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17 December

 
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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Dec 2005 7:42    Onderwerp: 17 December Reageer met quote

December 17

1873 Ford Madox Ford is born


Ford Madox Ford, a writer, editor, and member of the so-called “Lost Generation” who served on the Western Front during the Great War, is born Ford Hermann Hueffer on this day in 1873.

Hueffer (he would change his name to Ford Madox Ford in 1919) had already published his first and best-known work, a short novel called The Good Soldier, by the time war broke out in 1914. He was soon recruited by Britain’s War Propaganda Bureau (WPB) to write pamphlets aimed at shaping public opinion of the war effort. Perhaps to compensate for his German heritage, he vigorously pursued his propagandistic duties, denouncing all things Prussian and defending the British government against all criticism. He left the WPB in 1916 to join the army, and was sent to France as a junior officer in the 38th Infantry Brigade. He was slightly wounded by an exploding shell during the Battle of the Somme, but saw little real trench warfare, as he served in the transport services. His experience on the battlefield caused him to question the competence of the British authorities, however, when he saw first-hand the immense and seemingly unnecessary loss of human life at the Somme and elsewhere.

In the years following the war, Ford moved to Paris. During the 1920s, he founded the literary magazine Transatlantic Review, in which he would go on to publish the groundbreaking work of such acquaintances as James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound and Jean Rhys. He also continued with his own work, including Parade’s End, (1924-28) a series of four novels set in Britain and on the Western Front.
www.historychannel.com
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Laatst aangepast door Yvonne op 17 Dec 2005 7:43, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Dec 2005 7:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 17. Dezember

1914
Zusammenbruch der russischen Offensive gegen Schlesien und Posen
Die Beschießung der englischen Ostküste
Die abgeschlagene russische Hauptmacht
Der Rückzug aus Serbien
Die englischen Offiziersverluste
Frankreichs Kriegskosten

1915
Bjelopolje im Sturm genommen
Abschluß der vierten Isonzoschlacht

1916
Der Buzaul-Abschnitt in breiter Front überschritten
Schwere Kämpfe bei Verdun
Neue Fortschritte in der östlichen Walachei
Ein französischer Truppentransportdampfer versenkt
Angriff deutscher Seeflugzeuge auf einen russischen Schwarzmeerhafen

1917
Lebhafte Feuertätigkeit bei Cambrai
Die bevorstehenden Friedensverhandlungen mit Rußland
Ein amerikanischer Zerstörer, 8 Dampfer von einem U-Boot versenk
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Dec 2005 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 december 1917
Washington

Terug vanuit London heeft Kolonel House aan de president te melden dat het hem niet gelukt is de geallieerden publiekelijk wat liberalere doelen te laten afkondigen voor de oorlog en vrede daarna. Wilson beseft zich dat hij de Amerikaanse doelen helder moet brengen.

Bron:
The Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poster, 17 December 1914



http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/l-bbert-poster-17-december-1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harrison Narcotics Tax Act

December 17, 1914 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914

The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1, 38 Stat. 785) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates. The act was proposed by Representative Francis Burton Harrison of New York and was approved on December 17, 1914.[1]

"An Act To provide for the registration of, with collectors of internal revenue, and to impose a special tax on all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, sell, distribute, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, derivatives, or preparations, and for other purposes." The courts interpreted this to mean that physicians could prescribe narcotics to patients in the course of normal treatment, but not for the treatment of addiction.

Although technically illegal for purposes of distribution and use, the distribution, sale and use of cocaine was still legal for registered companies and individuals.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrison_Narcotics_Tax_Act
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 17 December 1914







http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19141217.2.6
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karl Liebknecht 1914: Liebknecht’s Protest Against the War Credits
Source: Liebknecht “Liebknecht’s Protest Against the War Credits,” Justice, 17th December 1914

The “Berner Tagewacht” publishes the full text of Karl Liebknecht’s protest in the Reichstag against the voting of the war credits. The protest was suppressed in the Reichstag, and no German paper has published it. It appears that seventeen Social-Democratic members expressed their opposition to the credits on December 2, but Karl Liebknecht’s was the only vote recorded against them.

Liebknecht’s protest declares that “this war, which none of the peoples involved desired, was not started for the benefit of the German or of any other people. It is an Imperialist war, a war for capitalist domination of the world markets and for the political domination of the important countries in the interest of industrial and financial capitalism. Arising out of the armament race, it is a preventative war provoked by the German and Austrian war parties in the obscurity of semi-absolutism and of secret diplomacy.

“It is also a Buonapartist attempt tending to demoralise and destroy the growing Labour movement.”

“The German word of command ‘against Czarismus,’ like the English or French word of command ‘against militarism,’ has been the means of bringing forth the most noble instincts, the revolutionary traditions and hopes of the peoples, for the purpose of hatred among the peoples. Accomplice of ‘Czarismus,’ Germany, a model country of political reaction, possesses not the qualities necessary to play the part of a liberator of peoples ...

“This war is not a defensive war for Germany. Its historical character and the succeeding events make it impossible for us to trust a capitalist Government when it declares that it is for the defence of the country that it asks for the credits.

“A peace made as soon as possible and which will humiliate no one is what must be demanded. All efforts in that direction should be supported. A simultaneous and continual demand for such peace in all the belligerent countries will be able to stop the bloody massacre before the complete exhaustion of all the peoples concerned .....”

Liebknecht concludes his protest by declaring that he will vote in favour of anything that will lighten the hard lot of “our brothers on the field of battle, and those wounded and sick, for whom I have the warmest compassion .... But my protest is against the war, against those responsible for it, against those who are directing it; against the capitalistic ends for which it is being pursued, against the violation of the neutrality of Belgium and Luxemburg, against military dictation, and against the complete neglect of social and political duties of which the Government and the dominant class are guilty to-day.”

http://www.marxists.org/archive/liebknecht-k/works/1914/12/17.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De gevechten in de Argonnen van september 1914 tot medio 1916

Op 17 december 1914 liep de frontlijn in de Argonnen, gezien van oost naar west , van Vauquois over Boureuilles naar de heuvelrug Fille Morte en van hier via de Bolante, een heuvelachtig bosgebied op de zuidhelling van het Meuris-sondal, in de richting van Le Four de Paris. Van hier boog de frontlijn in noorde-lijke richting naar de veldversterking St Hubert, kruiste de weg Servon - Mont-blainville, waardoor in de omgeving van Servon de aansluiting met de frontlijn in de Champagne.ontstond.

De Fransen waren in de Argonnen in het defensief gedrongen en voor Joffre kans zag.hierin verandering aan te brengen door ook een offensief in te zetten, vielen de Duitsers aan. Deze aanval werd ingeluid door het laten springen van een zware mijn op minder dan 1 km van Le Four de Paris De vijandelijke stellingen werden op dit punt opgeblazen en de restanten hiervan, evenals de randen van de mijn-krater, direct bezet door de Duitsers na een hevig man-tegen-man gevecht met Franse overlevenden.

Door deze Duitse verrassingsaanval kon het Franse offensief eerst op 21 december, dus vier dagen later dan was gepland, worden ingezet. Na een zware inleidende beschieting ontstonden langs de hele frontlijn van Boureuilles tot Servon felle infanteriegevechten die echter vrijwel geen terreinwinst opleverden.Integendeel: een Duitse tegenaanval wist de Fransen nog verder terug te dringen in de richting van het Biesmedal.

Lees verder op http://www.ssew.nl/gevechten-argonnen-september-1914-tot-medio-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The winter operations 1914-1915: The defence of Givenchy, 20-21 December 1914

Order of battle: Indian Corps (Willcocks): Lahore and Meerut Divisions

Orders are received to attack at Givenchy...

Late on the night of 17 December 1914, Sir John French responded to pressure from his French allies to continue to harass the enemy and issued orders for II, III, IV and Indian Corps to attack vigorously all along their fronts the next day. This was despite the certain knowledge that similar attacks that had taken place a few days earlier had been repulsed with severe casualties. There was to be no change in approach. Frontal assaults by infantry would take place after a short bombardment - which the infantry already knew did insufficient damage to the enemy wire, trenches and machine gun posts. GHQ orders were imprecise in terms of stating the objective of theses attacks: they would only "demonstrate and seize any favourable opportunity which may offer to capture any enemy's trenches on their front". Artillery ammunition supplies were short, and no more than 40 rounds per gun would be fired; less for the heavier calibres - and most of that would be shrapnel, which was of little value for destroying wire or smashing strong points.

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/bat8.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lost Endeavour

The search for the Endeavour began on 17 December 1914, when the Werribee was despatched from Melbourne. Weather records showed that the yacht would have met heavy weather approximately 200 miles from Macquarie Island, but a thorough search showed of seas in that area showed no trace of the Endeavour.

http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/fahan_mi_shipwrecks/journals/Shipwrecks/sweandeavour13.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bombardement Tschaukaib, 1914



Description
English: Air raid of a south african military camp at the railway station Tschaukaib (german southwest africa), by k. u. k. lieutenant Fiedler, 17.12.1914
Deutsch: Bombardement des südafrikanischen Truppenlagers am Bahnhof von Tschaukaib (DSWA) durch k. u. k. Leutnant Fiedler am 17.12.1914
Date 17 December 1914
Source Koloniales Bildarchiv, Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bombardement_Tschaukaib_1914.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sgt Moses Wood, 1st Batt, Gordon Highlanders



(...) A popular man in the district he had been working as a postman in Kennethmont for some time when he was recalled to the army following the outbreak of war in August 1914. Being an experienced soldier he spent three months drilling recruits at Aberdeen, being promoted to the rank of Sergeant, before leaving for the Front on 17th December 1914 to join the 1st Batt, Gordon Highlanders. (...)

http://www.kinnethmont.co.uk/1914-1918_files/moses-wood.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEN OF THE DEVONSHIRE REGIMENT OMITTED FROM CREDITON WAR MEMORIAL 1914 - 18

Private Arthur Gillard of the 1st Battalion, the Devonshire Regiment. Son of Samuel and Ann Gillard, of 5, West St., Bampton. Born in 1894. Died 17 December 1914 aged 25.

http://www.devonheritage.org/Places/Crediton/DevonsommitedfromCreditonWarMemorial.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eerste steen regenjassenfabriek Kattenburg wordt gelegd



17-12-1915 - Freddy Kattenburg legt de eerste steen van het nieuwe gebouw van regenjassenfabriek Hollandia-Kattenburg in Amsterdam-Noord op 17 december 1915.

De meeste werknemers waren joods, net als de familie Kattenburg. Op 11 november 1942 werden alle joodse werknemers en hun familie direct naar Westerbork gestuurd of naar de strafgevangenis van Scheveningen.

Van de ruim 800 joden die als medewerker of gezinslid werden gedeporteerd hebben slechts acht de verschillende kampen overleefd.

http://www.nuentoen.nl/fotos/101309/eerste-steen-regenjassenfabriek-kattenburg-wordt-gelegd.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brittain, Vera, Letter, 17 December 1915



Lees verder op http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/brittain-vera-letter-17-december-1915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 11:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Cockchafer (1915)



HMS Cockchafer was a Royal Navy Insect class gunboat. She was built by Barclay Curle and launched on 17 December 1915 as the 5th Royal Navy ship to carry this name.[1][2] The Insect class was originally designed for service on the Danube River but most of them spent much of their service on Chinese rivers. (...)

During the First World War, Cockchafer was assigned to the defence of the south east coast of England, based at Brightlingsea.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Cockchafer_(1915)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Freud to Ludwig Binswanger, December 17, 1915

17 December 1915
Vienna IX, Berggasse 19

Dear Dr. Binswanger,

I am answering your kind letter by return of post, gratified by your interest in my news even in these times.

Well, my two sons were for a time involved in heavy fighting, but are both still alive, uninjured, decorated, and at present down south in the mountains. Last month the older one spent a ten-day leave with us, gladdening us with his appearance and good spirits. My son-in-law from Hamburg is now in training as a gunner. My middle son, the engineer, who is working on the construction of a tunnel of strategic importance, is coming to Vienna tomorrow and a day later will take his bride back with him. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.050.0135a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Aviation 1915

Sikorsky S-16



The Sikorsky S-16 (named after its designer) or RBVZ S-XVI (named after its manufacturer) was a Russian equi-span single-bay two-seat biplane designed by Igor Sikorsky in 1914-15. Conceived in response to demand for an escort fighter for the Ilya Muromets bombers. The prototype S-16 made its first flight on February 6, 1915. This prototype was fitted with an 80 hp air-cooled 7 cylinder, Gnome rotary engine instead of the intended 100hp because of supply problems. The S-16 was the first Sikorsky fighter to be equipped with a synchronized machine gun firing through the propeller. However, the synchronization left much to be desired. The S-16, with slight modifications from batch to batch survived the Revolution and were operational with the Red Air Force through the Civil War.

On 17 December 1915, the Russian government placed an order for 18 aircraft, these being delivered in early 1916.Although highly maneuverable, the S-XVI possessed a comparatively poor performance due to insufficient power. A further small batch were completed in 1917, with the aircraft being used during the Russian Revolution and staying in service until 1923.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/russia1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grigori Rasputin


Raspoetin begroet de lezers van deze rubriek vanuit het hiernamaals...

Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian mystic who is perceived as having influenced the latter days of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their only son Alexei. Rasputin had often been called the "Mad Monk", while others considered him a "strannik" (or religious pilgrim) and even a starets (ста́рец, "elder", a title usually reserved for monk-confessors), believing him to be a psychic and faith healer.

It has been argued that Rasputin helped to discredit the tsarist government, leading to the fall of the Romanov dynasty, in 1917. Contemporary opinions saw Rasputin variously as a saintly mystic, visionary, healer and prophet or, on the contrary, as a debauched religious charlatan. There has been much uncertainty over Rasputin's life and influence as accounts of his life have often been based on dubious memoirs, hearsay and legend. (...)

The murder of Rasputin has become a legend, some of it invented by the very men who killed him, which is why it has become difficult to discern the actual course of events. On December 16, 1916, having decided that Rasputin's influence over the Tsaritsa had made him a threat to the empire, a group of nobles led by Prince Felix Yusupov and the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich and the right-wing politician Vladimir Purishkevich apparently lured Rasputin to the Yusupovs' Moika Palace by intimating that Yusupov's wife, Princess Irina, would be present and receiving friends. (In point of fact, she was away in the Crimea.) The group led him down to the cellar, where they served him cakes and red wine laced with a massive amount of cyanide. According to legend, Rasputin was unaffected, although Vasily Maklakov had supplied enough poison to kill five men. Conversely, Maria's account asserts that, if her father did eat or drink poison, it was not in the cakes or wine, because after the attack by Guseva he suffered from hyperacidity and avoided anything with sugar. In fact, she expresses doubt that he was poisoned at all. It has been suggested, on the other hand, that Rasputin had developed an immunity to poison due to Mithridatism.

Determined to finish the job, Prince Yusupov became anxious about the possibility that Rasputin might live until the morning, leaving the conspirators no time to conceal his body. Yusupov ran upstairs to consult the others and then came back down to shoot Rasputin through the back with a revolver. Rasputin fell, and the company left the palace for a while. Yusupov, who had left without a coat, decided to return to get one, and while at the palace, he went to check on the body. Suddenly, Rasputin opened his eyes and lunged at Yusupov. He grabbed Yusupov, ominously whispered in his ear, "you bad boy," and attempted to strangle him. At that moment, however, the other conspirators arrived and fired at Rasputin. After being hit three times in the back, he fell once more. As they neared his body, the party found that, remarkably, he was still alive, struggling to get up. They clubbed him into submission. Some accounts say that his killers also sexually mutilated him, severing his penis (subsequently resulting in urban legends and claims that certain third parties were in possession of the organ). After binding his body and wrapping him in a carpet, they threw him into the icy Neva River. He broke out of his bonds and the carpet wrapping him, but drowned in the river.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigori_Rasputin
Zie ook http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804023731
Over deze man is zoveel geschreven, het ene Broodje Aapverhyaal na het andere. Kijk hier eens:

Rasputin’s Penis: Hoax or Not?

The Russian Museum of Erotica, newly opened in St. Petersburg, has been crowing about its acquisition of the penis of Rasputin (the mad mystic and lover of the wife of the Russian Tsar). A photo accompanying the many news reports about this unusual exhibit shows an attractive young woman staring rather in awe at the huge, grotesque thing as it floats in formaldehyde. It definitely looks like a penis, but is it Rasputin's penis (which, according to legend, was 13 inches long)?

Lees verder op http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/comments/1162/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 16 Dec 2010 12:29, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag van Verdun

21 februari 1916 - Tussen 21 februari en 17 december werd bij Verdun gevochten tussen Franse en Duitse soldaten. Frankrijk won de slag van Verdun uiteindelijk.

Het Duitse leger begon op 21 februari met de aanval in het noorden van Frankrijk met een acht uur durend offensief met artillerietrommelvuur. Veel terreinwinst leverde deze aanval echter niet op.

De Duitsers zetten 25 divisies in, maar in mei 1916 waren er hier slechts 5 van over. Toch gaven de Duitsers de slag niet op. Op 20 mei bereikten de Duitsers winst door de hoogste stelling te bezetten. Om nog eens extra kracht bij de aanvallen te zetten, werd er op 3 juni 1916 gebruik gemaakt van groenkruis gas.

Vanaf oktober moesten de Duitsers echter weer terrein prijsgeven. De Fransen wonnen steeds meer terrein terug en op 17 december 1916 wonnen de Fransen definitief de slag van Verdun. In totaal waren er 335.000 Duitse en 360.000 Franse soldaten om het leven gekomen. Tijdens de slag werden er ongeveer 36 miljoen granaten gebruikt.

http://www.nieuwsdossier.nl/dossier/1916-02-21/Slag+van+Verdun
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SM UC-76

SM UC-76 was a German Type UC II minelaying submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I. The U-boat was ordered on 12 January 1916 and was launched on 25 November 1916. She was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 17 December 1916 as SM UC-76.
In 2 patrols UC-76 was credited with sinking 15 ships, either by torpedo or by mines laid. UC-76 was surrendered on 1 December 1918 and broken up at Brighton Ferry in 1919–20.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UC-76
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lenin's Ultimatum Against Ukrainian Independence, 17 December 1917

Reproduced below is the text of Lenin's ultimatum to nationalist Ukrainians warning against a declaration of independence and of providing aid against known anti-Bolshevik forces operating within Russia.

With the disintegration of the Russian monarchy in February 1917 nationalist Ukrainian leaders (led by Vinichenko) moved swiftly to seek a form of independence within the Russian union, a desire granted by the Provisional Government in July 1917. With the success of the Bolshevik October Revolution of the same year however, the Ukrainians found themselves accused of essentially aiding and abetting anti-Bolshevik forces within Russia.

Lenin's Ultimatum to the Ukraine Warning Against Independence, 17 December 1917

The Russian Socialist Government, by the voice of the Soviet of the people's commissaries, once more confirms the independent national rights of all the nationalities that were oppressed by the Tsarist-Great Russian bourgeoisie, even to the point of recognizing the right of these nationalities to separate themselves from Russia.

Consequently, we, the Soviet of the commissaries of the people, recognize the right of the Ukrainian People's Republic to separate itself entirely from Russia and to enter into pourparlers with the Russian Republic on the subject of the determination of federal or other mutual relations to be established between the two republics.

All that concerns the national rights and the independence of the Ukraine we, the commissaries of the people, freely recognize without any limits or conditions.

As regards the bourgeois Republic of Finland, which is still bourgeois, we will not make a gesture toward restricting its national rights or toward interfering with the independence of the Finnish people. We will not make a movement against the national independence of any people belonging to the Russian Federation.

Nevertheless, we accuse the Rada of Ukraine of the fact that, under cover of phrases and declarations regarding national independence, it has given itself over to a systematic bourgeois policy, under which neither the Rada nor the Soviets of Ukrainia are willing to recognize the action of our Soviet over their country.

Among other things, the Rada has refused to call immediately the Soviets of Ukrainia in a general assembly, as they demand.

This double-faced policy, which deprives us of the possibility of recognizing the Rada as authorized representative of the labouring masses (exploited as they are by the Ukrainian Republic), has latterly reached a point where it has practically annihilated every possibility of accord with us.

This attitude in the beginning disorganized the front. Through its manifestos addressed to the Ukrainian troops at the front, the Rada destroyed its unity and provoked division at a time when unity was possible only by following the path of systematic accord between the Governments of the two republics.

In the second place, the Rada has been guilty of dispersing the troops in the Ukraine that were faithful to the Soviets.

In the third place, the Rada is lending assistance to the plots of Kaledine by taking its stand against the influence of the Soviets and by meddling effectively with the autonomous rights of the Don and Kuban Provinces.

By sheltering the counter-revolutionary movement of Kaledine, and by running counter to the will of the great mass of Cossack workmen in allowing the armies favourable to Kaledine to pass through the Ukraine, and at the same time refusing such passage to the armies hostile to that General, the Rada is opening the way to an unheard-of treason against the revolution.

By supporting the worst enemies of the national independence of the peoples of Russia - the Cadets and the partisans of Kaledine - the Rada may oblige us to declare war upon it; and this we would do without any hesitation, even if that institution were formally recognized as representing incontestably the entire population of the independent and bourgeois Republic of the Ukraine.

For the reasons given, the Council of The People's Commissaries, calling to witness the Ukrainian People's Republic, submits to the Rada the following questions:

1. Does the Rada promise to renounce in future all action for the disorganization of the common front?

2. Does the Rada promise to refuse in future to permit the passage over Ukrainian territory of any troops going into the region of the Don, the Urals, or elsewhere, and never to permit such passage without first having obtained the authorization of our Generalissimo?

3. Does the Rada promise to lend assistance to the armies of the revolution in the struggle against the counter-revolutionary forces of the Cadets and of Kaledine?

4. Does the Rada promise to put an end to the attempts to crush the armies of the Soviet and of the Red Guard in the Ukraine, and return their arms, immediately and without delay, to those from whom they have been taken?

In case a satisfactory reply has not been received within twenty-four hours, the Soviet of the People's Commissaries will consider the Rada in a state of war with the influence of the Soviet in Russia and in the Ukraine.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukraine_lenin1.htm
Zie ook http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Ukraine/sovukwar_E.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 16 Dec 2010 12:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad - 17-12-1917

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1917/1217
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadian federal election, 1917

The 1917 Canadian federal election (sometimes referred to as the khaki election) was held on December 17, 1917, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 13th Parliament of Canada. Described by historian Michael Bliss as the "most bitter election in Canadian history", it was fought mainly over the issue of conscription. The election resulted in Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden's Unionist government elected with a strong majority, and the largest percent share of the popular vote for a single party in Canadian history.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_federal_election,_1917
Zie ook

Conscription Crisis of 1917

The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (French: Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Food rationing

The first place where rationing was imposed on civilians in Britain was Pontypool, in Wales. It came into force on 17 December 1917 and extended the existing sugar card to cover tea, butter, margarine, cheese and lard. On 1 January 1918 rationing was introduced for 300,000 people in the Birmingham area. Other parts of the country followed very swiftly.

http://www.hibbert-assembly.org.uk/food/rationing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Halifax Disaster

On the morning of 6 December 1917, Halifax was shaken by a disaster which has since been unparalleled: the collision of two ships in the harbour resulted in a catastrophic explosion that left devastation and death in its wake.

Shortly after the Halifax Explosion, Archibald MacMechan was commissioned to record an official history of the event. He headed the Halifax Disaster Record Office which began gathering facts and stories on 17 December 1917. The resulting report contains a wealth of information on the events leading up to the explosion as well as the aftermath, including individuals’ experiences of the disaster and stories of survivors who tended to others before treating their own wounds.

MacMechan’s document and photos provide key insight into the days immediately following the disaster and how the Halifax citizens coped with the destruction.

Kijk hier: http://www.library.dal.ca/DUASC/Digital-Collections/HalifaxDisaster/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Garret Anderson



Elizabeth Garrett Anderson was born in Whitechapel, east London in 1836. She became the first Englishwoman to qualify as a doctor and was a political and healthcare campaigner. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, like Florence Nightingale, received a good education and was expected to marry well and live the life of a lady. However meetings with the feminist Emily Davies and Elizabeth Blackwell, the first American woman physician, convinced Elizabeth that she should become a doctor. (...)

In 1908, Anderson became the first female mayor in England and was a member of the suffragette movement. She died on 17th December 1917.

http://www.florence-nightingale.co.uk/cms/index.php/victorians/garret-anderson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DECEMBER 17, 1918 AND THE BIRTH OF THE CARIBBEAN NATION

Caribbean nationhood was born in Taranto, Italy, on this day (December 17) in 1918 when West Indian soldiers came together to form the Caribbean League, calling for independence for the West Indies and the creation of West Indian federation. The soldiers- members of the British West Indian Regiment - were brought to Italy after having served in France and other European theatres, and as well as in Egypt, Palestine and Mesopotamia (Iraq). The men complained bitterly of having been subjected to racial discrimination, especially at the hands of South African officers. Things took a turn for the worse in Italy, where the West Indians were made to clean latrines, among a host of other menial tasks. The formation of the Caribbean League came in the wake of a 4-day mutiny, which was only suppressed when machine gun units were brought in . The so-called "ringleaders" of the revolt were hastily tried and several were sentenced to prison terms of up to twenty years; one man was executed. But imprisonment and an execution did not put the authorities' mind at ease: they worried that the "boys" will return home and stir up trouble. Therefore, many of these boys were strongly "encouraged" to go Cuba. Some heeded that advice, but the majority returned home and some went on to make trouble. In Grenada an ex-soldier by the name of Tubal Uriah Butler ( he fought in Egypt) was in the thick of things within a few weeks of his return from the war: Butler (1897-1977) formed an ex-soldiers' organization and he agitated for civil and political rights for the black masses. Tubal Butler's campaigns coincided with a spate of fires and robberies in the Grenadian capital, St George's. These robberies seemed especially bold, for the robbers left a neatly typed noted at the scene of every one of their crimes. The note read: "Sir/Madam, You had a visit from TTT Gang"; the idea came from a movie that was then playing at the Grenada Electric Theatre. Panic broke out and the Grenadian constabulary started to point accusatory fingers at Tubal Butler. With the police on his case, Tubal packed up and left Grenada in January 1921 to join an older brother in Trinidad. The rest is written in the history of Trinidad and Tobago. December 17 is a very special day in the evolution of a Caribbean consciousness.

http://www.bigdrumnation.org/notes/dec17cbirth.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 12:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Republiek Letland (1918-1940)

De Republiek Letland is de naam voor Letland tussen 1918 en 1940; tegenwoordig heet het land officieel ook zo.

(...) Op 17 december 1918 werd in Valka de Letse Socialistische Sovjetrepubliek uitgeroepen. Voor de Letse bolsjevieken was het een koud kunstje om de Duitse bezetters in januari 1919 uit Riga te verdrijven om vervolgens het communisme in Letland in te voeren. Ze begonnen meteen met de klassenstrijd - 3632 "contrarevolutionairen" werden gefusilleerd. De produktiemiddelen werden razendsnel onteigend maar al snel brak een hongersnood uit.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republiek_Letland_(1918-1940)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 13:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

17 December 1919 → Commons Sitting

BOLSHEVIST INTRIGUE
.

HC Deb 17 December 1919 vol 123 cc373-4 373

Lieut.-Colonel Sir SAMUEL HOARE asked the Secretary of State for India whether he can make any statement as to the extent and success of Bolshevist intrigue in Afghanistan and India?

The SECRETARY of STATE for INDIA (Mr. Montagu) As regards Bolshevist relations with Afghanistan, I do 374 not think I can usefully add anything material to the information published in the newspapers, which my hon. and gallant Friend has no doubt seen. Bolshevik missions have been received in Kabul, but I can make no statement as to their success. I have no reason to think that the well-known desire of the Bolshevists to spread their doctrines in India has met with any success.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/dec/17/bolshevist-intrigue
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening public ledger, (Philadelphia), December 17, 1914, Night Extra

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045211/1914-12-17/ed-1/seq-1/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Dec 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

25TH CANADIAN INFANTRY BATTALION - WAR DIARY TRANSCRIPTION

Thu., Dec 17, 1914 - HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA
Battalion recruited to full strengh (oed establishment)
Major General S. HUGHES and SiR ROBERT BORDEN inspected the Battalion. Both addressed them

http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/War%20Diaries/transcribed/bn025/bn025y1914.pdf
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