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27 December

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Dec 2005 7:00    Onderwerp: 27 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 27

1918 Poles take up arms against German troops in Poznan


In the wake of the German defeat, members of the People’s Guard, the Polish military organization, joined by a number of volunteers—many of them veterans of the Great War—take up arms against the occupying German army in the major industrial city of Poznan.

At the beginning of World War I, close to three-quarters of Poland was under the control of Russia; the remainder of the country was ruled by Germany and Austria-Hungary. The start of war between Russia and the Central Powers, then, saw Poles fighting for both sides. With the downfall of the Russian Empire in March 1917, the Bolsheviks recognized Russian-held Poland’s right to autonomy, and a provisional government was established in Paris. By later that year, however, Germany was in complete control of the country.

After the defeat of the Central Powers, the road to Polish statehood seemed to be clearing. A Polish republic was declared soon after the armistice, but the boundaries of the new state had not yet been set by the Treaty of Versailles. Germany was loath to cede any territory in defeat, and still considered much of the country, including Poznan and the surrounding areas, its property.

An incendiary speech by the well-known Polish pianist and politician Ignacy Paderewski and subsequent counteractions by the occupying German army may have sparked the beginning of the uprising on December 27, 1918. By January 15, the rebels had managed to take control of the city, taking advantage of the weakened state of the German army, which, like the entire German nation, was demoralized by defeat and distracted by growing internal conflict. On February 16, as part of the German-Allied ceasefire, France forced German recognition of the Polish army as an Allied force. The high command in Poznan subsequently submitted to the authority of the new Polish government, based in Warsaw.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Dec 2005 8:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 27. Dezember

1914
Russische Angriffe auf Inowlodz zurückgeschlagen
Die schweren Kämpfe im Karpathenvorlande
Türkische Erfolge zur See
Die Italiener in Valona
Ein Zwischenfall in Tripolis

1915
Ein von Franzosen gesprengter Trichter bei Neuville besetzt
Italienischer Mißerfolg bei Rovereto

1916
Die russischen Linien bei Rimnicul-Sarat durchbrochen
Rimnicul-Sarat genommen
Die deutsche Antwort an die Schweiz
Erfolgreiche Streifung bei Zalocze
Der Höhenkamm von Tailor erobert

1917
Erfolgreiche Unternehmungen bei Bezonvaux
Ein kühner Streich der "Seeadler"-Besatzung
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gerald Blake, an English Participant in the Christmas Truce of 1914



The Christmas Truce of December 1914 has become the stuff of legend. In a savage war which dragged on for four long years and in which perhaps eight million people died, it seems almost inconceivable that groups of soldiers in the trenches, the declared enemies of one another, could have exchanged songs and cigarettes, even for a brief interlude. Gerald Blake was there.

Gerald Blake served with the London Rifle Brigade, British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. The Gerald Blake fonds contains more than sixty letters he wrote to his mother and to his brother, Clive, between November 1914 and June 1916. One letter, written on December 27, 1914, sets the stage for the incredible Christmas truce that occurred between British and German troops.

It is December 1914. Blake is in Belgium, writing home. He begins his letters by asking for newspapers, and recounting what he knows about the progress of the war. He tells Clive to send over socks, and lightly berates him for sending over a khaki shirt—absolutely worthless in the wintry conditions of the warfront. He writes at length about the battle cruisers, and it is evident that Gerald and Clive are engaged in an ongoing dialogue about the battles at sea, a conversation which spans the period of their correspondence.

Gerald describes his daily routine. He is billeted at a café, where the men pay their landlady to prepare their food and coffee. The soldiers remain at the back of the restaurant during the day, but move into the main café area for warmth at night. When the soldiers are neither at their billets nor in the trenches, they do fatigues in the woods. He recounts one particularly amusing encounter he had at the butcher’s shop. To his dismay, there were no sausages left. What ensued was a rather curious scene: the butcher’s daughter took him into the back room, where she set to work funnelling meat into a sausage. A cup of coffee in his hand, Gerald engages in a conversation with the butcher’s daughter, wife, and mother-in-law, who pummel him with questions and praise his grasp of the French language. The women remark that all of the men from his regiment converse proficiently, but Gerald discloses to Clive that this is only because most of the other soldiers do not make an effort to speak the language. Gerald is amused by the way “regulars trot into a shop and ask for a thing in ordinary English, and get it,” because they take for granted that everybody speaks the same language.

Gerald writes about the uncomfortable, wet conditions of the trenches. “I wish the Kaiser had been in them, it might have cooled his ardour,” he scoffs. He writes rather nonchalantly about his regiment’s attack on the Germans. “Our guns had bombarded the Germans all day previously, and I believe their loss, all told, was very severe.” This straightforward description of his encounter with the German troops is in stark contrast to his account of the Christmas truce that takes place just one week later.

In his letter dated 27 December 1914, Gerald Blake devotes only half of a single paragraph to a description of the Christmas truce between the British and German forces. He records that during Christmas and Boxing days, the troops held an informal ceasefire. They sang songs, accompanied by a German cornet and a concertina (an instrument similar to the accordion), and shouted Christmas greetings at each other. The soldiers emerged from their trenches—and from behind the pretence that they were adversaries—and mingled in no man’s land, chatting and swapping cigarettes. Blake was particularly impressed with a German soldier who had worked as a waiter in London’s Savoy Hotel, and with another who had been a barber in the Strand. He ends the paragraph by saying: “They seemed a decent lot for Germans, though small sized, but of course they were not Prussians. It was a Saxon corps.”

The peculiar thing about Blake’s account of the Christmas truce is that it is inserted so casually, almost dismissively, amongst his detailed reports of other military and naval matters. Why is such a miraculous interlude described in no more than half a paragraph? With no way to tell what a lengthy bloodbath the war would prove to be, Blake could not have realized the unique significance of this event. It was, of course, to be the first and last of such truces; annihilation not fraternization was to mark the next four bloody years. Blake’s letters end in June 1916. The 1916 and 1917 correspondence between Angus Macmillan and Clive Blake indicates that they believe that Gerald has been captured by the Germans; he has obviously been reported as “Missing in Action.” The Commonwealth War Graves site reveals that Blake in fact died on 1 July 1916. We have no further details but the date is ominously suggestive – it was the first day of the Battle of the Somme.

Brieven (incl. transcriptie) te lezen op http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/blake-gerald-letter-21-27-december-1914
Bovenstaande info van http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/case-study/gerald-blake-english-participant-christmas-truce-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Frost to Thomas Bird Mosher
Ryton Dymock, Gloucestershire, England; 27 December 1914




Lees verder via http://midddigital.middlebury.edu/local_files/robert_frost/letters_manuscripts/tbm19141227a.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Christmas Truce of 1914

27-31 December 1914 - The weather turns wet again, with rain, sleet and storms. There were instances of men disappearing in the flooded trenches. Yet in some areas the friendly mood remained for several days and there was almost no firing, although open fraternisation gradually died away. On New Years Eve, there was a certain amount of singing and exchange of messages, but no truce as such.

http://www.1914-1918.net/truce.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Festivals and Their Meaning: I. Christmas
VIII - The Birth of Christ Within Us - Berlin, 27th December, 1914


"WERE Christ born a thousand times in Bethlehem, and not in thee, thou art lost eternally."

There are two aspects of this beautiful saying of the great Mystic Angelus Silesius. The one is the declaration that the true Christmas must be celebrated in man's inmost heart, that any outward celebration of Christmas must quicken the impulse whereby in the Holy Night of winter, the very deepest forces of the soul are drawn forth from the darkness prevailing within as the darkness of winter prevails without. These deep forces of the soul are aware of their union with the Being Who pervades all earthly evolution, giving it meaning and purpose. Within us we find some thing with which Christ is united if with conscious devotion to the Spiritual Powers working in the world we penetrate deeply enough into our life of soul.

And the other aspect of the words of Angelus Silesius is that the human being in earthly evolution to-day can become conscious of the fact that true manhood, assurance of true manhood, depends upon the soul feeling inwardly united with the essence and substantiality of Christ Jesus.

Lees meneer Steiner verder op http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/Christmas/19141227a01.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

27 december 1914 - Rond 14u naderden drie mensen de grens met Castelré in de buurt van de brug over de Mark. Eén van hen was de 22-jarige Joanna Phi­lipsen uit Hoog­straten. Zij werd verge­zeld door haar moeder, Joanna Somers en haar broer Augus­t, die de grens wou overste­ken om zijn broers Frans en Jozef bij het leger te vervoegen. Een Duitse schildwacht zat verschanst in een bosje kreupelhout, honderd meter ten westen van de brug. Toen het trio de waar­schuwingsbor­den voorbij­stak, sommeerde hij hen halt te houden. Ze versnel­den hun pas en negeerden zijn bevel. Hierop opende hij het vuur, waarop het meisje dode­lijk getrof­fen neerviel. Haar broer slaagde erin van de ver­warring ge­bruik te maken om de grens over te steken, ter­wijl haar hyste­risch huilende moeder ter plaatse werd gearres­teerd. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Gloucestershire Regiment - 27th December 1914 - 2nd Battalion War Diary Entry

Battn dug defence entrenchments in vicinity of Boegshem.
Weather conditions bad.
Forwarded indents for extra large boots


http://www.glosters.org.uk/onthisday/459
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An announcement in the London Gazette dated 23rd August 1915 awarded the Victoria Cross to:

Captain John Fitzhardinge Paul Butler, The King’s Royal Rifle Corps, attached Pioneer Company, Gold Coast Regiment, West African Frontier Force.



For most conspicuous bravery in the Cameroons, West Africa.

On 17th November 1914, with a party of 13 men, he went into the thick bush and at once attacked the enemy, in strength about 100, including several Europeans, defeated them, and captured their machine gun and several loads of ammunition.

On 27th December 1914, when on patrol duty, with a few men, he swam the Ekam River, alone and in the face of a brisk fire, completed his reconnaissance on the further bank, and returned in safety. Two of his men were wounded while he was actually in the water.

Captain Butler was also awarded a Distinguished Service Order for his service in the Cameroons. Sadly he did not survive the war.

http://www.kaiserscross.com/188001/264701.html
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Fitzhardinge_Paul_Butler
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Captain Alfred Dougan Chater

Captain Alfred Dougan Chater served with the 2nd Battalion, Gordon Highlanders from November 1914 until he was severely wounded during the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915. In this letter to his mother, written between 25 and 27 December 1914, Chater describes his participation in the Christmas Truce. This included a meeting with several Germans and an opportunity to improve his dugout.

Lees de brief op http://www.iwm.org.uk/searchlight/server.php?show=nav.24436&do=media&media=83124
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Famous British Paedophiles - Wilfred Owen



From Owen's letter of 27th December 1914: (the 'boys' he mentions are not Owen's sons - Owen never married) "We made two journeys to church with the bath chair, and installed both the boys and ourselves inside the very sanctuary. An interesting position for me, all mixed up with the candles, incense, acolytes, chasuble and such like... I think the efforts of the dear, darling little acolytes to keep awake was what took most of my attention there."

Owen was actively seeking young boys in public places, and finding them:

"... the telescope I luckily gave to Colin acted as a talisman, potent as the Arabian Magician's Ivory Rod. For by feigning to see strange things through it (as indeed I did if mist and the blackness-of-darkness-for-ever are strange) I gathered five gentle children around me..."
[ Wilfred Owen. From 'The Collected Letters of Wilfred Owen' ]

"Owen himself made an incautious mention of 'mon petit ami in Scarboro' in a letter to Gunston. He usually found a boy or two to befriend, wherever he was, probably more than the letters reveal. These relationships could be presented as innocent or romantic, depending on the company present."
[ Hibberd, Dominic. Wilfred Owen - The Last Year, 1917-1918. London. Constable, 1992 -- page 88 ]

"...the pleasure he derived from observing youthful beauty was disturbingly inconsistent with the attitudes he was [as a teacher at Dunsden] supposed to be inculcating. As the strain grew, his health suffered and terrors filled his dreams"
[ Hibberd, Dominic. Owen The Poet. London. Macmillan, 1986 -- page 14 ]

"He described several youths with incautious admiration in his letters..."
[ Hibberd, Dominic. Owen The Poet. London. Macmillan, 1986 -- page 43 ]

"Spring [for Owen] was the moment of growth, the season for 'putting forth' poetry (as leaves to a tree) and for walking in the woods with young companions - with Rampton in 1912, Henriette in 1914, the Merignac boy amid the surging foliage of 'his' woods in 1915. [...] Spring's power was both redemptive and sexual, its new beauty innocent and erotic, paralleling the 'crucial change from boy to man'."
[ Hibberd, Dominic. Owen The Poet. London. Macmillan, 1986 -- page 187 ]

[In Spring 1916...] "There were spring rambles again, this time with some Boy Scouts whose 'affection - which has come up swiftly as February flowers - seems without bounds and without resraint'..."
[ Hibberd, Dominic. Owen The Poet. London. Macmillan, 1986 -- page 60 ]

Is dit bekend/bewezen? http://www.glgarden.org/ocg/archive1/owen.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Inauguration of the São Carlos electric tramway, in front of the Paulista railroad station, on Sunday 27 December 1914



http://www.tramz.com/br/sc/sc00.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Archduke Eugen von Habsburg-Lothringen (1863-1954)



(...) With the Austro-Hungarian declaration of war against Serbia on 28 July 1914, Eugen's war began as a General, before being appointed on 27 December 1914 to the command of the Southern Front against Italy following General Potiorek's disastrous invasion of Serbia. He established his headquarters at Marburg.

Nevertheless his actual role in determining strategy was limited by interference from Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff Conrad and a succession of German allies who retained little faith in the Austro-Hungarian high command. (...)

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/eugen.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

27 December 1915 - The British Government ordered the evacuation of Helles.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/november-december-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1915

27 december 1915 - Op Oudejaarsavond zal, net als vorig jaar, de dienst – alleen met motorwagens – een uur langer dan normaal onderhouden worden.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 British football betting scandal

The 1915 British football betting scandal occurred when a Football League First Division match between Manchester United and Liverpool at Old Trafford on 2 April (Good Friday) 1915 was fixed in United's favour, with players from both sides benefiting from bets placed upon the result.

At the time, Manchester United were struggling to avoid relegation, while Liverpool were in mid-table and neither challenging for honours nor facing the threat of relegation themselves. The effects of the First World War provided further motivation to perpetrate a fix - by the end of March it was almost certain that the league would suspend operations after the 1914-15 season was finished, interrupting and possibly ending the footballing careers of everyone then playing in the league. Also, the players perhaps thought the diversion of the conflict would lessen the attention that would normally be paid to a dubious match result.

The match ended in a 2–0 win to United, with George Anderson scoring both goals. However, the match referee and some observers noted Liverpool's lack of commitment during the game – they had even missed a penalty that had been awarded to them.

After the match, handbills started to appear, alleging that a large amount of money had been bet at odds of 7/1 on a 2–0 win to United. An investigation by the Football Association was launched and found that players from both sides had been involved in rigging the match: Sandy Turnbull, Arthur Whalley and Enoch West of United, and Jackie Sheldon, Tom Miller, Bob Pursell and Tom Fairfoul of Liverpool; Sheldon was a former United player himself and was found to be the plot's ringleader. Some players, such as Liverpool's Fred Pagnam and United's George Anderson refused to take part. Pagnam had threatened to score a goal to ruin the result, and indeed late in the match hit the crossbar, causing his teammates to publicly remonstrate with him. He later testified against his team-mates at the FA hearing.

All seven players were banned from playing for life in a decision handed down on 27 December 1915. The FA concluded that it had been a conspiracy by the players alone – no official from either club was found guilty of wrong-doing, and neither club was fined or had points deducted. West vociferously protested his innocence, even going so far as suing the FA for libel. However, he lost the case and the ban stood. In itself, the ban had no immediate effect on the players' footballing careers, since, by that point, the Football League had suspended operations for the duration of the First World War. The ban did not apply in Scotland (four of the suspended players were Scottish), however since the Scottish Football League had also suspended operations there was never a need for the Scottish Football Association to issue any sort of ruling on the players' eligibiity there.

Sandy Turnbull was killed while serving in the war, but all the other players, except West, had their bans lifted by the FA in 1919 in recognition of their service to the country; Turnbull received a posthumous reinstatement. The intervention of the First World War meant that the Football League did not resume until 1919–20. This meant that West was the only player involved who was actually unable to play League football due to suspension. Fairfoul also did not return to football although he was re-instated, however the other four players resumed their careers after the war. West had to wait until 1945 for his ban to be lifted, by which time he was 59.

Although the players' main motives for the match-fixing appear to be financial, and not to save United from relegation, the two points United won from that game were enough to earn them 18th place and safety, one point ahead of 19th-placed Chelsea, who were nominally relegated. Before the 1919–20 season started, the League decided to expand the First Division by two teams; Chelsea (along with Arsenal) were elected back into the First Division and thus spared the drop.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1915_British_football_betting_scandal
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 20:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Family seek pardon for soldier shot in 1915 for not wearing cap
By Cahal Milmo, 10 November 2004

For Christie Walsh, there is one aspect of the death of his great-uncle Patrick that sums up his family's 89-year search for justice. "He was shot for not putting on his hat," Mr Walsh said. "How ludicrous and cruel is that?"


For Christie Walsh, there is one aspect of the death of his great-uncle Patrick that sums up his family's 89-year search for justice. "He was shot for not putting on his hat," Mr Walsh said. "How ludicrous and cruel is that?"

At 8am, on 27 December 1915, a firing squad lined up near the Greek port of Salonika and took aim at Private Patrick Downey, 19, from Limerick. One witness said that when Pte Downey heard his death sentence, he laughed and said: "That is a good joke. You let me enlist and them bring me out here and shoot me."

This weekend, relatives of Pte Downey and 25 other Irish soldiers who were executed while serving in the British Army during the First World War, hope to revive their memory in a final attempt to secure them a pardon with the help of a diplomatic offensive by the Irish government.

The families of the soldiers will present a petition at Downing Street before Remembrance Sunday, which this year marks the 90th anniversary of the start of the war, which claimed nearly a million British Empire lives, including 50,000 Irishmen.

Mr Walsh, 61, a Dublin taxi driver, who will be in the Irish delegation, said: "This could be our last chance. Of course, I never met my great-uncle Patrick but the sense of injustice in our family at his death has never gone away. My mother often spoke of what had happened, how he had been shot for no reason. The tale was that he had been court-martialled for refusing an officer's order to put on his cap. As far as my mother was concerned, he was murdered."

Although the relatives of the 26 Irish soldiers have made such demands before, they are making their initiative for the first time supported by the full diplomatic and political weight of the Irish government.

Officials at the Ministry of Defence are considering a report from Dublin which, in stark language, demands pardons for each soldier because the British Army had ignored "clear evidence" that should have saved each one from the firing squad.

The contents of the confidential report, based on records from British archives and expert opinion sought by the Irish, suggest the Irish soldiers - who were among 306 British and Commonwealth troops executed during the war - were shot on the orders of senior officers who were paranoid about discipline in their units.

Dermot Ahern, the Irish Foreign Affairs Minister, said: "The files make heartbreaking reading. They refer to medical conditions, personal problems, deaths of family members and other extenuating circumstances that are simply not taken into account. In most cases, there are written notes from superior officers that bluntly call for an example to be made. Guilt or innocence was a secondary consideration."

Dublin has also pointed to new evidence of anti-Irish sentiment among British officers that shows a disproportionate number of Irish troops were executed. The Irish represented 8 per cent of those condemned to death, but they made up just 2 per cent of the Army.

The campaigners, led by the pressure group Shot At Dawn, say many of the soldiers were unrepresented at their hearings and not allowed to make defence statements during often shambolic proceedings for charges ranging from cowardice to striking an officer.

For Pte Downey, who lied about his age to join the Leinster Regiment, the only record of his trial is three pages of handwritten notes. They show that while fighting a bitter winter campaign in the Balkans against Bulgarian troops, Pte Downey was arrested for disobeying an officer on three occasions, the last of which was refusing to put on his cap.

Senior officers changed the charge faced by the Irishman, who had a record of minor offences, from a non-capital offence to one that carried the death penalty and, contrary to military law, allowed the defendant to plead guilty.

When General Bryan Mahon, the commanding officer in Greece, wrote to approve the death sentence, he said: "Under ordinary circumstances, I would have hesitated to recommend the capital sentence be put into effect as a guilty plea has erroneously been accepted. But the condition of discipline in the battalion is such as to render an exemplary punishment highly desirable."

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/family-seek-pardon-for-soldier-shot-in-1915-for-not-wearing-cap-532678.html
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Letter from Bert

Mena Camp
Near Pyramids
Cairo Egypt
27/12/14

Dear Homefolks.
Things are very comfortable indeed now for the troops stationed here. Large sheds with seating accommodation for 320 each are being erected all over the place for the men to dine in. We have not started to use them yet, as they are not quite finished, but they will be ready in a couple of days. Of course they are rather rough but we are here for rough work so we don’t mind. They were constructed by the niggers. It was found much cheaper to use them than to utilize the available carpenters in the regts. The carpenters loss of training was not worth it. Everything here is done by the niggers. When I say niggers I don’t exactly mean full blooded negroes – I mean any of the darker skinned natives & there are hundreds of different sorts. They do all the cooking for the “ossifers” & even wait on them – WHITE men are good enough for us _ _ _.
Well xmas has come & gone. Xmas under the pyramids. Fine romantic [title?] for a penny horrible isn’t it. Give a man a dusty taste in his mouth wouldn’t it. All things considered, dust, sand, stew, wind, after dinner akes, & other misfortunes – our Xmas was fairly Merry & bright we have all survived the unusual ordeal. We, our tent, were supplied with 4 tins of fruit 3 bottles of wine, 4 lemonade & a small plum pudding each. Besides this we tossed in ten piastres 2/1 each & purchased 4 tins of fruit, doz of softs, lots of biscuits & nuts, 2 tins of milk, two strings of figs, doz tins of herrings & a few other things as well. During Xmas Eve night, somebody stole one of our tins of pineapple & added insult to injury by eating it out of one of our mess tins & burying the tin in the sand in front of our tent. We all enjoyed the good things immensely. They were great. I didn’t feel a bit hungry afterwards. The only fly in the butter was that the cooks sent us up the usual stew at dinner time. We all turned our dainty noses up at such common food. Wouldn’t look at it. The plum puddings that we were issued with, were about as big as a large orange & were tied up in small pieces of cloth. I don’t know exactly of what ingredients they were composed of. I opened mine examined it very carefully with my nose, eyes, & fingers, carefully tasted it, & gave it to my neighbour just to show I didn’t bear him any ill will even at xmas. We were informed that some of the puddings contained coins. But I doubt it very much as they were made by niggers. After the food has been disposed of, we knocked the heads off the wine bottles & we all got Shickered. It’s a bonza feeling being shickered, especially when you reach the stage of seeing double or in my case fourble. Every time I drank a glass, thort I was drinking four. Couldn’t wear my hat next morning.

About four o’clock in the afternoon, I was given leave, from 2p to 11pm. We generally get our leave two or three hours after it has commenced. That’s a playful little habit of the powers that be, in the 3rd. Went into town arriving there about 6pm & set out to have tea. The first two places we went to we received a very cold reception. We were actually turned out. You see, they had run out of feeding material, owing to the rush. Next place we went to were told that we’d have to wait till 7pm before we could get a seat. Waited 3 minutes & faded off to another place where we found room for two & sat down with thankful hearts, & smiling faces, & beamed good humour on the assembled populace. The place was full of soldiers, eating & otherwise – mostly otherwise. There was about 308 men in the place, & 3 very slow – or tired – waiters who couldn’t speak English, trying to attend to the hungry crowd. A lot of those that did get anything to eat, ate it, & went off without paying. Of course that sort of conduct made the propr very excited & I think he might have been swearing, but am not sure as I couldn’t understand his language. It was very easy to go without paying, as it opened on to the street in several places. We waited – I wont say patiently – but we waited till 5 past 7, & then we went back to the place where they said we could dine at 7. After considerable trouble & delay got into the dinning room & took seats at an empty table & about 8.15 we had finished our tea. It was very good indeed & the tariff was 2/6. There were 6 courses & we had to help ourselves off a big platter at each course. I took such liberal helpings of some very nice fish & some nice looking roast, that I was quite good humored & full at the 4th round, so I threw the towel in & paid over the stakes. After tea it was almost time to go home as the journey takes nearly two hours. We just had a bit of a look round & buzzed off home. When going in the men created great excitement & astonishment among the natives by climbing up on & riding on the roof of the cars. Our car was absolutely full up when returning, & as 5 minutes late brings 2 hrs pack drill, my mate & I had to ride home on the buffer at the back.

A large programme of races tug of war, wrestling etc had been arranged to take place Xmas afternoon, all the events to be with donkeys. But had to be abandoned at the last minute, no donkeys being available. Its great fun here seeing the men riding donkeys for the fun of it. The donkeys are not much bigger than big dogs & the men look such nutz on them.

Major Bennett said that we would be going to the front in 6 weeks time. We are not going to England first, but going to land in France, probably at Marseilles. We will probably get 2 weeks training in France first. Of course if Turkey decides to take possession of Egypt we will probably be kept here to dispute the matter with them. The men are playing up a treat here. They get into town, forget that they are Australians, forget their uniform, their self respect, & associate themselves with the very lowest vices & pleasures. We Australians have a bad name already, tho the men are no worse than the others, but our numbers predominate.

Well Mum, & Dad & Brothers & Sisters, can’t think of any more news so will close with love to you all from your loving son & brother Bert.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/14_10.htm
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28th Battalion History - First Winter at the Front 1915-16

December 25, 1915 - Private J.C. (Darky) Andrews, a sniper from the 28th, observes and breaks up group of soldiers, about 20 from each side, exchanging cigarettes & souvenirs between the trenches. That night, the German sang hymns and carols, Many of the Battalion joined in on "Silent Night".

December 27, 1915 - Battalion relieved on the night of the 27th for six days rest. A New Years Eve party is planned for December 31 at a nearby convent. The battalion band is expected to play and a fine feast is planned.

http://www.nwbattalion.com/history2.html
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Letter of 27 December 1916 from George Battershill to Mrs. J. W. Battershill



Transcription
France. Dec 27/16.
Dear Mother
Just a line to
say I am well but have not
yet received my parcels,
but I guess they are delayed
on some account. On Xmas
Day the Germans came over
& gave us Beer & Cigars &some
of the boys shook hands with
them but not for me. I
have had too many of my
chums killed by thos
square heads & I would sooner
turn a machine gun on them
than shake hands.
I have got about 15 letters
to answer so you see I get
lots of mail. I have not got
much time to write today
so tell Carrie & Darie & Dad
I will write at first opportunity.
I had a card from Sid Fox so
he is all O.K' so far. I had a
nice card from Mabel M. & a
letter from Floe Smythe. I guess
this is all just now hopoing
all are well.
#460445 I remain
Pte Battershill
George

http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/correspondence/JMB/JMB_1916_1227.xml
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Cecil Malthus: Letter to Hazel, 27 December [1916]

http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/Digitised/WarsAndConflicts/WorldWarI/Malthus/Malthus-1916-12-27-p01.asp
In PDF: http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/Digitised/WarsandConflicts/WorldWarI/Malthus/PDF/Malthus-1916-12-27.pdf
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French battleship Gaulois (1896)



The Gaulois was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the French Navy.

In 1915, along with her sister-ship Charlemagne, she took part in the Naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign, under admiral Guépratte. The French squadron was leading the assault, and the Gaulois suffered hits from the Turkish forts. She was seriously damaged and in danger of sinking when the Bouvet hit a mine and exploded. The Gaulois managed to beach herself to avoid a complete loss. She was refloated and brought back to service. However, on 27 December 1916, as she sailed for Corfu, she was torpedoed and sunk by the U-boat UB-47.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_battleship_Gaulois_(1896)
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Togoland



(...) After calling on the German colony to surrender on 6 August 1914, French and British troops invaded unopposed the next day. No military personnel was stationed in the protectorate. The police force consisted of a commander and deputy commander, 10 German sergeants, 1 native sergeant and 660 Togolese policemen deployed throughout the territory. The Entente forces occupied the capital Lome, then advanced on a powerful and new radio station near Kamina (east of Atakpamé). The colony surrendered on 26 August 1914, after the German technicians who had built the radio installation now destroyed the station during the night of 24/25 August. In the weeks before the destruction, Kamerun, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa and 47 ships on the high seas were sent reports of Allied actions, as well as warnings of predicaments ahead. On 27 December 1916, Togoland was separated into French and British administrative zones. With the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles in 1920, Togoland formally became a League of Nations Class B mandate divided into French Togoland and British Togoland, covering respectively about two-thirds and one-third of the territory.

The British area of the former German colony was integrated into Ghana in 1957 following a May 1956 plebiscite where 58% of British-area residents voted in favour of joining Ghana upon its independence, rather than remaining under British-administered trusteeship. The French-ruled region became the Republic of Togo in 1960 and is now known as the Togolese Republic. In 1960, the new state invited the last German governor of Togoland, Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg to the country’s official independence celebrations. (...)

http://www.answers.com/topic/togoland
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Alexandra Romanoff, letter to her husband Czar Nicholas II, 27 Dec 1916

"Be the Emperor, be Peter the Great, John the Terrible, the Emperor Paul - crush them all under you - Now don't you laugh, you naughty one - but I long to see you so with those men who try to govern you and it must be the contrary."

http://www.historytoday.com/on-this-day/2010-12-27/december-27
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The Story of No. 3 Wing, Royal Naval Air Mail

(...) On 27 December 1916, the weather over Ochey cleared enough to allow operations to resume. The blast furnaces at Dillingen were once again to be the objective for the 11 bombers and five fighters starting out. The fighter of F/L Dalison broke its propeller on taking off, while F/S/Ls Edwards and Glen both returned due to engine trouble. Over Dillingen itself, the target was obscured by clouds and haze so it was impossible to observe the results of the 2340 lbs. of bombs dropped. Flying bomber 9742 was F/S/L R. F. Redpath.

Reached Dillingen alright. Very cloudy over objective and accurate bomb dropping was very difficult, but I think all bombs hit target, although I could not see enough to mark any bomb bursts. There was not much anti-aircraft fire over lines. The anti-aircraft at objectives was very good. I did not see any hostile machines. [F/S/L R. F. Redpath, bomber 9742]

Once again all aircraft returned safely. Although in some accounts Collishaw is reported to have been shot down, his report that day states...

Left Ochey at 12.40 p.m. on December 27th with 1st Squadron as fighter. My machine had more power than the bombers so I was able to manoeuvre anywhere. Crossed the lines at 11,000 ft. in formation. Some shelling when over the lines. We then passed over some clouds with clear patches to guide our path. It was a long trip out against a strong wind, but the target was quite visible. I followed FSL Shearer down to 6,000 ft. at the objective and observed the bombs strike within the objective from his machine. On our way home I flew alongside Squadron Commander Rathborne and noticed a hostile machine off to one side, but he did not close. Returned in formation to Ochey at 2.45 p.m. [F/S/L R. Collishaw, fighter 9667]

http://www.overthefront.com/WWI-Aviation-No-3-Wing-Royal-Naval-Air-Service-p3.php
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History and War Diaries of the Anzac Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) during the Great War of World War I

By Battalion Adjutant on December 27, 1916

The whole battalion visited the Divisional baths during the day and were issued with new underclothing and socks. CO and Major William Walter Tracy looking for parade grounds after lunch.

http://aifhistory.org/1916/12/
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AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN REPLY TO THE SWISS PEACE NOTE, December 27, 1916
[TRANSLATION]

The undersigned, Minister for Foreign Affairs, has had the honor
to receive the esteemed note of December 23d, in which the Minister
Plenipotentiary of Switzerland, Dr. Burckhardt, was good enough to
communicate to us, under instructions, the desire of the Swiss Federal
Council to endorse the initiative taken by the President of the United
States with the belligerent Governments for the purpose of ending
the present war and of effectively providing against all war in the
future.

The noble efforts of President Wilson received a most cordial wel-
come from the Imperial and Royal Government, to which it gave
expression in the note delivered yesterday to the American Ambassa-
dor at Vienna, a copy of which is attached hereto with the request
that the Minister of Switzerland be good enough to bring this docu-
ment to the attention of the Swiss Federal Council.

The undersigned, Minister for Foreign Affairs, permits himself to
add that the Imperial and Royal Government views the endorsement
by the Federal Government of the efforts of President Wilson as the
expression of the noble and humanitarian sentiments which Switzer-
land has manifested since the beginning of the war with regard to all
the belligerent Powers and which it has put in practice in so generous
and friendly a manner.

http://www.questia.com/read/3552157
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A brief history of the U.S. Metric Association

The U.S. Metric Association (USMA), which was originally called the American Metric Association, was organized on 27 December 1916 at Columbia University, New York. A group of businessmen, educators, and consumers met at that time, holding its meeting as a separate portion of the 1916 annual conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). USMA became an affiliate of AAAS and has continued this affiliation with AAAS to this day. (...)

The main speaker at the meeting was Madam Montessori, the famed Italian originator of the Montessori teaching system which is still used throughout many countries. She explained (via an interpreter) how the metric system is used in Italy and stated, " . . . the advantage of the metric system over other systems is shown by its simplicity and the ease which it gives to accomplishing all research work."

http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/history.htm
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Bible belonging to Rifleman Harry Green



Bible sent to Rifleman Harry Green's mother either as a souvenir before leaving for France, or sent home after his death.
Editor's Comment: 'Active Service Testament 1916'. With pencilled owner's details.
Rifleman R/31363 Harry William Green, 8th Bn. King's Royal Rifle Corps (part of the 14th (Light) Division), the son of Walter H. and Mary E. Green, originally of King's Lynn, Norfolk, died of wounds 27th December 1916, age 19. He is buried in Avesnes-Le-Comte Communal Cemetery Extension.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9074/4218
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Private Arthur Oldring - No place to hide...

On 27 December 1916, a 44-year-old man with ferret-like features walked into
the Adelaide recruiting centre to enlist in the AIF. Giving his name as Arthur
Geoffrey Oldring, the man was allocated as a reinforcement to the 8th Machine
Gun Company and was sent to the Victorian town of Seymour for basic training.1
He stayed out of trouble, performed his duties in a soldierly manner, and was regarded
as a fairly genuine sort of a fellow.2
While on local leave, Oldring met 50-year-old divorcee Margaret Taylor and her
pretty young daughter Rose.3 On weekends, the trio were often seen strolling
along the streets of Seymour and Bendigo.4
In early November 1917, word was received that Oldring was soon to embark
for France. Margaret Taylor did not want him to go and desperately tried to convince
him to desert so the two could marry.3 But unbeknown to her, Oldring had
good reason to want to leave Australia for overseas—the sooner the better. They
agreed to meet the following weekend to discuss the matter further.
On Saturday, as prearranged, Margaret and Rose caught a horse-drawn cab to
the bridge at Trawool. While the cabman was unloading their trunk, hatbox and
two suitcases, he felt that he was being watched. As he glanced down towards
the riverbank, Margaret sensed he was suspicious and quickly said, ‘Thank you
for your help. My sister is coming to pick us up. She lives on a farm near here.’
The cabman thought nothing more of it and drove back to town.5
As soon as the cab was out of sight, Oldring left his hiding place behind some
nearby bushes and joined Margaret and Rose. He carried the luggage to the
campsite he had prepared nearby. An argument developed and an enraged
Oldring seized a nearby tomahawk and clubbed the woman to death.
Next he turned on the young girl, who had been so traumatised by the attack on
her mother that she lacked the presence of mind to attempt escape. Oldring
weighted down the bodies and threw them into the flood-swollen river—followed
by their luggage. He then washed the blood from his hands and clothes
and returned to camp.

Notes:
1 National Archives of Australia: B2455, WW1 Service Records, 767 Private AG Oldring
2 The Melbourne Age, 23 February 1918
3 The Melbourne Age, 22 February 1918
4 The Melbourne Age, 23 November 1917
5 The Melbourne Age, 21 November 1917


... lees verder op http://www.anzacday.org.au/justsoldiers/justsoldiers.html
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R.C. Beswick, Letter, 27 December 1917



Lees verder op http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/beswick-rc-letter-27-december-1917-0
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AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 27 DECEMBER 1917

NZ HONOURS
ANDREW – At Buckingham Palace this week Sergeant Leslie Wilton ANDREW, Wellington Infantry, was decorated by the King with the Victoria Cross which he won at La Basse Ville.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn27dec1917.html

Leslie Andrew



Brigadier Leslie Wilton Andrew, VC, DSO (23 March 1897 – 9 January 1969) was a soldier in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, and recipient of the Victoria Cross, during the First World War. He also served in the Second World War.

Andrew was born 23 March 1897 in Manawatu, New Zealand.

When he was 20 years old, and a corporal in the 2nd Battalion, Wellington Infantry Regiment, New Zealand Expeditionary Force during the First World War, he was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 31 July 1917 at La Bassee Ville, France:

Corporal Andrew was in charge of a small party in an attack on the enemy's position. His objective was a machine-gun post which had been located in an isolated building, but on leading his men forward he encountered another machine-gun post which was holding up the advance of another company. He immediately attacked it, capturing the gun and killing several of the crew. He then continued with his attack on the original objective and finally captured the post, killing a number of the enemy and putting the remainder to flight. In World War II he commanded the 22nd Battalion of the Second NZEF, and led the New Zealand victory contingent in London in 1946.

He later achieved the rank of brigadier. He died 9 January 1969. His grave/memorial is at Levin RSA Cemetery, Tiro Tiro Road, Levin, New Zealand. Returned Serviceman's Section, row 13. Headstone. The "Andrew Barracks" for 60 field engineers in Linton Army Camp is named after him.

His Victoria Cross was displayed at the QEII Army Memorial Museum, Waiouru, New Zealand. On Sunday 2 December 2007 it was one of nine Victoria Crosses that were among 96 medals stolen from the museum. On 16 February 2008 New Zealand Police announced all the medals had been recovered as a result of a NZ$300,000 reward offered by Michael Ashcroft and Tom Sturgess

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leslie_Andrew
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DRAFT RUSSIAN PROPOSAL AT THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE ON
THE FUTURE OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES


27 December 1917

In accordance with the public declarations of both contracting parties that they cherish no designs of conquest and that they desire to conclude a peace without annexations, Russia will withdraw its troops from all parts of Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Persia which it occupies, while the Powers of the Quadruple Alliance will withdraw theirs from Poland, Lithuania, Courland, and other regions of Russia.

In accordance with the principles of the Russian Government, which has proclaimed the right of all peoples without exception living in Russia to self-determination, including even separation, the populations in these districts will be given the opportunity at a definite date in the near future of deciding freely the question of their union with one or another State or of forming independent States. The presence of any troops apart from national and local militia in the territories where a plebiscite is being held shall not be permitted. Until this question is settled, the administration of these regions must remain in the hands of representatives of the local population elected on a democratic basis. The date of evacuation, depending on the course of demobilization, shall be determined by a special military commission.

http://www.marxistsfr.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1917/December/27.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Thames Star, Volume LVIII, Issue 18483, 27 December 1917





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=THS19171227.2.15.1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Isabel



View on the forecastle, showing the ship's starboard forward 3"/50 gun. Photographed at the Boston Navy Yard, Charlestown, Massachusetts, on 27 December 1917.

Note the Mackay type camouflage scheme applied to the gun's shield and to the ship's superstructure.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-i/sp521.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

27 December 1917: Thomas Mann

Not even in deepest national bitterness have I ever ceased believing that the hate and enmity between the Europeans is, finally, a deception, a mistake.
- Thomas Mann

http://www.ppu.org.uk/whitepoppy/white_comrade.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Press photo: Soviet delegation with Leon Trotsky greeted by German officers at Brest-Litovsk, 27 December 1917



http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trotzki_Deutsche_Brest-Litowsk1917.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

James Duffy (VC)

James Duffy (17 November 1889 – 8 April 1969) (Irish: Séamus Ó Dubhthaigh) was a British Army soldier during the First World War, and an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross.

Duffy was born on 17 November 1889 in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair), County Donegal, Ireland.

He was 28 years old, and a private in the 6th Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 27 December 1917 at Kereina Peak, Palestine, whilst the company was holding a very exposed position, Private Duffy, a stretcher-bearer, and another stretcher-bearer went out to bring in a seriously wounded comrade. When the other stretcher-bearer was wounded, Private Duffy returned to get another man, who was killed almost immediately. The private then went forward alone and, under very heavy fire, succeeded in getting both wounded men under cover and attended to their injuries. His gallantry undoubtedly saved both men's lives.

He died in Dromany, Letterkenny on 8 April 1969 and was buried in Conwal Cemetery, Letterkenny, County Donegal. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Inniskilling Museum in Enniskillen Castle, Northern Ireland.

A stone bench was unveiled in Letterkenny Town Park on 10 July 2007 to honour the war veteran. His daughter Nelly was present when former Letterkenny Mayor Ciaran Brogan unveiled the bench in one of his final duties

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Duffy_(VC)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries

[Dec] 27th [1918] - Still no orders so we are still here. It is a filthy rainy day. I have ironed all my
clothes & written all my letters, & propose to do a little shopping later if there is anything
cheap enough to buy. Fancy! eggs – 1 franc 20 centimes each.
Do you remember reading about a very famous German Spy who in 1916 lived in America &
used to send knowledge through from Germany to England & England to Germany? Our
American M.O. was telling me how he was finally caught.
He always sent his papers a different way - one time in a box of cigars - next in a case of fruit -
& so on.
After much searching & trouble the American secret service men suspected him & explained to
his girl clerk all about it. At last one time she found that he packed a tin of documents in a
case of tins of fruit - the case was one of a hundred all looking the same. She kept her eyes on
it & wondered how she was to mark it without being suspected. She was sitting on it - eating
her lunch & thinking hard - when Van Pepin came in. He was a great man for flirting & came
& sat by her & she encouraged him. During their little flirtation she took an indelible pencil &
drew a heart on the case she was sitting on. He took the pencil from her & drew a Cupids
arrow through the heart. Lunch over each went their own way. The girl went straight to the
secret service men & told them the case with the documents was being shipped to Liverpool
that afternoon. It was one of a hundred & was marked with a heart & Cupid’s arrow. The
cables were soon busy & the boat was met by Secret Service men who helped unload - the box
was found & Van Pepin trapped.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol4/PDF/1918_12December.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

London's memorable Boxing day - A triumphal progress to the palace
The Guardian, Friday 27 December 1918

During his wonderful progress this afternoon from Charing Cross Station to Buckingham Palace, President Wilson did not see much of London. The expressive countenance of our streets was hidden under a brilliant mask of flags. There has not been such a show of colour or such genuine lightheartedness in the crowd since Coronation days in the world before the war.

In a long memory of London street scenes one cannot recall anything quite like this welcome in its mass and impressiveness, its spontaneous cordiality. All the gaiety pent up through the cruel four and a half years seemed to be released in the great noise of cheering that rose round the leader of the world's peace. Londoners flocked by the tens of thousands into the narrow two miles of street to see him. There was not nearly room for all and multitudes would know that the President had come only by hearing the boom of the saluting guns.

Twenty thousand soldiers with bayonets bright in the December sunshine lined the route, guards in war khaki rode before the carriage. But this was not a military show. The plain citizen raising a tall hat in response to the cheers was the centre of all. When the cavalry escort came jingling out of the sanded courtyard at Charing Cross, preceding the carriage in which the President and King George sat side by side, a roar of cheers went up. It gathered volume all the way round the West End to the Palace.

The station had disguised its dinginess in all the colours of the Allies. The President's first glimpse of London was of a space packed with a crowd blended of black and khaki yellow, all showing him jolly red faces and glistening with delight, He would see soldiers curling their bodies perilously round lamp-posts, and when he glanced up to the roof-line there was another fringe of cheering people.

The President's smile

The Charing Cross crowd took to President Wilson at first sight. It did not see the grim austere figure of the photographs and cartoons. The wrinkled ascetic is a legend. This President Wilson who sat very erect beside the King was a man with a powerful head and a full, fresh-coloured face - a face irradiated by the famous smile. The smile positively shone. The President was clearly genuinely pleased and moved by the good fellowship and hero worship of the crowd, He raised his silk hat - women remarked that it was brand new - and waved it with a generous gesture. The cavalcade went away past St Martin's Church. The bells rang out joyously, ringing a sharp note with the long soft murmur of cheers.

In the clear sky at this moment there appeared a flight of aeroplanes in arrowhead formation; it seemed to follow the procession as an aerial escort. The shine from the big red sun caught the planes and turned them into silver. A band played the President along into the wide pool of humanity collected in Trafalgar Square. As the carriages went by the pavement had appreciative eyes for the President's wife, who sat in a carriage with our Queen and Princess Mary. Mrs Wilson appeared to be thoroughly alive to every detail of the scene; her black eyes sparkled.

The scene in Trafalgar Square

And it was an extraordinary scene that was unfolded in the Square - the solidest, most varied crowd that has gathered there for many years. A big shout went up from the mixed mass of soldiers, men, women, and shrill-voiced children. The President took it all in with one long, searching gaze, and he turned to the King and made some animated remark. He pointed out something in the gay decorations that had taken his eye. The soldiers swarming on every inch of the Square's statuary caused amusement in the Royal carriage.

Pall Mall, the polite streets of clubs, had broken out into bunting. Things were quieter in this region. Graye clubmen gazed gazed without visible emotion at the procession through the enormous plate windows. The mellow Tudor brickwork of St James's Palace was hidden in an heraldic display of Stars and Stripes and Union Jacks, and round the corner in St James's Street the President found himself passing underneath a roof of huge American flags. The American community had put forth its brightest effort here.

Just before this point the President received the salutation of Queen Alexandra, who came out on the pavement in front of Marlborough House with the Queen of Norway and little Prince Olaf. The crowd, unbidden, fell back and left a clear space for the Queen Mother and her party. When the carriage was passing, the King drew the President's attention to his mother, and he rose, waved his hat, and bowed. Queen Alexandra responded by waving a little Stars and Stripes flag. Mrs Wilson waved her bouquet of orchids in greeting to queen Alexandra.

An American demonstration

In Piccadilly the procession went under a gaudy blue and gold banner, and more bands crashed out. The American Naval and Military Missions had organised a great demonstration at the Berkeley Hotel. American women threw sprigs of laurel and flowers into the carriage. The St James's Club window was crowded with foreign diplomatists.

All along Piccadilly to Hyde Park Corner the President passed along an avenue of soldiers with fixed bayonets standing in double ranks. At the top of Constitution Hill this grim array was relieved by hundreds of WAAC's, "Wrens", and WRAF's - the first time women have lined the streets of London at a big show of this kind. There were soldiers in hospital blue here also. The President's smile, which had already passed through the positive and comparative degrees, become superlative when he caught sight of the women.

America provided the strongest flavour in Constitution Hill near the Palace. Here were soldiers in khaki who proclaimed themselves on a board as "Americans in British uniforms", also a cheerful group of sailors with a ragtime band. All down the road innumerable little flags fluttered in men's caps. Queer American yells drowned stolid British cheers. An American airman appeared overhead and did various stunts. He threw himself about in the sky like an urchin turning Catherine wheels.

On the Palace balcony

British bluejackets were on guard at the Palace gates. The wide space round the Victoria Memorial was jammed. There was an Australian soldier perched on the head of one of the calm white statues - he was envied by thousands. Australian and every other kind of soldier started the rhythmic shout "We want Wilson" the moment the party had gone inside. A scarlet cloth was spread over the balcony, and everyone knew the President would appear. Soon after three he gratified the multitude by coming out, with his wife and the King and Queen.

In the gathering dusk the President could be only dimly seen except by the Americans perched on the tall railings of the courtyard. He stood there tall, imposing, bareheaded. Queen Mary handed him a Union Jack, which he waved. His smile gleamed in the dusk. He addressed a few words expressing his gratitude and pleasure, but they were heard by very few. He disappeared. Darkness fell on the frozen park, and the crowd poured way down the Mall past the captured German guns.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1918/dec/27/usa.monarchy
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extract from an interview with Sherif Feisal, 27 December 1918

Sherif Feisal, accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel T.E. Lawrence, visited the India Office… and was entertained at tea by the Secretary of State…

The Sherif discussed the relations between Bin Saud, Emir of Nejd, and the Hejaz authorities. He explained the nature of the Wahabi movement, of which Bin Saud is the figure-head and the leading spirit…

Feisal explained the circumstances which led to the Arab revolt in 1916…The authors of the revolt turned naturally to the British Government as the only European Government that pursued an enlightened policy towards subject races… in regard to Mesopotamia…he had full confidence that the British Government would do what was right. But he has been greatly disturbed by certain recent developments, and particularly the terms of the Sykes–Picot Agreement…He had no idea, when engaged in struggle against the Turks, that any agreement of the kind was in existence, or that Arab rights in Syria had been bargained away in advance.

Questioned…on the subject of Palestine…[the Arabs] regard the Jews as kinsmen whose just claims they will be glad to see satisfied. They feel that the interests of the Arab inhabitants may safely be left in the hands of the British Government.

http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/titledetails.asp?tid=110
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harry Houdini



Autograph signed photo of Harry Houdini, famous magician & President of the Society of American Magicians, to "Mutiny on the Bounty" screenwriter and a founder of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Carey Wilson. To the right of Houdini's mischievous grin, inscription reads: "Carey Wilson / Here's hoping that my portrait will always bring back pleasant memories / Harry Houdini." Harry Houdini autograph signed photo. Dated 27 December 1918.

http://www.natedsanders.com/ItemInfo.asp?ItemID=29377
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major-General A.A. Kennedy, Poster, 27 December 1919



Description: Proclamation Bekanntmachung ... A.A. Kennedy Major-General, British Military Governor Occupied German Territory 27.12.19 No. M.G. 7274". Text of poster is in English and German. Re damage to British telephone and telegraph cable.

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/kennedy-aa-major-general-poster-27-december-1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 25 Dec 2010 22:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Four Boys on a Sled by Norman Rockwell, December 27, 1919 Issue of The Country Gentleman



http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-country-gentleman-cover-1919-12-27-four-boys-on-a-sled.html
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