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4 Januari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jan 2006 6:43    Onderwerp: 4 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 4

1913 Alfred von Schlieffen dies


German Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen, mastermind of an aggressive German military strategy that will soon be used, in modified form, at the start of the Great War, dies on this day in 1913 in Berlin.

The son of a Prussian general, Schlieffen entered the army in 1854 and participated in both the Seven Weeks’ War with Austria in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. Over the next few decades, Schlieffen rose through the ranks of the Great General Staff, an elite corps of about 650 officers that served as the strategic nexus of the Prussian army. He became its chief in 1891.

In the years since the end of the Franco-Prussian War and the German alliance agreement with Austria-Hungary in 1879, Schlieffen’s predecessors, Alfred von Waldersee and Helmuth von Moltke (known as “Moltke the elder”—his nephew, also named Helmuth, would serve as the General Staff’s chief during the Great War), had worked on developing a potential military strategy to fight a future two-front war against France and Russia. When Schlieffen took over, he continued these efforts, seeing such a war as an ever-more distinct probability. The planning was prescient. France and Russia—an unlikely match, given one’s status as a progressive democracy and the other’s as a tyrannical monarchy—did indeed join together in an alliance of their own in 1894, largely in response to the German threat.

Schlieffen believed that Germany’s best bet was to engage France first, attacking through Belgium and Holland and enveloping western France before finally taking Paris, decisively ending France’s status as a great power. Meanwhile, a smaller German army would hold off Russia in the east—Schlieffen believed Russia would not be able to mobilize its forces quickly enough to provide a formidable challenge. This strategy, outlined in an informal memorandum Schlieffen wrote in late 1905, near the end of his tenure as chief, came to be known as the Schlieffen Plan.

Less than two years after Schlieffen’s death, the German army, under the command of his successor, Helmuth von Moltke (“the younger”), invaded Belgium on its way to France, violating that country’s neutrality and effectively turning a smaller conflict into a general European war and eventually a global one.

The failure of the Schlieffen Plan to quickly and decisively achieve Germany’s aims in the latter part of 1914 was variously attributed to flaws inherent in the plan itself and to its faulty execution under Moltke, who significantly modified the outline set forth by Schlieffen, declining to invade the Netherlands and refusing to significantly weaken his army on the Eastern Front for the sake of a quick victory in the west. In fact, the combination of the plan’s tight timeline; a French resistance that was stronger than expected; Russia’s quick and effective mobilization; and the general difficulty of moving and supplying the German troops and carrying out effective communications on such a grand scale in the west, proved to be too difficult and the decisive strategy envisioned by Schlieffen and put into practice by Moltke gave way to the reality of a longer and more grueling conflict.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jan 2006 6:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 4. Januar

1914

1915
Die Kämpfe um Steinbach
Eine Rechtfertigung der Beschießung der englischen Küstenplätze
Ein Erlaß des Königs von Bayern
Die Kämpfe in Galizien
Der Papst und die Kriegsgefangenen

1916
Jaunde in Kamerun von den Engländern besetzt
Erneute Mißerfolge der Russen in Ostgalizien

1917
Die Dobrudscha fast ganz vom Feinde gesäubert
Neue Kämpfe am Sereth
Der englische Truppentransportdampfer "Ivernia" versenkt

1918


http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Mark



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jan 2006 10:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1

4 januari 1917

Peresviet [of Peresvyet], Russian, Peresviet class Pre-Dreadnought Battleship. Mine laid be a German submarine off Port Said.

Bron: World War 1 naval Combat



Afbeelding: Battleships.Spb.ru
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War did not seem at all inevitable in early 1914 and on 4 January 1914 The News of the World even ran a story on “Our New and Cordial Relations with Germany”.

http://www.ampltd.co.uk/collections_az/PopNewsI-1/description.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

4 January 1915 - The Russians defeated a large Turkish army in the Caucasus at Sarikamish. The battle was fought in a temperature of 30 degrees below zero and more than 30,000 Turks froze to death. Before this, the Russians had asked the British to stage a diversion against the Turks to draw them away from Russia.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-february-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary, Edward P. Cox

Monday Jan 4 1915 - Battalion training commenced 8 am to 3 pm. (Formations preliminary to battle)

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilhelmina op 4 januari 1915 op bezoek in Limburg



http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/wilhelmina-in-oorlogstijd/wilhelmina-1915/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

4 januari 1915 - Bezoek gekregen uit Waregem met een echte voorraad nieuws. De hoeveelheid juist maakt de keus moeilijk.

Grote opschudding te Oostrozebeke waar een Duitse schildwacht vermoord gevonden werd. De bevolking verkeert in angst om 't geen er als straf en vergelding te wachten staat in geval de plichtige niet gevonden wordt. Want de nieuwe rechtspraak gaat nu van heel andere princiepen uit als vroeger. Gebeurt er iets verkeerd, of is er een deugniet die een beestigheid1 uitricht, dan valt de verantwoordelijkheid op al de brave burgers en op de overheid eerst, die als gijzelaars borg staan...

In Waregem en omstreken leiden de soldaten een lustig leven met de meisjes en de vrouwen uit de herbergen... (das ewig weibliche...) tot grote verontwaardiging van de eerlijke geburen die hun korzeligheid verbijten om 't geen ze zien moeten, met de inwendige troost: dat het uur van de vergelding eens zal slaan en we 't genoegen zullen beleven... meineed, verraad en bedorven zeden met de kogel gestraft te zien. Er zijn inderdaad heel typische gevallen die al de bestaande wetten en overtuigingen inzake volkskarakter en psychologie omvergooien. Bij 't beschieten van Sint-Eloois-Vijve, in oktober 1.1., toen alleman reeds gevlucht was, komt er een zatte smid uit zijn huis die uitdagende gebaren maakt en daarom door de Duitsers werd doodgeschoten. Nu is alles reeds zover vergeten bij de weduwe van bedoelde smid, dat er in haar huis alle dagen groot gelag gemaakt wordt met muziek en gezang door Duitse soldaten die daar hun geld verteren. Vrouwen die hun man in 't Belgisch leger hebben, schijnen helemaal de eerste notie vergeten te zijn van 't geen de omstandigheden van hun staat vereisen. En hoeveel jonge meisjes die bij 't afscheid van hun teergeliefde, de plechtigste belofte van getrouwheid hebben afgelegd, gedragen zich nu met onvaderlandse en schaamteloze lichtzinnigheid. Hoeveel van ons jongens, die met 't goed geloof en 't vaste vertrouwen, in de loopgrachten liggen en dromen aan 't geen ze hier achterlieten, zijn bij hun allerliefste vervangen door de makkers van deze waarop hun geweer gemikt ligt?? Een Duitse soldaat - alhoewel hij er ook aan meedoet en zijn deel neemt in 't plezier - verklaarde mij dat het infaam was en dat men slechts in België zulke vrouwliën kon aantreffen. Ik zou het sterk betwijfelen en ik wacht maar om een besluit te nemen tot ik vernemen kan hoe het in andere landen en bij andere volkeren gegaan is. Het menselijke, en bijzonderlijk het vrouwelijke, is van aan de evenaar tot aan de pool, overal hetzelfde, zou ik denken, - alleen de vorm en manieren kunnen wat verschillen. Hetgeen de Ecclesiast1 en de profeten uit de oudheid uitgegalmd hebben over de zotheid van de mensen en 't bederf van de wereld, is toepasselijk op al de volkeren die geleefd hebben en leven zullen. En 't is daarom dat alwie het vastenavond-spel waaraan de mensenkinderen, geslachten na geslachten, hier meedoen, maar enigzins uit een zekere hoogte beschouwen kan, eerder door medelijden getroffen wordt dan door verontwaardiging; - zodat ik denk dat God de Vader zelf, het zo kwalijk niet nemen zal als dat de ‘brave’ lieden het wel menen en wensen zouden.

De ernstig-zware stem van het kanon doet vreemd in die zotte wereld.

Als men maar alles vergeten kon, aan niets meer denken en al het gebeurende aan zich laten voorbijgaan alsof het op een vreemde planeet voorviel, - als men zich maar verdiepen kon in geestesarbeid... Ik denk er dikwijls aan: hoe ik verleden winter nog, rond deze tijd, heel de wereld en alles wat bestond, ontvlogen was, om alleen maar dag aan dag, met mijn werk bezig te zijn in 't genoegen van het ongestoord te zien groeien. Hoe rustig afgezonderd, hoe veilig en ver van alle gewoel, dat we hier zaten en met 't gedacht dat het eeuwig zo blijven moest. Denken aan 't verleden is ziekelijk en ontzenuwend; van de tijd moeten we nemen 't geen hij ons brengt en... ‘In das, was unabänderlich ist, fügt man sich, sagt der Vernünftige.’

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ilustração Portugueza, No. 463, January 4 1915



http://www.flickr.com/photos/gatochy/2502282591/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Facey

Albert Barnett Facey (31 August 1894 – February 1982) was an Australian writer, whose main work was his autobiography A Fortunate Life, now considered a classic in Australian literature. (...)

On 4 January 1915, immediately after the outbreak of the First World War, Facey joined the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). As an infantryman with the 11th Battalion, he travelled to Egypt and fought during Gallipoli Campaign. Two of his brothers, Roy and Joseph, were killed during the campaign and Albert Facey was wounded at least twice. In August 1915, he was evacuated due to "heart trouble" (although the complaint was discovered many years later to have been a ruptured spleen) and invalided to Australia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Facey

"I have lived a very good life, it has been very rich and full. I have been very fortunate and I am thrilled by it when I look back.''
- A. B. Facey

http://www.australiantelevision.net/fortunatelife/facey.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 January 1916 → Commons Sitting

OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THE FRONT
.

HC Deb 04 January 1916 vol 77 cc789-90 789

Sir CHARLES HUNTER asked the Under-Secretary of State for War if, considering the decision to allow the official photographs from the front to be shown as' films in public places, he will consider the possibility of obtaining from the French Government leave to exhibit their films showing the work of their troops?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Tennant) I am not aware of any restriction upon the exhibition of French Government films.

Sir C. HUNTER Will the right hon. Gentleman make inquiries of the French Government if he can have these films?

Mr. TENNANT The matter rests entirely as a commercial matter upon the laws of supply and demand. If there is a demand for them, undoubtedly they will be produced.

Sir C. HUNTER Would it not be much more educational to people here if they had films of the real fighting?

Mr. TENNANT I am all in favour of carrying out what the hon. and gallant Gentleman has in view. I am only uncertain as to the manner in which His Majesty's Government could act to that end.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/jan/04/official-photographs-from-the-front
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

General Staff - Intelligence Section
General Headquarters
The Force in Egypt
Cairo

4.i.16

Another blank week. Reconstruction of Staff here is still going on. The latest idea is to turn us all out in favour of the Medforce Staff. We'll see. In any case I expect now to stay here for a time at least. No signs of Turks near the Canal; indeed they are not working very hard at their preparations. On the West the little flare up seems nearly over: a damp squib, the Senussi. I can get no news of Dahoum: indeed I am afraid to send and ask. Most of the men (and boys) from that district have been sent to Constantinople, where they still are. Few have been in firing lines as yet. Had the Arabs been a little more interested in the things of this world they would have been a nation by now: Your last mail this time went swimming. I hope there was nothing important.

Very cold here today: no fire-places in Egypt. [five words omitted] I'm longing for touch with decent Arabs again. There is a very heady old Shammar, and an Aneyze, and a Beni Temim townsman from Boreida, who comfort me. Miss Bell is doing great work for me.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1916/160104_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Robert Borden's "Toy Automata" Letter

4 January 1916, Documents on Canadian External Relations, Volume I, 1908-1918, Department of Externals Affairs. Ottawa, 1967.

It can hardly be expected that we shall put 400,000 or 500,000 men in the field and willingly accept the position of having no more voice and receiving no more consideration than if we were toy automata. Any person cherishing such an expectation harbours an unfortunate and even dangerous delusion. Is this war being waged by the United Kingdom alone, or is it a war waged by the whole Empire ? If I am correct in supposing that the second hypothesis must be accepted then why do the statesmen of the British Isles arrogate to themselves solely the methods by which it shall be carried on the various spheres of warlike activity and the steps which shall be taken to assure victory and a lasting peace ?

It is for them to suggest the method and not for us. If there is no available method and if we are expected to continue in the role of automata the whole situation must be reconsidered...

http://www.histori.ca/peace/page.do?subclassName=Document&pageID=369
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Sheikh Sa'ad, 1916

In the aftermath of the British defeat at the Battle of Ctesiphon in November 1915, and the humiliating withdrawal to Kut-al-Amara, British commander Sir Charles Townshend (heading the 6th (Poona) Division) found his force besieged by some 10,500 Turkish forces on 7 December.

He consequently sent out urgent appeals for a relieving force. The regional British Commander-in-Chief Sir John Nixon - for whom much of the blame for Townshend's situation could be apportioned - responded promptly.

Having learnt from Townshend that his force had no more than two months of food supplies available to them at Kut, he assembled a relief force under General Aylmer, boosted by the arrival of three new Indian infantry divisions. These were despatched post haste to the British forward base at Ali Gharbi, some 200km upriver from Nixon's Basra HQ.

Aylmer found progress however difficult to achieve, with the British force suffering - as ever - from shortages of available transport, river and road. Nevertheless he set off with 19,000 troops, 46 guns, three monitors and two aircraft on 4 January 1916. (...)

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/sheikhsaad.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Turkey in the First World War - Financing the War

1915 was the year of heavy fighting in several fronts, which meant that financial sources were drying up and new ones were needed. On 4 January 1916, the government borrowed 20 million Liras from Germany in the form of treasury bonds that were to be used as collateral for the Third Series banknotes that were to be printed with a total value of 10.9 million Liras. By that time, the paper money was in a constant state of losing value in the market. The public could not now the real value of the banknotes they were holding and gold Liras were in great demand. The value gap between gold and banknotes was increasing and to make things worse, different denominations in circulation was creating problems in calculations. (...) This practice of borrowing from Germany in treasury bonds and printing banknotes by using them collateral continued during the course of the war.

http://www.turkeyswar.com/economy/finance.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Duncan Chapman



According to Charles Bean, the Australian Army official war historian, Lieutenant Duncan Chapman was the first man ashore at Gallipoli.

On the morning of 25th April 1915, the Queensland 9th Battalion were the first troops to reach the shore. It was reported by Mr. Kemp, the battalion scout, that there was already a boat ashore before the shooting really started, but that several men in the boat had been wounded. He reported that Lieutenant Chapman was the first man ashore. The official war records of the battle confirm this.

On the 26th April he was promoted to Captain in the 9th Battalion and later wrote a letter from Gaba Tepe to his brother about the horrors of war.

Duncan Chapman fought throughout the Gallipoli Campaign, being reported missing once, but was eventually repatriated with the rest of the troops to Egypt. Like many troops he had caught influenza and was transferred to hospital in Cairo.

On the 4th January 1916, Duncan Chapman was promoted to Temp Major while waiting at Serapeum to embark for Marseilles. The troops proceeded to Bailleul and he was again promoted to Major in the 45th Battalion on the 24th June 1916. His troops moved to the front near Pozieres, France, where on the 6th August 1916, he was killed in action.

http://www.maryboroughmuseum.org/anzacs.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sergeant Ethelbert Clarence Grainger, Welsh Horse, 4th January 1916.



He is pictured sat upon a camel in front of the pyramids, in Egypt only days after evacuating Gallipoli. The note identifies his colleagues, "Sergts: Russell, killed in action 2 7 1916. Ethelbert Clarence Grainger. Burchell, severely wounded. Wright, killed in action 4 7 1916".

http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/sites/history/pages/alun_edwards.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilfred Owen: Letters

To Susan Owen

4 January 1917
Address. 2nd Manchester Regt. B.E.F.

My own dear Mother,

I have joined the Regiment, who are just at the end of six weeks' rest.

I will not describe the awful vicissitudes of the journey here. I arrived at Folkestone, and put up at the best hotel. It was a place of luxury — inconceivable now — carpets as deep as the mud here — golden flunkeys; pages who must have been melted into their clothes, and expanded since; even the porters had clean hands. Even the dogs that licked up the crumbs had clean teeth.

Since I set foot on Calais quays I have not had dry feet.

No one knew anything about us on this side, and we might have taken weeks to get here, and must have, but for fighting our way here.

I spent something like a pound in getting my baggage carried from trains to trains.

At the Base, as I said, it was not so bad. We were in the camp of Sir Percy Cunynghame, who had bagged for his Mess the Luke of Connaught's chef.

After those two days, we were let down, gently, into the real thing, Mud.

It has penetrated now into that Sanctuary my sleeping bag, and that holy of holies my pyjamas. For I sleep on a stone floor and the servant squashed mud on all my belongings; I suppose by way of baptism. We are 3 officers in this 'Room', the rest of the house is occupied by servants and the band; the roughest set of knaves I have ever been herded with. Even now their vile language is shaking the flimsy door between the rooms.

I chose a servant for myself yesterday, not for his profile, nor yet his clean hands, but for his excellence in bayonet work. For the servant is always at the side of his officers in the charge and is therefore worth a dozen nurses. Alas, he of the Bayonet is in the Bombing Section and it is against Regulations to employ such as a servant. I makeshift with another.

Everything is makeshift. The English seem to have fallen into the French unhappy-go-lucky non-system. There are scarcely any houses here. The men lie in Barns.

Our Mess Room is also an Ante and Orderly Room. We eat & drink out of old tins, some of which show traces of ancient enamel. We are never dry, and never 'off duty'.

On all the officers' faces there is a harassed look that I have never seen before, and which in England, never will be seen — out of jails. The men are just as Bairnsfather has them — expressionless lumps. We feel the weight of them hanging on us. I have found not a few of the old Fleetwood Musketry party here. They seemed glad to see me, as far as the set doggedness of their features would admit.

I censored hundreds of letters yesterday, and the hope of peace was in every one. The Daily Mail map which appeared about Jan. 2 will be of extreme interest to you.

We were stranded in a certain town one night and I saved the party of us by collaring an Orderly in the streets and making him take us to a Sergeants Mess. We were famishing, and a mug of beer did me more good than any meal I ever munched. The place was like a bit of Blighty, all hung with English Greetings and Mistletoe.

As I could I collected accoutrement, some here, some there, and almost am complete; Steel Helmets, & Gas; improved Box Respirator, and cetera.

The badge of the Regt. is some red tabs on the shoulder thus .



I scarcely know any of the officers. The senior are old regulars. The younger are, several, Artists! In my room is an Artist of the same school as I passed. He is also a fine water-colour sketcher. I may have time to write again tomorrow. I have not of course had anything from you.

I am perfectly well and strong, but unthinkably dirty and squalid.
I scarcely dare to wash.
Pass on as much of this happy news as may interest people.
The favourite song of the men is

'The Roses round the door
Makes me love Mother more.'


They sing this everlastingly.
I don't disagree.

Your very own W.E.O. x

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/education/tutorials/intro/owen/letters.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bruce Sloss

Bruce Moses Farquhar Sloss (21 January 1889 – 4 January 1917) was an Australian rules footballer who played as a follower with Essendon and South Melbourne in the Victorian Football League (VFL), and with Brighton in the Victorian Football Association (VFA). (...)

Sloss enlisted in 1915, and was trained as a machine-gun officer. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant on 17 January, 1916, and was assigned to the 10th Machine Gun Company, First A.I.F. (the unit in which his oldest brother Roy also served). The Unit arrived in England in July 1916. Whilst the Unit was in camp (on 3 September), Sloss was promoted to Lieutenant. (...)

Sloss died instantly, behind the lines near Armentières, when a German shell landed near him, exploded and showered him with white-hot shrapnel on 4 January 1917. He was 27. He is buried at the Cité Bonjean Military Cemetery, Armentières, in Northern France.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Sloss
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VFL/AFL_players_who_died_in_active_service
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frederick Courteney Selous

Frederick Courteney Selous was born in 1851 in London and from an early age developed an obsession for the old day explorers like Livingstone himself. At the age of 19 Selous landed at a South African port and was determined to make a name for himself as a hunter/explorer. The indefatigable Selous had a strength, stamina and passion that was unrivalled and with only limited funds he took on the great outdoors. During his wanderings, Selous discovered several butterfly species and recorded valuable information regarding natural history and conservation, as well as befriending some of the times most influential characters such as Theodore Roosevelt the 26th president of the United States.

During the first world war, at around the age of 60, Selous joined the 25th Royal Fusiliers in which he made Captain due to his extensive bush knowledge and hunting experience on foot. Responsible for pushing the Germans out of that area of Tanzania or Tanganyika as it was then known as Selous met his end on the 4th of January 1917 when he was shot by a German soldier. He was 66 years old and is now buried at the base of the Beho Beho hills in the Northern Sector of the reserve.

http://www.selous.com/selous-safari-camp

Frederick Selous


Frederick Courteney Selous, c.1911

Frederick Courteney Selous DSO (31 December 1851 - 4 January 1917) was a British explorer, officer, hunter, and conservationist, famous for his exploits in south and east of Africa. His real-life adventures inspired Sir H. Rider Haggard to create the fictional Allan Quatermain character.[1][2] Selous was also a good friend of Theodore Roosevelt, Cecil Rhodes and Frederick Russell Burnham. (...)


Selous (front seated) leader of H Troops of Bulawayo Field Force, Matabeleland, 1890s.

In World War I, at the age of 64, Selous participated in the fighting in East Africa, rejoining the British Army. He was promoted Captain in the uniquely composed 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers on 23 August 1915, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order on 26 September 1916, the citation read:

Capt. Frederick Courteney Selous, Royal Fusiliers.
For conspicuous gallantry, resource and endurance.
He has set a magnificent example to all ranks, and the value of his services with his battalion cannot be over-estimated.


On 4 January 1917, Selous was fighting a bush-war on the banks of the Rufiji River, against German colonial Schutztruppen, outnumbered five-to-one. That morning, in combat, during a minor engagement, while creeping forward, he raised his head and binoculars to locate the enemy, and was shot in the head by a German sniper. He was killed instantly.

Shortly after, General von Lettow-Vorbeck, known as "The Lion of Africa", the supreme commander of the German colonial army, and himself an admirer of Selous, wrote a personal condolence note, apologizing for the "ungentlemanly death" of Selous at the hands of the German Army.

His close friend, American president Theodore Roosevelt, upon getting the news, wrote:

He led a singularly adventurous and fascinating life, with just the right alternations between the wilderness and civilization. He helped spread the borders of his people's land. He added much to the sum of human knowledge and interest. He closed his life exactly as such a life ought to be closed, by dying in battle for his country while rendering her valiant and effective service. Who could wish a better life or a better death, or desire to leave a more honourable heritage to his family and his nation?

He was buried under a tamarind tree, nearby the place of his death, in today's Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania, in a modest, flat stone grave with a simple bronze plaque reading: "CAPTAIN F.C. SELOUS D.S.O., 25TH ROYAL FUSILIERS, KILLED IN ACTION 4.1.17."

Exactly a year later, on 4 January 1918, his son, Captain Frederick Hatherley Bruce MC, was killed as pilot with Royal Flying Corps, in a flight over Menin Road, France.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Selous
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI: Letters from the Trenches

4th January 1917, from Reg Knight to (?) his Sister

4.1.17

My Dearest Sister

Once again I am sending you a few lines to tell you that I have received and to thank you for the nice parcell you so kindly sent to me, you are indeed a Gem, (hope Charlie won’t mind) pleased to say everything arrived in good condition and was very welcome, even the soaps from Cecil, thanks also for the Shirts, if I was to thank you for all the nice things you sent, I should keep on for quite a long time. Perhaps you will understand me when I say that I was more than pleased, but really dear, I did not expect it for I know that you at home are having hard times. Mind and thank Charlie for I know he had a hand in it.

Well we have started 1918. getting on are we not? And I still live in hopes of this year seeing the last of this war, you at home I know wish the same. By the way what sort of a time did you have at xmas? A good one I hope., how I wish that I could have been there with you. Never mind, there is always hopes. While we still keep above ground, What sort of weather are you having in Blighty? Its fine out hear, but better there or so we think. And how is Charlie getting on?

I sent you a F.C. yesterday as soon as I got your gift for I know you would be ancious till you heard that I got it, my word it was packed well. It reached here in a better condition than a lot that were in boxes.

Say Sis, have you heard from Elsie of late. She seems to like London with its …?riches?…, why I don’t know she also thinks that I shall soon be home.

By the way give my kindest regards to Mrs Marshall, does she still pass the eggs over the wall, should just like two now, again I shall live in hopes of seeing some of the good times over again, what a lot of time we shall have to make up.

Must draw to a close sincerely hoping these few (lines) find you and all at Home in the pink of condition, also hoping to hear from you again soon.

I Remain with Best
love to All
Reg
Cecil x

http://www.petergknight.com/warletters.html
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant Colonel Albert Leane

(...) In 1921 the people of Dernancourt had come to honour one grave in particular in the Communal Cemetery, that of Lieutenant Colonel Albert Leane in Row A, Grave 5. Leane, a member of a prominent South Australian family that had distinguished itself in the war, died of wounds from a shell burst on 4 January 1917. (...)

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/dernancourt/

"The fighting Leanes of Prospect" circa 1916



The five Leane brothers, who all served in the First AIF. From Left to Right, standing: Major Ben Leane (48th Battalion, Killed in Action 10 April 1917), Lieutenant Colonel Ray Leane (CO of the 48th Battalion), WO I Ernest Leane (27th Battalion). Sitting: Major Edwin Leane D.A.D.O.S. 2nd Australian Division), Major Allan Leane (CO of the 28th Battalion, Killed in Action 4 January 1917)

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/2/gallipoli/anzacshell.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shot Unjustly, Unlawfully: Edwin Leopold Arthur Dyett



Nearly 350 British and Commonwealth soldiers were executed by firing squad during the First World War. Only three officers suffered a similar fate, one of which was for murder. Of the two who were tried for desertion, the case of Edwin Dyett, in particular, cries out for justice. Expressions of disquiet by rank-and-file soldiers, who wondered why cowardice and desertion were confined to the lower ranks, may have unwittingly prompted the top brass to look for a scapegoat amongst their own. Was Dyett unlucky enough to have been a naval, rather than an army officer?

In October 1916, in the aftermath of the disastrous Somme offensive [60,000 men killed, wounded or missing in one day], Haig ordered that more officers be shot for cowardice, rather than be sent home for rest and recuperation within the cosy bosom of their family. This evidence, only recently discovered, demonstrates his misguided preoccupation with extreme measure to suppress fear and panic among the officer class. His sentiments quickly became dramatic reality with the imminent executions of Second-Lieutenant Eric Skeffington Poole and Sub-Lieutenant Dyett. Quite remarkably, thereafter and for the rest of the war, Haig's orders appeared to have been totally ignored. For the rank-and-file, however, their precarious situation remained unabated.
The son of a Merchant Navy Captain, Edwin Leopold Arthur Dyett was born on 7 October 1895. The family lived at Albany Road, Roath, Cardiff. After enlisting in the Royal Navy Voluntary Reserve, he was commissioned on 24 June 1915. Within eighteen months, he faced the ignominy of a Court Martial and execution.

Twenty-one years of age, he was totally inexperienced in combat and even confessed his uncertainty of leadership. He was initially held in immediate reserve on the front line. In common with other naval officers, he had requested a transfer back to the Naval Reserve. He felt his nerves and temperament were unsuited for trench warfare. In all likelihood, some senior officers resented him.

He first arrived in France and joined his battalion in May 1916. On 13 November, however, he was given indirect orders via Lieutenant Truscott in puzzling circumstances by a Lt-Commander who had little faith in his character and abilities. Dyett recalled it was only, "...after a lot of trouble", that Truscott disclosed his orders. They were instructed to join up with the battalion at a trench known as the "Green Line".

Some three hours later, and before reaching it, they met Sub-Lieutenant Herring, an unpopular officer, who was in charge of an ammunition dump and supply line. Acting Petty Officer Aimes was with him. It was a meeting with fatal consequences. Herring ordered Lieutenant Truscott to take charge of some stragglers and return them to the front line. He told Dyett to follow up behind.

There was a heated exchange between Dyett and Herring, who questioned his authority to give orders to a senior rank. Owing to the confusion of the situation, Dyett decided to return to his Brigade HQ for fresh orders. In the meantime, Truscott went off with about 45 men and reached the front line about an hour later.

The moment Herring returned to base, he made an official report that resulted in Dyett being arrested and subsequently accused of desertion in the face of the enemy. There is no evidence he anticipated these consequences.

Later, in evidence before the Court Martial, Herring denied there was any ill-feeling between him and Dyett. This was never challenged, but privately Dyett considered him "... his one and only enemy". He had previously caught Herring sneaking a woman into their training camp at Blanford, Dorset.

For 42 days, Dyett was held under close arrest spending his time censoring Company letters. One month into his arrest he wrote confidently to a friend. He had no wish to worry his parents about the situation and had told them nothing. He was certain the evidence against his was not strong enough to even, "...cause a sitting." Later, on Christmas Eve he wrote again explaining what had happened and imploring his friend not to worry. "Things are one-sided just now,” he remarked, "but as soon as I have my little say in the matter it will alter their colour altogether."

Less than 46 hours later, on Boxing Day and with barely half an hour to prepare his defence, he formally faced his accusers. He was charged on two counts. First, that he had deserted for two days between 14 and 15 November 1917 and second, was guilty of cowardice.

In a remarkable change of fortune, Dyett's defence that he was genuinely lost for about 24 hours when he reported to Lieutenant-Commander Egerton at Englebelmer took a nose-dive. And this despite the fact other witnesses could testify he was lost.

He was represented by Sub-Lieutenant Cecil Trevanion, a qualified solicitor, who did more harm than good. He might as well have been the prosecutor.

Eight witnesses gave evidence for the prosecution. The story that unfolded was that Dyett had received instructions via Truscott on 13 November to reach a trench called "Green Line". Before reaching it they met Herring when a dispute arose about him giving orders to more senior officers. By this time, it was getting dark, shelling was going on and men from mixed companies were retreating in fog and confusion. It was said that Dyett indicated he intended returning to Battalion HQ for fresh instructions.

Brigadier-General Lewis Francis Phillips had received information about Dyett. On 15 November, he sent for and questioned him. Not satisfied with his replies, he then placed him under arrest.

But the evidence of one witness may have proven vital. Acting Petty Officer Aimes, another unpopular individual, supported Herrings testimony word for word. It was as if they had practiced it beforehand.

He, however, went one step further when he said, "Accused did not look as if he was afraid or in a funk. He looked as if he wanted to get out of it." This was a remarkable statement, which was underscored in red in the court papers. It may have been the coup de grace that sealed Dyett's fate.

Tragically, it appears, he did not apply to give evidence himself, had no wish to call any witnesses and did not want to say anything in his defence.

The line of defence was that the accused officer had reported to Lieutenant-Commander Egerton on 14 November, but had showed great lack of initiative in failing to grasp the altered instructions. He was highly neurotic in temperament and felt unfit for his position as an officer and was astounded at the terrible state of chaos near the front line. His solicitor concluded there was no evidence of desertion. Under the court procedures, nothing in this statement could be tested for its veracity. It is a mystery beyond comprehension as to why Egerton and other witnesses were not called by the defence.

Concluding the case for the prosecution, the Judge Advocate stressed the accused had been absent between the 14 and 15 November. He went on to emphasize that the court should be satisfied as to his intention to desert his duty. If they concluded his actions resulted from a mistake or error of judgment that would not amount to intent.

With this, Dyett and his representative were excluded from the hearing as it went into closed session. They found him guilty of only the first charge of desertion.

They sentenced him to be shot at dawn, but recommended mercy owing to his youth, inexperience of operations and the confusing circumstances.

In what might be considered a Freudian slip, General H Gough recommended Dyett be executed on the basis, "If a private had behaved as he did in such circumstances, it is highly probable that he would be shot." Field Marshall Douglas Haig merely noted, "Confirmed" on the file.

In the meantime, Dyett knew nothing of this until the evening of 4 January 1917. At 7:45 pm he was interrupted whilst playing cards with two fellow officers. He was told of the Death Warrant. Within minutes a Padre joined him so he could make his peace with God. With no consideration of an appeal and only hours to live he wrote the following letter.

"Dearest Mother Mine, I hope by now you will have had the news. Dearest, I am leaving you now because He has willed it. My sorrow tonight is for the trouble I have caused you and dad. Please excuse any mistakes, but if it were not for the kind support of the Rev. W.C. --- who is with me tonight, I should not be able to write myself. I should like you to write to him, as he has been my friend. I am leaving all my effects to you, dearest; will you give a little --- half the sum you have of mine? Give dear Dad my love and wish him luck. I feel for you so much and I am sorry for bringing dishonour upon you all. Give --- my love. She will, I expect, understand - and give her back the presents, photos, cards, etc., she has sent me, poor girl. So now dearest Mother, I must close. May God bless and protect you all now and for evermore. Amen."

At 7:30 am on Friday 5 January 1917, Edwin Dyett was shot at St: Firmin, France. His body was then quickly removed to a cemetery a few miles away and quietly buried.

His father, Commander W.H.R Dyett, was devastated when this cruel news reached him. He began a campaign to clear his son's name, but failed to follow it through. All his correspondence with the War Office (now the Ministry of Defence) has vanished. Embittered and full of despair, he renounced his British citizenship and took his family to America to be lost to the fortunes of history.

Three important questions arise from this story. Did Dyett receive justice? Was he guilty of desertion and should he have been shot?

Ignoring the fact he had a cast iron defence, a card, which presumably he was advised by Trevanion not to play, was there evidence of an intention to desert an important duty over a two-day period? This Webmaster's view is that Dyett's action, predicated on inexperience, immaturity and confusion, show serious mistakes and errors of judgment. They are the very reasons the court used to argue clemency against execution, when in fact they should have been used with regard to their finding of guilt. In that respect the court failed.

Judge Babington, an acclaimed expert, was the first to gain access to the official records at the Public Record Office. He penetratingly observed that the courts hadn't the foggiest idea on how to sentence. He remarked, "... again and again they imposed the death sentence and illogically again and again they recommended mercy." In spite of the imperfections of the defence, it might be added they had little idea of how to evaluate evidence objectively and with a sense of justice. Throughout the war, higher legal military authority remained sullen, self-satisfied and silent.

Army regulations stipulated that Dyett should have been medically examined before trial. This was not done. Again, the court can be criticised for its enthusiastic expediency. Regulations also demand that he should have been served with a summary of evidence before the trial so that he could prepare to challenge his accusers. No such summary is on the file. If there was no summary on file, how could the Judge Advocate, whose job it was subsequently to check the legality of proceedings, deem that Dyett had received a fair trial?

And then there's the question of his status as a naval rather then army officer? Whilst he was subject to army regulations, he also came under the authority of the Admiralty. The Navy should have approved sanction of the death penalty. The Army did not consider this additional requirement, and had they have sought it; it would not have been given.

There's even a mystery regarding his death certificate that remains unexplained.

Dyett clearly did not receive justice, was not guilty of desertion and should not have been shot.

Let Leonard Sellers, the author of "For God's Sake Shoot Straight!” which recounts Dyett's execution, have the last word, "He was a victim of circumstances and timing: a pawn in the wider game of war; expendable, unworthy and tainted with failure; the last officer to die for lack of backbone and moral fibre in the annals of British military history, and a naval officer to boot."

To this day, his story continues to haunt the army establishment and is an unparalleled blemish on British legal military justice.

http://www.shotatdawn.info/page15.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New York Times, January 4, 1917

On the first day of New York State’s legislative session, a bill is introduced to give women in the state the right to vote.

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9901E6D71438EE32A25757C0A9679C946696D6CF via http://www.herstoryscrapbook.com/1917/1917.Jan.p1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mata Hari


Mata Hari, 1912

In 1912, she performed in Gluck's opera Armide and Antonio Marceno's ballet Bacchus and Gambrinus at the prestigious La Scala in Milan. In May 1914, she began rehearsals for a new show in Berlin, but the outbreak of the First World War prevented the show from opening. In 1916, she had an affair with Major Arnold Kalle, a German spymaster who set her up to be discovered by the Allies as a spy, though she had not given up any sensitive information to the Germans. On 4 January 1917, she returned to Paris. In January 1917, the German military attaché in Madrid transmitted radio messages to Berlin describing the helpful activities of a German spy, code-named H-21. French intelligence agents intercepted the messages and, from the information they contained, identified H-21 as, Mata Hari.

http://ann-lauren.blogspot.com/2009/08/19-20th-cent-mata-hari.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

REPORT BY STALIN TO THE ALL-RUSSIAN CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ON THE INDEPENDENCE OF FINLAND, 4 January 1918

The other day representatives of Finland approached us with a request for the immediate recognition of Finland's complete independence and for confirmation of the fact of its separation from Russia. In reply the Council of People's Commissars decided to accede to this request and to issue a decree on the complete independence of Finland, which has already been published in the press.

Here is the text of the decisions of the Council of People's Commissars:

In reply to the request of the Finnish Govermnent for recognition of the independence of the Finnish Republic, the Council of People's Commissars, in full accord with the principles of the right of nations to self-determination inclusion of these territories within the Russian State, but only to secure to them real freedom to determine for themselves the questions of their internal constitution and external relations. The Russian Republic will feel itself secure against attempts to drag it again into territorial disputes and conflicts only when it is convinced that the frontier separating it from neighbouring territories has been drawn by the free will of the peoples living along that frontier and not forcibly imposed by one side, only temporarily in a position to stifle that will.

If the task is understood in this sense it presupposes previous agreement between Germany and Austria-Hungary on the one side, and Russia on the other, on four fundamental points:

i. The extent of the territory in which the population will be called upon to exercise the right of self-determination.
ii. The general political principles that will govern the decision as to the constitutional destiny of the territories and nations concerned.

iii. The nature of the provisional regime to be established pending the final constitution of the Governments of these territories.

iv. The manner and form in which the population of these territories will be called upon to express their will....

For its part, the Russian delegation suggests the following possible answers to these questions:
I. Territorial

The right to self-determination belongs to the nations as a whole, and not merely to those parts at present in the occupied zone, as contemplated in article 2 of the German proposal. Accordingly the Russian Government, on its own initiative, proposes that the right to self-determination shall also be exercised by those parts of the nations concerned which lie outside the occupied zone. Russia undertakes not to coerce these territories, by direct or indirect means, into accepting a particular form of government, nor to restrict their independence by concluding any fiscal or military convention before the final establishment of these territories on the basis of the political self-determination of the peoples inhabiting them.

The Governments of Germany and Austria, in their turn, categorically affirm that they make no claims of any kind for the inclusion within Germany or Austria-Hungary of territories of the former Russian Empire now occupied by their troops, nor for socalled 'frontier rectifications' at the expense of these territories, and, in like manner, they undertake not to coerce these territories, by direct or indirect means, into accepting a particular form of government, nor to restrict their independence by concluding any fiscal or military conventions before the final establishment of these territories on the basis of the political self-determination of the peoples inhabiting them.

II. The question of the future destiny of the self-determining territories shall be decided in conditions of complete political freedom, and in the absence of any kind of external pressure.

Consequently, voting should be held after the withdrawal from these territories of foreign troops and after the return of refugees and evacuated persons to their homeland. The time-limit for the withdrawal of troops is to be set by a special commission, according to the conditions of transport, supplies, etc., obtaining in the circumstances of an unfinished world war. Law and order in the self-determining territories are to be maintained by the national troops and the local militia.

Full freedom and material assistance to return to their homeland are to be given to refugees as well as to the inhabitants of these territories who were forced to abandon their homes during the war.

III. From the moment when peace is signed until the final constitution of the Governments of these territories, the internal administration within their frontiers, the management of local affairs, finances, etc., is to be transferred to the provisional bodies to be established by agreement among those political parties which proved their vitality among the people concerned before and during the war. The primary task of these provisional representative organs of the people, besides maintaining the normal course of social and economic life, should be to organize the future plebiscite.

IV. The final decision as to the constitutional status of the territories concerned and their internal political structure will be taken by means of a referendum of the entire people.

In order to expedite the work of the peace conference, the Russian delegation considers it of the utmost importance to receive from the German delegation a precise answer to all the questions raised in the present statement. The remaining questions could be examined after a decision has been taken on these basic points.

http://www.marxistsfr.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/January/4b.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 03 Jan 2011 21:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOTE FROM TROTSKY TO THE PERSIAN GOVERNMENT ON THE WITHDRAWAL OF TROOPS FROM PERSIA, 4 January 1918

I have received a note from the Persian Charge d'Affaires in Petrograd which runs: 'I consider it my duty herewith to bring to your notice that the Persian Government, being duly informed of the contents of article IS! of the Armistice agreement concluded at Brest on ~ [I5] December, the text of which is given above, has authorized me to enter into negotiations for the withdrawal of troops from Persia with the appropriate Russian body authorized to conduct such negotiations, and that, according to a dispatch from the Teheran Government received by the Persian Embassy in Petrograd, identical instructions were sent at the same time to the Persian Ambassador in Constantinople to open negotiations on the withdrawal by the Turkish Government of Turkish troops from Persian territory. In communicating the above, the undersigned begs to be informed as soon as possible of the day and hour when negotiations for the evacuation of Russian forces from Persia can be opened....'

In regard to this matter I suggest that it is necessary:

1. To work out a general plan for the withdrawal of Russian forces from Persia in the shortest possible time, and to propose to Turkey, both through the Persian Government and directly through the Turkish delegation at Brest-Litovsk, to co-ordinate their plan for the evacuation of Turkish troops with the Russian plan.
2. To begin immediately the withdrawal of those detachments whose presence in Persia serves no military purpose, and which were used to occupy Persian territory.

3. To recall from Persia the Russian military mission, acting in the capacity of instructors of the Cossack brigade.

4. To appoint commissars immediately to the Russian authorities in Persia, for the purpose of explaining to the various detachments in Persia the general political situation in Russia and the meaning of our new foreign policy, which is based on respect for the rights of all peoples, regardless of their strength or weakness. These commissars to take measures to protect the Persian population from any affront or violence on the part of the less conscious elements of the army.

5. To take steps to secure the provisioning of the Russian army while they remain in Persia, laying as light a burden as possible on the poorer sections of the Persian population.

I should be glad if you would inform me with the least possible delay of the practical steps you consider it possible to take in the direction indicated.

The greatest speed is necessary in this matter in order to wipe out as quickly as possible the effects of the acts of violence perpetrated by Tsarism and bourgeois Russian Governments against the Persian people.

http://marxistsfr.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/January/4.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMHS Rewa



HMHS Rewa (His Majesty's Hospital ship) was a steamship originally built for the British-India Steam Navigation Company, but requisitioned for use as a British hospital ship during the First World War. On 4 January 1918, she was hit and sunk by a torpedo from the German U-boat U-55. (...)

On 4 January 1918, Rewa was returning to Britain from Malta with 279 wounded officers aboard. Neutral inspectors from Spain had boarded the ship in Gibraltar to confirm that she had no military function. At 11:15, she was hit by a torpedo 19 mi (31 km) off Hartland Point. The ship took around two hours to sink allowing all wounded and ship's crew to board lifeboats except for the four engine men who died in the initial explosion.

AftermathThe sinking of the ship caused outrage in Britain. The German high command denied sinking the ship, instead blaming the explosion on a loose British mine. However, German naval command had entered "total war" in a desperate effort to win the war. In implementing total war, the naval command secretly ordered U-boat captains to sink any Allied ship, including hospital ships, even though it violated Hague Convention X. However, the captain of U-55 — perhaps fearing the consequences of his actions — wrote in the ship's log that he sank a cargo vessel and not a brightly-lit and painted hospital ship. After the war, Wilhelm Werner was hunted by Allied command in an effort to charge him for war crimes, but he disappeared, thus avoiding a trial.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMHS_Rewa
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oswald Veblen



During the First World War he served first as a captain, later as a major in the army. He sought a commission in the Ordnance Department in the spring of 1917 and was appointed to the Office of Ballistics Research at the new Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. After basic training during the summer of 1917, he arrived at the Proving Ground on 4 January 1918. Veblen headed the Division of Experimental Ballistics which was the mathematical research facility at the Proving Ground. He began collecting data on the range of a 2.95 inch gun. He then worked on the problem of transferring raw data into tables of results and for this he had a staff of men to undertake the lengthy hand calculations. He employed Joseph Ritt to take charge of these computers. His work led to new ballistics theory.*

http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Veblen.html
Zie hiervoor: D A Grier, Dr Veblen takes a uniform. Mathematics in the First World War, Amer. Math. Monthly 108 (10) (2001), 922-931.
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The sinking of H.M.Y. Iolaire - 1 January 1919

The Glasgow Herald, 4th January, 1919
" An old man sobbing into his handkerchief with a stalwart son in khaki sitting on the cart beside him, the remains of another son in the coffin behind --- that was one of the sights seen today as one of the funeral parties emerged from the barrack gate. Another, an elderly woman, well dressed, comes staggering down the roadway and bursts into a paralysis of grief as she tells the sympathisers at the gate that her boy is in the mortuary. Strong men weeping and women wailing or wandering around with blanched, tear stained faces are to be seen in almost every street and there are groups of them at the improvised mortuary".

http://www.adb422006.com/iolaire.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Riga's First Totalitarian Regime, January 3 – May 22, 1919

The following entries are from the diary of Baroness Angelika von Korff (24 years old, an
ethnic German, like 13% of the population of Riga, part of the upper class).


3 January, 1919
A fateful day! The bolsheviks have arrived....In the morning it looked sad enough out on the
streets...there was shooing everywhere, and bodies....That evening we dared to go back out on
the streets. The bolsheviks were everywhere, standing in groups or up on their horses. Some
had wild faces ran down the street and broke into the house at Antonien Street
10...Everywhere you see the red flag, everywhere the animal-like, brutal faces with dirty
strains of hair on their foreheads. Housekeepers run out of their houses and greet the riflemen
happily, others join their forces. The sight was so grotesque, we went back home. I now have
the definite feeling that an avalanche has come over us, nobody cares about us, nobody thanks
us, we have sunk into misery...Maybe it is for the best as we can learn what is really
important. The good Lord let it happen. It must be for our good.

4 January, 1919
During the morning there was a search of the Kalning house. They had found out that he had a
lot of cloth. They came and took it all. The truck was parked out front, and was loaded up
with all the best material which had been given to him for safe keeping by others. He lost
75,000 rubles worth of goods. Erika and I have hidden everything of value, money and gold. I
sewed my broach into a dress. On the streets there are posters with orders on them. You're
only allowed to have a limited amount of food. Another problem. We have way too many
potatoes and too much flour. We ran our heels off getting it distributed to friends.

http://hatlie.de/pdf/korff.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sausalito News, Volume 35, Number 1, 4 January 1919

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cdnc/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=SN19190104&e=-------en-logical-20--1-----all---
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jan 2011 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919)

4 January 1919 - Commission of NRL decrees new President of the Province of Poznań, Wojciech Trąmpczyński. German authorities call for boycott of new President.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Greater_Poland_Uprising_(1918%E2%80%931919)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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