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The day it rained shells.

 
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Tandorini



Geregistreerd op: 11-6-2007
Berichten: 6848
Woonplaats: Laarne

BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 11:57    Onderwerp: The day it rained shells. Reageer met quote

Bombardment of Hartlepool
Hartlepool became the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans.

Over 100 people died as more than 1,000 shells rained down on the town for about 40 minutes from the three heavy cruisers Blucher, Seydlitz and Moltke which emerged from the mist shortly after 8am on December 16 1914. Amongst the casualties was Theo Jones, the first soldier to die on British soil in the Great War.

The previous evening four battle cruisers, 'Seydlitz', 'Moltke', 'Von der Tann' and 'Derrflinger'; one heavy cruiser, 'Blucher', four light cruisers and two flottillas of destroyers had left their base, heading out into the North Sea. The intention was to bombard Hartlepool and Scarborough, both were by now fortified towns and considered legitimate targets.

Verder lezen:
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/bombardmentofhartlepool.asp

Zie ook:
http://rememberwhen.gazettelive.co.uk/2009/12/the-bombardment-of-hartlepool.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raid_on_Scarborough,_Hartlepool_and_Whitby



Sussex Street (links) en Mary Street (rechts), na het Bombardement.

History of Hartlepool
Hartlepool has a long proud history. Hartlepool was originally two towns, the ancient town of Old Hartlepool, known locally as the Headland, and the more recent West Hartlepool. They amalgamated in 1967 to form what is now the single entity known as Hartlepool.

Surrounded on three sides by the sea, the Magnesium Limestone headland or peninsula called the Heugh at Hartlepool is more familiarly known as Old Hartlepool.

Verder lezen:
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/index.asp

History of the Heugh Battery
Heugh Battery and its sister sites were first conceived in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars to protect the important port and ship building centre of Hartlepool from attack by sea.

In 1859 a more substantial battery was constructed, which required the sealing of ancient caves in the cliffs below the site. The new Heugh Battery covered the gap in the arc of fire between the two other (Lighthouse battery and Fairy Cove all built at the same time) batteries. Over the next few decades the batteries were repeatedly upgraded with heavier, more accurate guns, and better defences.

Verder lezen:
http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/History_of_the_Heugh_Battery.asp

Hartlepool, Heugh Battery and the Bombardment
Unable to face the British fleet in a full scale battle the German navy decided to carry out a raid that would draw a smaller number of British battleships into an ambush in the North Sea and on the morming of 16th December 1914 the towns of Hartlepool, Scarborough and Whitby were shelled. Only Hartlepool was defended, both by the batteries and naval vessels and a full scale engagement developed in which 101 civilians, 9 soldiers, 4 sailors and 9 German seamen were killed and much property damaged.

Both batteries fought back bravely but were hampered by misfiring guns and dud ammunition. Fortunately the Germans were using standard anti ship ammunition with time delay fuses which bounced off the gun aprons to explode behind the batteries otherwise casualties anong the gunners would have been far higher. Lighthouse Battery did particularly well as one shot seems to have temporarily disabled the Blucher almost forcing her to run aground.

For their bravery the Gun Captains at the Heugh were awarded the first ever pair of Military Medals and the Lighthouse Gun Sergeant won the Distinguished Conduct Medal. Controversially the commander also won a number of awards but his subordinates who actually fought the action went unrewarded thanks to their German ancestry.

Foto's:
http://www.panoramio.com/photo/25809887
http://www.throughtheireyes2.co.uk/HARTLEPOOL-BOMBARDMENT-1914.html

Germany's High Sea Fleet in the World War
Chapter 6a - Bombardment of Scarborough and Hartlepool, and the Battle of the Dogger Bank.

IN the first months of the war many efforts had been made to conduct our operations in a way that would cause the enemy such losses as would enable us to speak of a real equalisation of forces. But in vain. The results of our mine-laying were unknown, while the successes of our submarines did not weigh much in the scale, as the ships they torpedoed had no fighting value. On the other hand, raids by our cruisers were much more likely to bring considerable portions of the English Fleet out of their harbours and thus give our Fleet a favourable chance of intervening if it kept in close touch with its cruisers. For this purpose our cruisers would in any case have to go far beyond the limits of distance they had hitherto observedónot more than 100 nautical miles from Heligoland. Then only would our cruisers begin to have some real effect. Within the limits imposed upon him the Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet had described the efforts we had madeócruisers had put to sea, minelaying was carried out continuously in spite of the losses we had suffered, submarines had done far more than was expected of them, were untiring in their efforts and had penetrated as far as the English coasts, yet for the Fleet itself these operations had proved a disappointment. Strategical reasons had made it necessary to keep our Fleet back, and this looked like a want of confidence and affected the moral of the men, and gradually lowered their belief in their own efficiency to a regrettable degree. An impressive recital of these facts with the request that the Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet should be allowed greater latitude was met with a decided rebuff. The grounds of this refusal, as communicated by the Naval Staff, ran somewhat as follows:

Verder lezen:
http://www.richthofen.com/scheer/scheer06a.htm

Een artikel (8 pagina's met foto's) over dit bombardement kan je ook lezen in het 'Britain at War magazine'.
http://www.britain-at-war-magazine.com/
_________________
"Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae"
"Van hen(de GalliŽrs) allemaal zijn de Belgen de dappersten"
Julius Caesar(100 VC - 44 VC)
http://nl.escertico.wikia.com/wiki/Militaria_Wiki
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Tandorini



Geregistreerd op: 11-6-2007
Berichten: 6848
Woonplaats: Laarne

BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Aug 2011 19:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Foto's op flickr:

The bombardment of Hartlepool is one of the most significant events in the townís history. Although World War I had started several months before, the British public were not prepared for what was about to happen. On the morning of Wednesday 16th December 1914 Hartlepool came under attack. This was the first time British civilians had been in the line of enemy fire during a World War. The event would act as a prelude to the later Zeppelin, bomber airplane and V-weapons attacks on Britain.

The people of Hartlepool were going about their daily business as three German warships, Seydlitz, Moltke and Blucher, led by Vice Admiral Hipper, approached the coastline. The warships had been met further out at sea by the British destroyers, Doon, Test, Waveney and Moy. Attempts were made to stop the warships going further but the British destroyers had to admit defeat. Other efforts to prevent the bombardment were made by the light cruiser HMS Patrol and submarine C9 but both ran aground.

Nobody in Hartlepool was aware of what had happened out at sea and what followed took the town completely by surprise. Shortly after 8am the three warships began firing shells, continuing to do so for about 40 minutes. The coastal defence batteries were the main target and the lines of communication were quickly cut.

The coastal defences of the port were made up of the Heugh Battery, which had two six inch guns and the Lighthouse Battery, which had one six inch gun. The coastal batteries, manned by the Durham Royal Garrison Artillery, fired 123 rounds. Two companies from the 18th Battalion of the Durham Light Infantry were also stationed in Hartlepool at this time. Some damage was inflicted on the German warship Blucher and some of the crew were killed and injured but despite efforts to defend the town, the two batteries were outgunned by the German warships.

Over 1000 shells were fired during the bombardment causing much devastation to the town and its people. More than 100 people were killed and in excess of 200 were injured. Many buildings were damaged or destroyed. Here are some of the photographs from our collection, which show the aftermath of the bombardment.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/hartlepool_museum/sets/72157626406678761/
_________________
"Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae"
"Van hen(de GalliŽrs) allemaal zijn de Belgen de dappersten"
Julius Caesar(100 VC - 44 VC)
http://nl.escertico.wikia.com/wiki/Militaria_Wiki
Naar boven
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