist’ Bohumir Smeral (1880-1941). The Czech Communist group established a short-lived Communist Party in May 1919.
4 The leaders of the Serbian Social-Democratic Party were considered to be ‘on the Left’ in spite of the somewhat pro-Allied attitude of their representatives Kaclerovic and Popovic at the third conference of the Zimmerwald Association in Moscow. There was also a left-wing minority in the Croat Party and Communist groups in Budapest and Moscow.
5 This refers essentially to the Socialist Young Guard, whose bastion was the Brussels Federation led by War Van Overstraeten (born 1891).
6 The formulation was cautious as the situation was complex: the group closest to the Bolsheviks was the ‘Loriot group’, which came out of the Zimmerwald Left and was the nucleus of the left-wing minority in the Socialist Party; but it was also necessary to take into account the anarcho-syndicalist Trade-Union Defence Committee, whose organiser, Raymond Pericat, launched the newspaper L'Internationale a few weeks after the appeal and founded a ‘Communist Party’ at the end of May. In addition there were the revolutionary syndicalists around Monatte and Rosmer who were once more engaged in publishing La Vie 0uvriere, as well as those elements radicalised by the war who set up the Republican Association of Ex-Servicemen and the Clarte groups. The different French groups joined together in the Committee for the Resumption of International Relations, which became the Committee for the Third International in May.
7 This term actually embraced different groups: Fritz Platten, from the left of the Party, attended the Congress, but so did Katscher, delegated by the anarcho-Communist group Die Forderung. Other proto-Communist nuclei were organised around figures such as Jules Humbert-Droz and Jakeb Herzog.
8 The rise of the labour movement in Italy was one of the most spectacular in Europe and the Party leadership had adopted a ‘maximalist’ attitude.
9 These forces were still very scattered: mention should be made of Mariano Garcia Cortes’s Nuestra Palabra (Cortes had worked for the German Embassy), Daniel Anguiano Mangada, who had been in contact with Trotsky in 1916, and above all the Madrid Young Socialists. The attraction of the Third International was also very strong inside the C.N.T.
10 This organisation, founded in 1875 by Gneco and the Portuguese internationalists under the influence of Paul Lafargue, had dwindled into a tiny group even before the war. In fact there was no trace of a left-wing tendency within the PSP, whose October 1919 conference refused to take a position on the question of affiliation to the Third International, and no member of the PSP participated in the founding of the Communist Party (1921), which was created by anarcho-syndicalists.
11 The highlighting of Maclean was to have its own irony: Maclean, the only British socialist known to the Bolsheviks for his working class internationalism during the war (for which he suffered imprisonment) was never to join the CPGB. The principal organisations involved in unity discussions towards the formation of the CPGB were the Independent Labour Party (which in its majority remained centrist), the British Socialist Party (the lynch pin of the whole operation but with a right wing which left it to remain within the Labour Party), the Workers’ Socialist Federation (Sylvia Pankhurst’s small but vigorous and proletarian group which could never agree with the BSP leaders and the International leadership on the twin questions of parliamentarianism and affiliation to the Labour Party), the Socialist Labour Party (a cadre organisation of De Leonist lineage which was inflexibly hostile and sectarian towards the BSP in particular and most other organisations as well, but which was able to provide the early CP with four of the latter’s early leaders – MacManus, Bell, Murphy and Paul), the South Wales Socialist Society, and even, for a time, the National Guilds League. Of those forces which finally made up the initial membership of the CPGB, the majority came from the BSP, the largest minority from those who had broken from the SLP.
12 Homage to the two organisations founded by James Connolly (1868-1916), the Irish Socialist Republican Party and the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union. Both were being severely hit by repression but were still in existence.
13 It was in the shop stewards’ movement during the war that men who were later to become leaders of the CPGB (Murphy, MacManus, Gallacher) made their names.
14 Founded in 1901, the SP had, since November 1918 been going through a severe crisis when its Slav federation in Chicago formed (without splitting) the League for Communist Propaganda, led by Rozin and Rutgers, while its Latvian federation in Boston founded the paper Revolutionary Age, edited by Louis Fraina, an ex-member of the SLP who had joined the SP. In February 1919 this paper published a manifesto of the ‘left section’ of the Party, which included as one of its best known members the journalist John Reed (1887-1920).


http://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/1st-congress/invitation.htm[/i]
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Buchanan (Destroyer # 131) - At Boston, Massachusetts, 24 January 1919



http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-b/dd131.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

300 consecutive loops

Friday, January 24, 1919 -- Army Air Service pilot 1st Lt. Temple M. Joyce makes 300 consecutive loops in a Morane fighter at Issoudun, France.

http://www.afa.org/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry S. Harkness Dies of Influenza
Owner of the Sheepshead Bay Speedway Was Son of Late Standard Oil Man, Yachtsman and Aviator, He Sued the Government for $401,250 for Loss of Wakiva II., Said to Have Sunk Submarines

THE NEW YORK TIMES, FRIDAY, JANUARY 24, 1919

Harry S. Harkness, only son of the late Lamon V. Harkness, one of the biggest stockholders in the Standard Oil Company, from whom he inherited a large fortune, died last night at his home, 270 Park Avenue, of influenza. He was 38 years old.

Mr. Harkness was President of the Harkness Estates, Inc., and was owner of the Sheepshead Bay Speedway. He was President of the Sheepshead Bay Corporation from its organization until 1916, when he resigned, and on May 2, 1917, he bought the property under a foreclosure sale for $1,300,000.

Harry Harkness formerly owned the U. S. S. Yacht Wakiva II., which was sunk in European waters in May of last year in a collision with a navy cargo carrier. It was said last night that the yacht had sunk three German submarines. In February of last year, Mr. Harkness filed suit in the United States Court of Claims, Washington, for $401,250, which he asserted was the difference between the real and appraised value of his yacht, which was taken over by the Navy Department. The Government appraised the vessel at $265,000, of which amount Mr. Harkness accepted 75 per cent, in part payment and then entered suit for the remaining $401,250, which he claimed should have been paid. The vessel was appraised four times by the Government before the price was fixed.

Mr. Harkness was the holder of many automobile records and was also an amateur aviator of note. In September, 1910, he had a narrow escape from death when his Antionette monoplane crashed to the ground with him at the Mineola Aviation field. Mr. Harkness was elected President of the National Speedway Association in 1916. In September of last year Mr. Harkness, who was then living at the Hotel St. Regis, was sworn in as a Colonel in the Police Reserves, and served on the staff of Special Deputy Police Commissioner Rodman Wanamaker.

With his sisters, Mrs. Myrtle Macomber and Mrs. Lela Edwards, Mr. Harkness inherited a large share of the $150,000,000 estate left by his father.

Mr. Harkness was twice married. His first wife, Misa Marie M. Marbeck, he married in 1906 and divorced in 1916. His second wife, who survives, was Mrs. Florence Steuber Gaines of Erle, Penn., a daughter of Louis Steuber, a shipbuilder. She divorced her first husband only a short time before her marriage to Mr. Harkness.

Died - Harkness, - Harry S., aged 38, beloved husband of Florence S. Harkness and only son of the late L.V. Harkness, at his residence, 270 Park Ave., at 7:45 P.M., Jan. 23, 1919, at 11 o'clock. Notice of funeral hereafter.

http://earlyaviators.com/eharknes.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Formation Of Local Union 666

Local Union 666 was chartered on May 28, 1910. At that time the International had 400 Local Unions with a membership of 7,250. As of January 2007, Local Union 666 has approximately 1,300 members.

The first meeting of Local Union 666 was at Spark’s Hall, 712 East Broad Street. The meeting dates were the first and third Wednesdays of each month. The first officers were F.A. Fry, President; E.W. Lipscomb, Financial Secretary; P.P. Pollard, Recording Secretary.

The few electricians belonging to Local Union 666 had a difficult struggle until January 1919. At the end of 1918, the scale was .75 per hour for Journeymen Wiremen. The Local decided to ask for an increase to $1.00, but the contractors refused, which resulted in a strike called for on January 3, 1919. One contractor paid the new scale for one day, but pressure was put on him and he told his employees he wanted to pay the increase but he couldn’t.

On January 24, 1919 the men that were on strike organized Union Electric Company. During that time there was a fire at the News Leader Plant (the area newspaper). Union Electric was successful in obtaining the job for the striking electricians. Union Electric employees agreed to put 25% of their wages back into the company to help finance the business. Union Electric Company had a total capital of $1,158.20, as of January 24, 1919. Through June 1919, the Union Electric Company had done $17,000.00 of business and paid out $7,000.00 for labor. Out of the 85 men affected by the strike, only 9 scabbed.

http://www.ibewlocal666.com/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winchelsea war memorial



The decision to erect a memorial was taken at a public meeting in Winchelsea on 24 January 1919, organised by an ad hoc committee under churchwarden, Mr Charles Campion, and was funded by public subscription. It was dedicated on 7 November 1920 by the Earl Beauchamp, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

http://www.winchelsea.net/war.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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