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18 september

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2006 6:44    Onderwerp: 18 september Reageer met quote

Ein französischer Hilfskreuzer bei Rhodos torpediert

Paris, 18. September.
"Temps" meldet, daß ein feindliches Unterseeboot in der Reede von Rhodos den französischen Hilfskreuzer "Indien" torpedierte und versenkte. "Indien" war in den Gewässern von Adalia gekapert worden, als er Kriegskonterbande beförderte. "Indien" hatte eine Wasserverdrängung von zirka 800 Tonnen. Seine Besatzung bestand aus 62 Offizieren und Matrosen. 11 Mann werden vermißt.


Großes Hauptquartier, 18. September.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Feindliche Schiffe, die sich vor Dünkirchen zeigten, wurden von unseren Fliegern angegriffen. Ein Zerstörer wurde getroffen.
Die Franzosen versuchten vergeblich, das ihnen bei Perthes entrissene Grabenstück zurückzugewinnen.

Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Hindenburg:
Feindliche Vorstöße bei Schlok sind abgeschlagen; der Angriff auf den Brückenkopf vor Dünaburg wird fortgesetzt; Teile der feindlichen Vorstellungen sind genommen. Bei Wilna sind unsere Truppen im weiteren Vorgehen.
Zwischen Wilija und Njemen wurde die russische Front an verschiedenen Stellen durchbrochen; seit heute früh ist der Feind im Rückzug. - Es wurden 26 Offiziere und 5380 Mann zu Gefangenen gemacht und 16 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Der rechte Flügel und die Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinz Leopold von Bayern haben starke Kräfte über die Szczara gebracht; der Feind beginnt zu weichen.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Gegend von Telechany, Logischin und südöstlich von Pinsk ist der Feind weiter zurückgedrängt. Die Beute bei der Verfolgung auf Pinsk hat sich auf 21 Offiziere, 2500 Mann, 9 Maschinengewehre erhöht.

Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Vor den deutschen Truppen haben die Russen den Rückzug angetreten.
Die Beute von Nowo-Georgiewsk beträgt jetzt nach abgeschlossener Zählung 1640 Geschütze, 23219 Gewehre, 103 Maschinengewehre, 160000 Schuß Artilleriemunition, 7098000 Gewehrpatronen
Die Zahl der bei Kowno erbeuteten Geschütze ist auf 1301 gestiegen.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2006 7:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 18. September 1914

ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT


Heeresfürsorge im Osten

Berlin, 18. September. (W. B.)
Durch das vorübergehende Eindringen der Russen in Ostpreußen war eine große Anzahl von Lazaretten und Krankenanstalten völlig ausgeplündert werden. Da nach einem hierher gelangten Bericht der Ersatz von Sanitätsmaterial und Verbandmitteln noch nicht allenthalben durchgeführt zu sein scheint, entsendet das Kriegsministerium einen Kommissar dorthin, dem mit Verbandmitteln, ärztlichen Geräten und Lebensmitteln gefüllte Autos beigegeben sind, um dort an Ort und Stelle sofort alles Fehlende für den ersten Bedarf zu ergänzen. Die Versorgung der Truppen mit warmem Unterzeug für die kalte Jahreszeit gehört mit vielen andern Maßnahmen zu den Mobilmachungsvorarbeiten der Heeresverwaltung. Warmes Unterzeug ist ebenso wie Waffen, Bekleidung, Verbandpäckchen usw. für jeden einzelnen Mann in Heeresstärke sichergestellt und gelangt demnächst zur Ausgabe an die Truppe. Dazu gehören wollene Unterjacken, Unterhosen, Strümpfe, Pulswärmer und Kopfschützer. Wenn private Sammlungen nebenher den gleichen Zweck verfolgen, kann das selbstverständlich nur willkommen geheißen werden und die Anregung des Kronprinzen in dieser Hinsicht ist höchst dankenswert. Besonders Strümpfe und Pulswärmer sind ja rasch verschlissen und können nicht genug vorhanden sein. 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der Zusammenbruch der serbischen Offensive

Wien, 18. September. (W. B.)
Amtlich wird mitgeteilt:
Serbien versucht durch Nachrichten über Niederlagen der österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen im Auslande Stimmung zu machen. Demgegenüber braucht nur auf die amtlichen Presse-Communiques verwiesen zu werden. Hiernach überschritten wir die Drina und haben alle Versuche des Feindes, in Syrmien und im Banat Fuß zu fasset vollständig und erfolgreich abgewiesen.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor.

Wien, 18. September. (W. B.)
Über den Zusammenbruch der serbischen Offensive gegen Syrmien und das Banat erfährt die "Südslawische Korrespondenz" von besonderer Seite aus Essegg:
Kurz nach der Vernichtung der serbischen Timokdivision bei Mitrovitza drangen reguläre serbische Truppen sowie größere Banden Komitatschis, nach amtlichen Mitteilungen etwa 15 000 Mann stark, gleichzeitig an mehreren Stellen in Syrmien und im Banat ein. Unsere Aufklärungstruppen stellten ihren Vormarsch bereits im ersten Augenblick fest; man ließ sie aber ebenso wie vorher die Timokdivision unbehelligt über die Save einmarschieren. Als die Serben gegen India verrückten, wurden sie von unseren Truppen gestellt. Bald griffen auch unsere Verstärkungen aus Peterwardein ein, worauf der Kampf einen raschen, für den Feind ungünstigen Verlauf nahm. Die Serben erlitten durch unsere Artillerie furchtbare Verluste. Ein glückliches Umgehungsmanöver schnitt einen Teil der Serben von dem Rückzugswege ab, so daß die eingedrungenen serbischen Treppen eine katastrophale Niederlage erlitten. Die Zahl der gefallenen Serben dürfte mit 3000 Mann eher zu niedrig als zu hoch veranschlagt sei. Viele Tausende wurden gefangen. Auch die in Südungarn (Banat) eingefallenen serbischen Treppen wurden von einer fast völligen Vernichtung ereilt, so daß kaum ein Bruchteil wieder auf serbischen Boden zurückgelangte. Kein Serbe weilt derzeit mehr auf unserem Boden.

Wien, 18. September. (W. B.)
Die von dem russischen Roten Kreuz aufgestellte Behauptung, daß die österreichisch- ungarischen Truppen für ihre Gewehre oder Maschinengewehre Explosivkugeln verwenden oder auch nur mit solchen ausgerüstet sind, ist tendenziöse Erfindung. 2)


Die Schlacht im Westen

Paris, 18. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Das offizielle Bulletin vom 18. September nachmittags 3 Uhr sagt, die französische Linke sei nördlich der Aisne an drei Punkten "leicht vorgestoßen". Im Zentrum und auf der Rechten seien die Deutschen in der Defensive.

Paris, 18. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die offiziellen Bulletins besagen, auch nach dem dritten Schlachttage an der Aisne sei die Lage im ganzen unverändert. Die Deutschen verschanzten sich zwischen den Argonnen und der Maas, weshalb die Aktion der Verbündeten sich verlangsamt habe. Frankreich hat bis jetzt keine Verlustlisten veröffentlicht, doch sind die Zeitungen mit Todesanzeigen gefüllt. Sehr wirksam waren nach Aussagen von Offizieren die deutschen Maschinengewehre, doch warte jetzt die französische Infanterie mit ihrem Vorgehen ab, bis die Artillerie das Gelände gesäubert habe. 2)


Ein amtlicher Bericht über die Lage in Löwen

Berlin, 18. September. (W. B.)
Ein "Die Lage in Löwen" betitelter Artikel der "Norddeutschen Allgemeinen Zeitung" bringt den Bericht eines dienstlich nach Löwen entsandten Beamten des Kaiserlichen Generalgouvernements in Brüssel, in dem festgestellt wird, daß nur ein Fünftel bis ein Sechstel Löwens in Trümmern liegt. Die meisten öffentlichen Gebäude sind erhalten geblieben, vor allem das herrliche Rathaus. Die Peterskirche ist nur so beschädigt, daß ihre Wiederherstellung leicht wieder möglich ist. Auch konnten alle wertvolleren Gegenstände durch unsere Soldaten aus der Kirche gerettet werden. Die Erhaltung der Kunstschätze ist vor allem auf das umsichtige Eingreifen des Etappenkommandeurs, des Majors von Manteuffel und des Obersten Bock von den Eisenbahntruppen zurückzuführen, die alles taten, um eine Ausdehnung des Brandes zu verhüten; insbesondere setzte sich Major von Manteuffel für die Rettung des Rathauses und die Erhaltung der Benediktinerabtei Mocesar ein. Die Rechtspflege konnte wieder aufgenommen werden; die Gerichte unterstützten die Militärbehörde wirksam durch ihr Vorgehen gegen das Gesindel. Da der Ortskommandant ständig den ansässigen Elementen die Rückkehr gestattet, macht sich bereits eine Wiederzunahme der Bevölkerung bemerkbar. Eine Reihe von Verkaufsläden ist wieder geöffnet und die Kleinbahn Löwen-Brüssel nimmt den Verkehr in gewissem Umfange wieder auf, sodaß den blühenden Bierbrauereien Löwens, die allgemein wieder im Gange sind, die Möglichkeit der Verfrachtung wieder gegeben ist.
Ferner können durch die Kleinbahn die für Löwen notwendigen Lebensmittel herangeschafft werden. Auch die öffentlichen Dienste sind nach Möglichkeit wieder in Gang gesetzt. 2)


Vor Antwerpen

Amsterdam, 18. September.
"Nieuws van den Tag" meldet aus Antwerpen vom 17. September ds.: Heute früh flog eine deutsche "Taube" aus westlicher Richtung kommend über die Stadt. Sie wurde durch einen belgischen Zweidecker vertrieben, der sie eine Strecke südlich verfolgte. In der Umgebung von Dendermonde wurde heute zwischen Deutschen und Belgiern gekämpft. 2)


Englands neue Heere

Kriegsminister Lord Kitchener
Kriegsminister Lord Kitchener

London, 18. September. (Priv.-Tel.)
Kitchener kündigte an, daß neue Heere von 500000 Mann "fast fertig" seien. Im Oberhaus erklärte er, daß sechs englische Infanterie- und zwei Reiterdivisionen auf dem Festland stünden. Kanada sende 40000 Mann, wovon 15000 als Reserve; Ceylon sende ein Hilfskorps, das wahrscheinlich nach Ägypten gehe.
Redmond schlug die Bildung einer irischen Brigade vor. Churchill ließ in Chatham verkünden, der Friede dürfte erst geschlossen werden, wenn der "preußische Militarismus" vernichtet sei.2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im September 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2006 7:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918 : Battle of Epehy

On this day in 1918, near the French village of Epehy, the British 4th Army, commanded by Sir Henry Rawlinson, attacks German forward outposts in front of the Hindenburg Line, Germany’s last line of defense on the Western Front during World War I.

Named by the British for the German commander in chief, Paul von Hindenburg—the Germans referred to it as the Siegfried Line—the Hindenburg Line was a semi-permanent line of defenses that Hindenburg ordered created several miles behind the German front lines in late 1916. The following spring, the German army made a well-planned withdrawal to this heavily fortified defensive zone, burning and looting villages and countryside as they passed, in order to buy themselves time and confuse the Allied plans of attack. By early September 1918, Allied forces had effectively countered the major German spring offensive of that year and had reached the furthest forward positions of the Hindenburg Line, considered by many on both sides to be impregnable.

Reluctant to launch an offensive attack on the line itself, the British commander in chief, Sir Douglas Haig, at first overruled a planned assault by General Rawlinson of the 4th Army against the established and heavily fortified German positions. On the heels of Allied successes at Havrincourt and Saint-Mihiel—executed by British and American forces respectively—Haig changed his mind and authorized the attack by all three corps of Rawlinson’s army, aided by a corps of the 3rd Army fresh from its success at Havrincourt.

The British-led assault went ahead on the morning of September 18, 1918, with a creeping artillery barrage from approximately 1,500 guns, as well as 300 machine guns. Although the Germans held steady on both flanks, they were soundly defeated in the center by the Allied advance, led by two Australian divisions under General John Monash. By the end of the day, the Allies had advanced some three miles, a modest result that nonetheless encouraged Haig and his fellow commanders to proceed with further attacks to capitalize on the emerging German weaknesses. By the end of the month, pressing their advantage and pushing ahead with their so-called "Hundred Days Offensive," the Allies had done the seemingly impossible: broken the formidable Hindenburg Line.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2006 21:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Centralen :

Geen verliezen op zee

Geallieerden :

1917 : Britse destroyer Contest loopt op een drijvende torpedo in het Kanaal en zinkt. Het Q-schip Glenfoyle wordt ten zuidwesten van Ierland gezonken door een torpedo van U43
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2007 12:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karl Ratay was vier jaar krijgsgevangen om nog geen twee maanden voor de wapenstilstand te overlijden aan de griep. Zijn familie hoorde het pas na de wapenstilstand.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Siege of Tsingtao, 18 September-6 November 1914

Tsingtao was the most important German possession in China. At the end of the nineteenth century German had gained control of part of the Shandong peninsula, and founded a port at Tsingtao (an earlier Chinese plan to do the same thing had come to nothing). The port then became the headquarters of the German Far East Squadron. At the start of the First World War that squadron was under the command of Admiral Graf von Spee. On learning of the outbreak of war, he took the fleet out of Tsingtao to avoid getting trapping in port. His squadron inflicted an early defeat on the British at the battle of Coronel (1 November 1914), before being destroyed at the battle of the Falkland Islands on 8 December 1914.

The Germans had a 4,000 strong garrison in Tsingtao. This may have been enough to deter an early British attack, but at the end of August 1914 Japan joined the war on the Allied side, hoping to gain control of the German empire in the Far East.

The attack on Tsingtao began on 18 September 1914 when 23,000 Japanese troops landed above the city and began to prepare for a formal siege, digging siege parallels that slowly approached the city. At the same time a Japanese fleet prepared to bombard the port. The Japanese were joined by a small force of British troops (1,500 strong) as well as a squadron of British warships. Tsingtao came under bombardment from land and sea while the siege works approached the city.

The final assault came on the night of 6-7 November. The allies fought their way into the main line of defence, capturing most of the important strong points. The Japanese suffered 1,800 casualties, the Germans around 700 and the British only 70. Many of the Japanese casualties came when a cruiser was sunk by a mine. The next morning (7 November) the German garrison surrendered. The Japanese would go on to capture Germany’s island possessions in the Pacific (several of these islands would go on to play an important role in the Second World War).

Rickard, J (10 August 2007), Siege of Tsingtao, 18 September-6 November 1914 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_tsingtao.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British 'Eye Witness' Journalist Reports, 18 September 1914

Reproduced below are extracts from the wartime reports written by the official British War Correspondent, Colonel Ernest Swinton. Writing under the byline 'Eye Witness', Swinton's reports were personally reviewed and censored by Lord Kitchener, the War Minister - but were nevertheless widely regarded as a largely fair and accurate summary of events on the ground.

The batch of Swinton's notes below deal with events at the First Battle of the Aisne in September 1914, a struggle which immediately followed upon the German retreat from Paris at the First Battle of the Marne.

Swinton later gained renown as one of the (many) fathers of British tank development.

The Battle of the Aisne - 'Eye Witness' Reports by Official British War Correspondent E. D. Swinton

General Headquarters, September 18, 1914.

September 14th, the Germans were making a determined resistance along the River Aisne. Opposition, which it was at first thought might possibly be of a rearguard nature, not entailing material delay to our progress, developed and proved to be more serious than was anticipated.

The action, now being fought by the Germans along their line, may, it is true, have been undertaken in order to gain time for some strategic operation or move, and may not be their main stand. But, if this is so, the fighting is naturally on a scale which as to extent of ground covered and duration of resistance, makes it undistinguishable in its progress from what is known as a "pitched battle," though the enemy certainly showed signs of considerable disorganization during the earlier days of their retirement phase.

Whether it was originally intended by them to defend the position they took up as strenuously as they have done, or whether the delay, gained for them during the 12th and 13th by their artillery, has enabled them to develop their resistance and force their line to an extent not originally contemplated cannot be said.

So far as we are concerned the action still being contested is the battle of the Aisne. The foe we are fighting is just across the river along the whole of our front to the east and west. The struggle is not confined to the valley of that river, though it will probably bear its name.

The progress of our operations and the French armies nearest us for the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th will now be described.

On Monday, the 14th, those of our troops which had on the previous day crossed the Aisne, after driving in the German rear guards on that evening, found portions of the enemy's forces in prepared defensive positions on the right bank and could do little more than secure a footing north of the river. This, however, they maintained in spite of two counter-attacks delivered at dusk and 10 p.m., in which the fighting was severe.

During the 14th, strong re-enforcements of our troops were passed to the north bank, the troops crossing by ferry, by pontoon bridges, and by the remains of permanent bridges. Close cooperation with the French forces was maintained and the general progress made was good, although the opposition was vigorous and the state of the roads, after the heavy rains, made movements slow. One division alone failed to secure the ground it expected to.

The First Army Corps, after repulsing repeated attacks, captured 600 prisoners and twelve guns. The cavalry also took a number of prisoners. Many of the Germans taken belong to the reserve and Landwehr formations, which fact appears to indicate that the enemy is compelled to draw on other classes of soldiers to fill the gaps in his ranks.

There was a heavy rain throughout the night of September 14th-15th, and during the 15th. The situation of the British forces underwent no essential change. But it became more and more evident that the defensive preparations made by the enemy were more extensive than was at first apparent.

In order to counterbalance these, measures were taken by us to economize our troops and to secure protection from the hostile artillery fire, which was very fierce; and our men continued to improve their own entrenchments. The Germans bombarded our lines nearly all day, using heavy guns, brought, no doubt, from before Maubeuge, as well as those with the corps.

All their counter-attacks, however, failed, although in some places they were repeated six times. One made on the Fourth Guard Brigade was repulsed with heavy slaughter.

An attempt to advance slightly, made by part of our line, was unsuccessful as regards gain of ground, but led to the withdrawal of part of the enemy's infantry and artillery. Further counter-attacks made during the night were beaten off. Rain came on toward evening and continued intermittently until 9 a.m. on the 16th. Besides adding to the discomfort of the soldiers holding the line, the wet weather to some extent hampered the motor transport service, which was also hindered by broken bridges.

On Wednesday, the 16th, there was little change in the situation opposite the British. The efforts made by the enemy were less active than on the previous day, although their bombardment continued throughout the morning and evening. Our artillery fire drove the defenders off one of the salients of their position, but they returned in the evening. Forty prisoners were taken by the Third Division.

On Thursday, the 17th, the situation still remained unchanged in its essentials. The German heavy artillery fire was more active than on the previous day. The only infantry attacks made by the enemy were on the extreme right of our position, and, as had happened before, were repulsed with heavy loss, chiefly, on this occasion, by our field artillery.

In order to convey some idea of the nature of the fighting it may be said that along the greater part of our front the Germans have been driven back from the forward slopes on the north of the river. Their infantry are holding strong lines of trenches among and along the edge of the numerous woods which crown the slopes. These trenches are elaborately constructed and cleverly concealed. In many places there are wire entanglements and lengths of rabbit fencing.

Both woods and open are carefully aligned, so that they can be swept by rifle fire and machine guns, which are invisible from our side of the valley. The ground in front of the infantry trenches is also, as a rule, under crossfire from the field artillery placed on neighbouring features and under high-angle fire from pieces placed well back behind the woods on top of the plateau.

A feature of this action, as of the previous fighting, is the use by the enemy of their numerous heavy howitzers, with which they are able to direct long-range fire all over the valley and right across it. Upon these they evidently place great reliance.

Where our men are holding the forked edges of the high ground on the north side they are now, strongly entrenched. They are well fed, and in spite of the wet weather of the last week are cheerful and confident.

The bombardment by both sides has been very heavy, and on Sunday, Monday and Tuesday was practically continuous. Nevertheless, in spite of the general din caused by the reports of the immense number of heavy guns in action along our front on Wednesday, the arrival of the French force acting against the German right flank was at once announced on the east of our front, some miles away, by the continuous roar of their quick-firing artillery, with which their attack was opened.

So far as the British are concerned, the greater part of this week has been passed in bombardment, in gaining ground by degrees, and in beating back severe counter-attacks with heavy slaughter. Our casualties have been severe, but it is probable that those of the enemy are heavier.

The rain has caused a great drop in the temperature, and there is more than a distinct feeling of autumn in the air, especially in the early mornings.

On our right and left the French have been fighting fiercely and have also been gradually gaining ground. One village has already during this battle been captured and recaptured twice by each side, and at the time of writing remains in the hands of the Germans.

The fighting has been at close quarters and of the most desperate nature, and the streets of the village are filled with dead on both sides.

The Germans are a formidable enemy, well trained, long prepared, and brave. Their soldiers are carrying on the contest with skill and valour. Nevertheless they are fighting to win anyhow, regardless of all the rules of fair play, and there is evidence that they do not hesitate at anything in order to gain victory.

A large number of the tales of their misbehaviours are exaggeration and some of the stringent precautions they have taken to guard themselves against the inhabitants of the areas traversed are possibly justifiable measures of War. But, at the same time, it has been definitely established that they have committed atrocities on many occasions.

Among the minor happenings of interest is the following: During a counter-attack by the German Fifty-third Regiment on positions of the Northampton and Queen's Regiments on Thursday, the 17th, a force of some 400 of the enemy were allowed to approach right up to the trench occupied by a platoon of the former regiment, owing to the fact that they had held up their hands and made gestures that were interpreted as signs that they wished to surrender.

When they were actually on the parapet of the trench held by the Northamptons they opened fire on our men at point-blank range.

Unluckily for the enemy, however, flanking them and only some 400 yards away, there happened to be a machine gun manned by a detachment of the Queen's. This at once opened fire, cutting a lane through their mass, and they fell back to their own trench with great loss. Shortly afterward they were driven further back, with additional loss, by a battalion of Guards which came up in support.

The enemy is still maintaining himself along the whole front, and, in order to do so, is throwing into the fight detachments composed of units from different formations, the active army, reserve, and Landwehr, as is shown by the uniforms of the prisoners recently captured.

Our progress, although slow on account of the strength of the defensive positions against which we are pressing, has in certain directions been continuous; but the present battle may well last for some days more before a decision is reached, since it now approximates somewhat to siege warfare.

The Germans are making use of searchlights. This fact, coupled with their great strength in heavy artillery, leads to the supposition that they are employing material which may have been collected for the siege of Paris.

A buried store of the enemy's munitions of war was also found, not far from the Aisne, ten wagon loads of live shell and two wagon loads of cable being dug tip. Traces here discovered of large quantities of stores having been burned- a ll tending to show that as far back as the Aisne the German retirement was hurried.

On Sunday, the 10th, nothing of importance occurred until the afternoon, when there was a break in the clouds and an interval of feeble sunshine, which was hardly powerful enough to warm the soaking troops. The Germans took advantage of this brief spell of fine weather to make several counter-attacks against different points. These were all repulsed with loss to the enemy, but the casualties incurred by us were by no means light.

The offensive against one or two points was renewed at dusk, with no greater success. The brunt of the resistance has naturally fallen upon the infantry. In spite of the fact that they have been drenched to the skin for some days and their trenches have been deep in mud and water, and in spite of the incessant night alarms and the almost continuous bombardment to which they have been subjected, they have on every occasion been ready for the enemy's infantry when the latter attempted to assault, and they have beaten them back with great loss.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. II, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/aisne_swinton.htm
Zie ook: http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Trench_Warfare_Begins_on_the_Aisne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kaiser Bill's Weekly Liar: 18th September 1914

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/document/5113/4133
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Een Duitse Jäger vertelt in de Frankfurter Zeitung van 18 september 1914 zijn verhaal over de gevechten bij Celles:

....‘24 augustus, een zwaar gevecht bij Celles. De strijd begon om zes uur in de ochtend. Wij moesten een stuk open terrein oversteken, waarbij de Fransen ons van drie kanten beschoten. We rukten in golven op. De granaten vielen tussen ons in en sloegen grote gaten in onze gelederen. Een kameraad vlak naast me werd het hoofd afgeblazen. Ik werd omvergeworpen door de luchtdruk en mocht van geluk spreken dat ik alle ledematen nog bezat. Wij trokken ons terug in een door de Fransen aangelegde loopgraaf. Onmogelijk ons te verplaatsen; het vijandelijke vuur was te sterk. Wij bleven daar gedurende twee uur. Tegen de middag konden we Celles binnentrekken’....

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/slagaandegrenzen/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Recruitment - Irish Volunteer Force (IVF)

(...) Recruitment of Irish Volunteers was an uphill battle. The British felt hesitant about providing potential revolutionaries with military training and arms, while John Redmond, leader of the Irish Party and advocate of participation of the Irish Volunteers in the British army, initially demanded an Irish brigade in imitation of Australia and South Africa. After this was refused categorically he assumed that the Irish Volunteers would not serve overseas. This assumption proofed to be wrong, but by that time Redmond was in serious predicament. Refusal to cooperate could have repercussions on the effectuation of Home Rule on one hand, while cooperate could cause a schism in the Irish Volunteer Force (IVF).
When the effectuation of Home Rule was postponed on 18 September 1914 Redmond had no other option than to encourage Irish Volunteers to join the British army and fight overseas on foreign soil.

About 200,000 Irishmen served in the British army during the Great War and were sent to hotspots all over the globe. Although honouring the fallen is a cold consolation for the relatives and is by no means a compensation for the pain suffered it is striking that the so-called Redmonties or National Volunteers were neglected for a long time by both the Irish and the British government. It was not until 1998 that a monument was raised in Belgium to commemorate the fallen National Volunteers or Redmondities. (...)

http://www.triskelle.eu/history/firstworldwar.php?index=060.120
Zie ook http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/John_Redmond
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 17 Sep 2010 21:31, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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The Austrian Golden, Silver and Bronze Bravery Medals 1914-1918

The recipient of a Bravery Medal was entitled to a lifelong pension and as ordered by the "Zirkularverordnung" of 18th September 1914 the sums were as follows with effect from the 1st October 1914:

Golden Bravery Medal: 30 Crowns per month
Silver Bravery Medal 1st Class: 15 Crowns per month
Silver Bravery Medal 2nd Class: 7.50 Crowns per month

The Bronze Bravery Medal did not attract a pension and repeat awards did not result in an higher payment for the recipients.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/bravmed.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1914
by major-general sir john hanbury-williams k.c.b., k.c.v.o., c.m.g.

18th September 1914.

I received the following telegram, which caused much amusement to the Russians:

'The British Admiralty announce that the Germans have already sunk H.M.S. Warrior three times since the beginning of the war. It is suggested that another vessel should be selected for the next lie.'

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German South West Africa

The Union Defence Forces embarked on the German South West African campaign on the 18th September 1914 with a landing at Luderitz Bay. Before operations against the Germans could proceed, General Botha had to contend with a rebellion in the Defence Forces when certain elements in it were persuaded to support Germany. The Rebellion arose out of the political discontent already referred to. After the Rebellion was suppressed, the campaign in German South West Africa continued and was brought to conclusion in July 1915 when the governor of German South West Africa capitulated to General Botha. South African losses amounted to 241 killed and 263 wounded.

http://www.delvillewood.com/premiereguerre2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stories of Australians at Gallipoli and on the Western Front

Lieutenant James Sandy – Sydney, NSW

James Sandy, a company secretary from Sydney, enlisted on 18 September 1914 at the age of 28. He served as an artilleryman at Gallipoli but by June was so ill that he had to be evacuated to Alexandria. Although a limp prevented him from serving in the infantry, the Medical Board recommended him for work in the Australian Flying Corps.

In September 1916 Sandy enlisted in the flying corps as a pilot. After training he joined No. 3 Squadron Australian Flying Corps and went to France in August 1917 to begin operations. In the following months he carried out numerous flights and by December 1917 he had become one of the squadron’s senior pilots and most experienced airmen.

On 17 December while directing artillery his aircraft was set upon by six German fighters. Sandy and his co-pilot, with the assistance of two other planes, successfully forced the Germans to abandon the attack and forced down one German plane in the process. The German plane landed intact and is now in the Australian War Memorial’s collection.

With the coast clear, the two other aircraft left Sandy to his work. But his plane failed to return to base and was found in a field some 75 kilometres away the next morning. It soon emerged that in the last moments of the fight an armour piercing bullet had struck the observer in the upper body and carried through into Sandy’s head killing them both. With the flight controls in the neutral position their aircraft flew on as normal until, out of petrol, it made a safe landing. Sandy was buried in the St Pol Communal Cemetery Extension in France.

http://www.dva.gov.au/news_archive/Documents/stories_gwf.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Was my soldier in the Territorial Force (TF)?

When TF troops agreed to overseas service, they signed the "Imperial Service Obligation". Here is an example: Andrew Yuille, who had been serving for some time and was already a Sergeant, signed on 18 September 1914.

They were then issued with a special badge, known as the "Imperial Service Brooch", to be worn on their right breast. If you have a photo of a soldier wearing this badge, he is definitely a Territorial.

http://www.1914-1918.net/tf.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Vrouw in Indië - 18 september 1915
Vestigingsplaats redactie: Batavia
Jaar eerste uitgave: 1913

'De Vrouw in Indië' begint als rubriek in het Bataviaasch Nieuwsblad (1907-1913). Onder leiding van Karel Zaalberg komt De Vrouw in Indië vanaf 1913 uit als zelfstandige wekelijkse bijlage, als orgaan van de 'Indische afdeling der Nationale Vereeniging voor het Vrouwenkiesrecht'.

De Vrouw in Indië is van een andere orde dan de vanaf omstreeks 1900 verschijnende, doorgaans a-politieke, 'damespagina's' in de zaterdagedities van de grote kranten. In 1908 richt Charlotte Jacobs, zuster van Aletta Jacobs, de Indische afdeling van de Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht op. De afdeling telt op haar hoogtepunt zo'n 750 leden, vooral Europese vrouwen in de steden op Java. De blik is op Nederland en de vrouwenkiesrechtstrijd aldaar gericht. In theorie komt men ook op voor de Indonesische vrouw.

Krantje... http://www.indische-pers.nl/tentoonstelling/31.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

LITHUANIA IN WORLD WAR I

After the fall of Kaunas the 10th Army prepared the attack on Vilnius. The 10th Army was composed of four army-corpses: 1th, 3th Reserve, 21th corps and 40th reserve-corpse.

Vilnius was defended also by the 10th army, the Russian 10th Army. The Russians were afraid to be surrounded and give up the position Vilnius. So the city is occupied without any resistance: on 18 september the 46th Landwehrbrigade, part of the 14th Landwehrdivision, marched into Vilnius under command of count Pfeil.

The 14th Landwehrdivision, the 79th reserve-dividion, the 76th reserve division and the 3th reserve-division formed together the 40th Reserve-corps, under command of general Litzmann.

On 18 September 1915 Vilnius was captured by the Germans and the Headquarters of 10 th Army moved also to Vilnius, but went next moth further to another place.

http://lithuania.jkaptein.nl/ww1_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ledger of Slonim

(...) In 1914 Slonim appeared as a stable, idyllic shtetl in spite of the many changes that took place between 1880 and 1914. On the 8th of September 1915, the first day of Rosh Hashanah, the motorized staff from Grodno came to the city. Slonim, en masse, came to see the first automobiles, but the streets of Slonim, muddy or sandy, were not prepared to handle the motor vehicles. Rabbi Mordecai Rosenblatt permitted the Jewish workers to resurface the streets for the autos on the second day of Rosh Hashanah. Late in July 1915 the front was approaching Slonim. Rumors of evacuation were heard and the Russian army was to fortify the east bank of the Schara River to stop the Germans. Slonimites were fearful that the city would be destroyed in the battle. On the eve of Yom Kippur, the 18th of September 1915, the Germans entered Slonim. The east side of the city suffered greatly from their artillery. (...)

http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/slonim/Slonim_Ledger.htm
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Margolin, Eliezer (Lazar) (1875 - 1944)

(...) Although 39 in 1914, he belonged in spirit to that generation that welcomed war as the chance of a lifetime. On 1 October he joined the 16th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, as a lieutenant; in December he was promoted captain.

On 25 April 1915 Margolin, leading 'B' Company, was among the first of his battalion to land on Gallipoli. His troops knew him affectionately as 'Margy'—a disciplinarian, taciturn, quick-tempered but fair and courageous, who always showed great concern for their welfare. He was tall and dark and had a low voice with a Russian accent, also noticeable when he spoke Hebrew and Arabic. On 18 September 1915 Major Margolin took temporary command of the battalion and commanded its rear party during the evacuation. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order.

In France Margolin was wounded several times in 1916-17. From June to September 1917 he was temporary lieutenant-colonel in command of the 14th Battalion, then returned to the 16th until he was evacuated with an injury. In September he was mentioned in dispatches. Later that month while recovering from a knee injury in a London hospital, he accepted command of the 39th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers, one of three volunteer Jewish battalions of the British Army formed to fight the Turks in Palestine. On 18 March 1918, as a lieutenant-colonel, he took command of his battalion, telling his troops that 'our aim is to participate in the fighting on the front of Eretz Israel and the liberation of our homeland'. Later at Rehovot he persuaded friends to organize another fighting unit which within a few weeks became the 40th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. In September these raw, somewhat ineffectual Jewish battalions under General Allenby joined the Anzac light horse which drove the Turks from northern Palestine. (...)

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A100397b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Scottish Mining Accidents, 1915-1925

18 September 1915 - Fatal Accident At Donibristle - Thomas Young, a pit bottomer, who resided at Dunfermline Road, Crossgates, was instantaneously killed as the result of an accident at No 12 Pit, Donibristle Colliery, on Saturday. Young was in the act of putting a hutch onto the cage at the pit bottom when through some misunderstanding the winding engine was set in motion and he was drawn up the shaft a distance of over fifty yards, and so severely crushed that death must have been instantaneous. Deceased who was about 35 years of age leaves a widow and a family of two. [Dunfermline Journal 25 September 1915]

http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/336.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 21:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 18 September 1916

CPO Stoker Charles Varcoe, of HMAS AE2, (submarine), died while a POW in the Turkish POW Camp at Belemedik. He was the first of four AE2 men to die as Prisoners of War.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/18-september-1916/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Mirror Headlines: 'Tank' Rams and Takes a Factory, Published 18 September 1916

'Tank' rams and takes a factory

Amazing Feats of New British Armoured Motor-Cars.

Annoyed the Germans

The amazing war adventures of the New British heavy armoured cars, or 'tanks' first referred to by Sir Douglas Haig in his bulletin on Friday last, are described by Mr Beach Thomas in his story of the storming of Courcelette and Martinpuich.

Some Juggernauts

The taking of a sugar refinery which was a nest of machine guns by a 'tank' is thus described in a Reuters special message: One of the 'tanks' rumbled up to the entrance coughing bullets as it came, burst open the barricaded door, scattering sandbags like feathers in a chicken fight, and got in among the machine gunners.

Not long afterwards there fell a hush upon which our infantry marched in and took undisputed possession of the place while the ungainly machine - named by the 'Tommies' the 'crème de menthe', and a 'flagship' at that - was clumsily bumping its way out again.

'An Impertinence'

Two points from Mr Beach Thomas's story are as follows: A Bavarian lieutenant colonel surrendered to a tank and was taken inside, and was thus carried through half the fighting. The German officer captured complained that it was 'an impertinence' to use these iron monsters.

Heroes of the Earth

This is Mr Beach Thomas's description of our glorious fighting men: Between them (the Germans) and us lay half a mile of open country well sprayed by 'bullet machines' fixed at a killing height. Today this deadly distance served the defence as little as the barricades. Scotch, Irish and English soldiers all swept across it in more than international form. The wounded, even the twice-wounded, went forward with the hale and met the enemy waiting for them at the first goal line. All Great Britain should feel through every fibre that never in heroic days did men fight more heroically.

Heroes of the Sky

Of the daring British airman he says: The battle in the air has perhaps never been equalled... Village after village just behind the lines was bombed and to complete the work the airman came low enough almost to stroke the backs of the 'tanks', quite low enough to empty their bullet drums at the enemy's infantry.

How We Stand

With regard to the fighting, he says: We are through the third German line from west of Flers to Morval and no other long fortified line is in front of us. We are within striking distance of Morval, Les Bœufs and several other villages.

'Over the whole field,' he says, 'casualties were small, very small in relation to the victory.'

Fantastic Monsters
(From W Beach Thomas)

Soon after 6pm the spasmodic barking of the night-time cannonade (now normal in spite of its intensity) gave place to a 'kettle-drum bombardment'. The 'fun' was 'fast and furious' and two minutes after the orchestra opened our men leaped from their trenches. They were not unaccompanied.

In spite of the harvest moon, we had brought up a certain number of armoured cars which the moonlight transformed into fantastic monsters.

'Autos blindés' is the French term. They looked like blind creatures emerged from the primeval slime. To watch one crawling round a battered wood in the half-light was to think of 'the Jabberwock, with eyes of flame' that: 'Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,/ And burbled as it came!'

Frightened the Huns

The enemy ill-distinguished the guise of these iron monsters, which in truth amused our men rather than encouraged them. They were a jest, cheering hearts, possibly faithful creatures, but no rival to the bayonet.

One German officer I met said it was 'an impertinence' to use them, and some of the German soldiers regarded them with some sort of superstitious terror for the first few minutes, till daylight disclosed their true nature. Even then they were alarming enough. With ludicrous serenity they wobbled across the gridiron fields and shook themselves as if the bullets were flies that bit just deep enough to deserve a flick.

Those who had inspected these saurians in their alfresco stalls beforehand, or followed their lethargic course over impossible roads in the moonlight, gasped with humorous wonder at the prodigy. Munchausen never approached the stories imagined for them by soldiers. But their pet name is 'tanks' and they were chiefly regarded as a practical joke.

Whales, Boojums, Dreadnoughts, slugs, sharks - never were there creatures that so tempted the gift of nicknaming. They were said to live on trees and houses and jump like grasshoppers or kangaroos. But little real reliance was placed in them.

The Germans had brought into warfare many forbidden forces, foul gases and living fire, and the rest. We were to answer them with a British novelty, but one well within the rules of international law and demanding the highest courage in those who used it. The crews had the full pioneer spirit. The courage of the men who took this virgin journey in the Trojan motor-cars was rewarded. The 'tanks' did not make the success of the day, but they did good service.

One was able to pursue a number of Germans some way down the Bapaume road, and took prisoners.

Top'Great Hun Victory'

Some trenches were enfiladed by 'tanks' and useful firing was recorded of a pair which entered Flers, where it is said to have walked down the ex-high street amid cheers. Several had dashing adventures. One appeared to break into flames and smoke, but was in truth shaking off from pachyderm the petty insults of German bombers. 'We got nothing from them but blue sparks,' said one captured machine gunner.

One or two suffered eclipse. But where they succeeded and where they failed the day was first and foremost the day of the infantry.

One most adventurous Saurian bearing a huge label on its side, 'Great Hun Victory' went on its earwig course through the battered houses - including a cage intended for British prisoners - emerged on the other side, silenced six guns, and then returned 'home' to the village, limping a little.

A captured German said of this form of warfare that 'it was butchery and not fair'. 'Tanks' did equal if not greater service in High Wood, where they knocked out nests and warrens of machine guns.

Wanted to do More
Priest's Story of Selflessness of Corporal Dwyer, VC


At the Church of St Thomas of Canterbury, Fulham, a high mass was celebrated yesterday for the repose of the soul of Corporal Edward Dwyer, East Surrey Regiment, the youngest VC in the Army, who was killed on September 4 leading his platoon in the 'Big Push'.

Corporal Dwyer was a native of Fulham. At the age of 18 he won his Cross 'for conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty at Hill 60, on 20 April 1915'.

Father Crowley delivered a short address. He expressed to Corporal Dwyer's parents, his widow and relations the heartfelt sympathy of the congregation and of the people of Fulham. Corporal Dwyer was baptised in the church and had been educated in their schools.

On the day that he received his VC, Corporal Dwyer said to the boys at the school were he was educated: 'This is the most eventful day of my life, and it makes me feel I should like to do something more for my country and my religion.'

'This wish has been gratified,' added Father Crowley, 'for he has given all - he has given his life.'

TopKnobkerrie Knock
How a Canadian Officer Fought the Huns in a Shell Crater

(Canadian Official)

A Canadian communiqué issued yesterday and covering the period from September 5 to September 12 says: The steady training of specialists which has been proceeding for several months is bearing fruit. Sniper Dillson, of a Winnipeg battalion, lay 25 yards in front of our own trenches the whole of one day. The Germans made efforts to locate him, but he was too well concealed. He secured three direct hits and pierced several loopholes.

Defensive patrols are constantly in front of our trenches at night. In one case, Lieutenant Matthews, with three scouts, surprised a party of five Germans hiding in a large shell crater. Lieutenant Matthews threw two bombs among them, killing one and mortally wounding another. He then jumped into the crater with a knobkerrie and had brained another of the enemy when he was himself struck through the shoulder by a bayonet.

Scout Vernon came to his assistance and shot a fourth German. At the same time the remainder of the hostile patrol fired a revolver point blank and then attempted to escape. He was bayoneted, however, just as he reached the German wire.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror05_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Manchester Guardian (18th September 1916)

The British army has struck the enemy another heavy blow north of the Somme. Attacking shortly after dawn yesterday morning on a front of more than six miles north-east from Combles, it now occupies a new strip of reconquered territory including three fortified villages behind the German third line and many local positions of great strength.

Fighting has continued since without intermission, and the initiative remains with our troops, who made further advances beyond Courcelette, Martinpuich, and Flers to-day. After the first shock yesterday morning, when the enemy surrendered freely, showing signs of demoralisation, there has been stubborn resistance, and much of the ground gained afterwards was only wrested from him by the determination and strength of the British battalions pitted against him. The Bavarian and German divisions have fought well, but nevertheless they have been steadily pushed backwards from the line they took up after their first defeats in the Somme campaign.

British patrols have approached Eaucourt l'Abbaye and Geudecourt, and while no definite information is obtainable to-night regarding the exact extent of our gains they are rather more than the territory described in detail in this despatch. The battle is not over. Famous British regiments are lying in the open to-night holding their position with the greatest heroism. All that the enemy can do in the way of artillery reprisals he is doing to-night. But despite the tenacity with which the reinforced German troops are clinging to their positions everything gained has been maintained. Progress may not be at the same speed as in the first assault yesterday morning, but it is thorough and none the less sure.

The story of the capture of Courcelette and Martinpuich, which were wrested from the Bavarians virtually street by street yesterday, will be as dramatic as any narrative told in this war. They are the chief episodes in the first two days of this offensive, but I can only give a bare summary now of the furious conflict which raged for possession of these obscure ruined villages. There are evidences that the unexpected British offensive disorganised the plans of the German higher command for an important counter-attack to recover the ground lost since July 1. Heavy concentrations of infantry were taking place, and the unusually strong resistance on the British left was due to the presence of an abnormal number of troops behind Martinpuich and Courcelette. In spite of this the divisions taking part in yesterday's attack splendidly achieved their purpose.

Armoured cars working with the infantry were the great surprise of this attack. Sinister, formidable, and industrious, these novel machines pushed boldly into "No Man's Land," astonishing our soldiers no less than they frightened the enemy. Presently I shall relate some strange incidents of their first grand tour in Picardy, of Bavarians bolting before them like rabbits and others surrendering in picturesque attitudes of terror, and the delightful story of the Bavarian colonel who was carted about for hours in the belly of one of them like Jonah in the whale, while his captors slew the men of his broken division.

It is too soon yet to advertise their best points to an interested world. The entire army nevertheless is talking about them, and you might imagine that yesterday's operation was altogether a battle of armed chauffeurs if you listened to the stories of some of the spectators. They inspired confidence and laughter. No other incident of the war has created such amusement in the face of death as their debut before the trenches of Martinpuich and Flers. Their quaintness and seeming air of profound intelligence commended them to a critical audience. It was as though one of Mr. Heath Robinson's jokes had been utilised for a deadly purpose, and one laughed even before the dire effect on the enemy was observed.

Flers fell into British hands comparatively easily. The troops sent against it from the north of Delville Wood, astride of the sunken road leading to its southern extremity, reached the place in three easy laps supported by armoured cars. As a preliminary measure one car planted itself at the north-east corner of the wood before dawn and cleared a small enemy party from two connected trenches. It was not a difficult task for the "boches" promptly surrendered. The first halting-place of the Flers-bound troops was a German switch-trench north-east of Ginchy, part of the so-called third line, which they reached at the time appointed. There was a slight obstacle in the form of a redoubt constructed at the angle of the line where it crossed the Ginchy-Lesboeufs road. Machine-gun fire was well directed from this work, but two armoured cars came up and poured a destructive counter-fire into it, and then one of the many watchful aeroplanes swooped down almost within hailing distance and joined in the battle. The dismayed Bavarians promptly yielded to this strange alliance. Armoured cars and aeroplane went their several ways and the infantry carried on. The redoubt sheltered a dressing station where there were a number of German wounded. The second phase of the Flers advance brought the attackers to the trenches at the end of the village. Little resistance was offered. Here, again, the armoured cars came forward. One of them managed to enfilade the trench both ways, killing nearly everyone in it, and then another car started up the main street, or what was the main street in pre-war days, escorted, as one spectator puts it "by the cheering British army."

It was a magnificent progress. You must imagine this unimaginable engine stalking majestically amid the ruins followed by the men in khaki, drawing the dispossessed Bavarians from their holes in the ground like a magnet and bringing them blinking into the sunlight to stare at their captors, who laughed instead of killing them. Picture its passage from one end of the ruins of Flers to the other, leaving infantry swarming through the dug-outs behind, on out of the northern end of the village, past more odds and ends of defensive positions, up the road to Gneudecourt, halting only at the outskirts. Before turning back it silenced a battery and a half of artillery, captured the gunners, and handed them over to the infantry. Finally, it retraced its foot-steps with equal composure to the old British line at the close of a profitable day. The German officers taken in Flers have not yet assimilated the scene of their capture, the crowded "High Street," and the cheering bomb-throwers marching behind the travelling fort, which displayed on one armoured side the startling placard, "Great Hun Defeat. Extra Special!"

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWsomme.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Barlow Bomb Patents

Lester P. Barlow applied for a patent on an Aerial Hand Grenade on 18 September 1916 and was granted US patent #1,325,776 on 14 August 1917. "My invention relates to aerial explosive devices of the character of what I may term "aerial mortars", that is to say, a construction which comprises a barrel or outer casing which is adapted to be dropped from an aeroplane or other flying machine or projected from a gun; within the barrel or casing is contained an explosive bomb and a device for expelling the bomb from the upper or rear end of the casing after the lower or forward end of the same has struck the earth. The explosive charge within the bomb is exploded shortly after the bomb has left the casing and preferably at a predetermined distance above the casing. This means for exploding the bomb may become effective after either an interval of space, as by mechanical connection between the bomb and the casing, or after an interval of time, as by means of a delayed charge in the bomb, which may be fired when the bomb 65 starts its upward or rearward movement."

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/barlow-bomb-patents.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wagons, gun carriages and dead horses – Hellfire Corner and Menin Road South Cemetery

The evidence of the sacrifice of those who laboured behind the lines can be seen in Menin Road South Cemetery on the right–hand side of the road about half a kilometre from the ‘Hellfire Corner’ N8/N37 roundabout. Buried here in Plot I, Row U, Grave 2, is Driver Joseph Flanagan, 19th Battalion, of Paddington, Sydney, New South Wales. On 18 September 1917, Flanagan, a Gallipoli veteran known as ‘Moe’, was in his wagon on the Menin Road, near Hellfire Corner, carrying ammunition when a shell exploded right under the limber killing him and his horses. According to witnesses Flanagan was ‘badly knocked about’.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/menin-road/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

18 september 1917 - Ontvangst van de gevraagde levering bak- en braadvet, rijst, gort, havermout en zachte gele zeep. De gevraagde hoeveelheid suiker ontbrak. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=190&Itemid=47
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Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 18 September 1917.

Valkenswaard.

- Door den Rijksveldwachter v.d. Hurk werd procesverbaal opgemaakt tegen J. W. ten eerste wegens dansmuziek houden zonder verlof, ten tweede wegens het in voorraad hebben van sterken drank ten derde wegens beleedigende worden van den caféhouder tegenover de politie.

- Gisteren werd de jonge juffrouw M. J. uit Borkel en Schaft per rijwiel alhier op de kermis aangereden door een auto. Het voorste wiel was heelemaal in elkander. De bestuurder van den auto had geene schuld, daar hij tijdig waarschuwde doch wegens de enorme drukte in het dorp door haar niet was gehoord.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Reinhold Saltzwedel - Oberleutnant zur See

In May 1915 he went to the U-boot-Schule. Shortly afterwards he joined the U-Flottille Flandern where he became commander of UB 10 on 13th January 1916. In June, from the 14th till the 26th he served as commander of the UC 10 and later UC 11 until 20th August 1916. On 15 September he became commander of the UC 21 and on the 10th of June 1917 he took command of the UC 71. On 20 August he was awarded the Pour le Mérite. On 18 September 1917 he became CO of UB 81.

He died on UB 81 on 2 December 1917 after running into a mine.

He sank more than 110 merchant vessels for over 170.000 BRT.

http://www.uboat.net/wwi/men/commanders/283.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Researching an Australian soldier of World War One. Part 2.

Some of the resources we can use to learn more about Joe Cox's military career and particularly his death and commemoration are:
1. His military record of service held at the National Archives of Australia. As a gift to Australia, the National Archives of Australia has scanned and made available online all existing World War One service records. Joe Cox's service record runs to 48 pages.

His full name: Joseph Christopher Cox
Date of enlistment: 27 September 1916
Place of birth: Orange N.S.W.
Age on enlistment: 26 years, 9 months.
Height: 5 feet 10 inches tall [ which is tall by the standards of the era ]
Weight: 176 pounds
Chest measurement: 38 - 40 & 1/2 inches
Complexion: Medium
Eyes: Grey
Hair: Brown
Religious denomination: Methodist
Distinctive Marks: scar over right big toe
Trade or calling: labourer
Next of Kin: father - Francis Cox of Dubbo, NSW; mother -
Unit: Initially the Dubbo Depot Battaion and then the 17/22 Battalion ( which means the 17th Reinforcements of the 22nd Battalion, First Australian Imperial Force (A.I.F.)
His "Casualty Form - Active Service"
Shows that he embarked on the troopship Argyllshire at Sydney on 30 October 1916 and disembarked at Plymouth (U.K.) on 10 January 1917.
31.3.17 - Taken on Strength in France
5.5.17 - Wounded in Action in the field
5.5.17 - Gun Shot Wound to Right Lower Extremities
17.5.17 - Embarked for England on ship Warilda.
18.5.17 - Admitted 4th Southern General Hospital, Plymouth
20.6.17 - Discharged from 4th Southern General Hospital
4.7.17 - Reported to depot at Perham(?) Downs
26.7.17 - Departed Southampton, England
31.7.17 - Arrived Havre, France
14.8.17 - Rejoined unit
18.9.17 - Missing believed Killed - Belgium
18.9.17 - Killed In Action - Belgium
"Field Service" report states
Died 18 September 1917, Killed In Action, Belgium, particulars not yet to hand.

(...)

Sergeant Cooper gave this information:
"He was tall, dark, and came from N.S.W.. He came over with the 17th to 22nd as reinforcement. He was killed with 6 others by a shell in a Dugout at Ypres, near Westhoek Ridge on 18th September, 1917. We left that night and did not find them till three days afterwards when we went back to the same place. I saw the remains that had been dug out; Cox's head was blown right off; we could only recognise him by his disc. They buried them near the Dugout. Lt. Tyles of the 22nd was in charge of the burial party. Nothing was put on the grave at the time as far as I know. We left the next night day."

Lees verder op http://lifeasdaddy.typepad.com/
Ga voor 'Part 1' naar http://lifeasdaddy.typepad.com/lifeasdaddy/2009/09/researching-an-australian-soldier-of-world-war-one.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dead Man's Penny

Somewhere amongst the vandalised graves, rusting wrought iron railing and a few empty beer bottles, lays the final resting place of Private Robert John Bruce of C Company 46th Battalion, Australian Imperial Forces. His grave in the Will Will Rook cemetery located in Melbourne's outer suburb of Broadmeadows is impossible to find as many graves have long since disappeared through years of wanton destruction and an indifferent public appreciation of the historical significance of the cemetery.

Private Bruce was wounded at Pozieres on the 4 August 1916 and after 8 weeks in hospital returned to fight at Bullecourt, Ypres etc and was invalided home on the 18 September, 1917. Unfortunately, he died of war-related injuries on the 21 November 1918 aged 33. His parents, John and Mary Bruce, laid their son to rest with due reverence and the knowledge that he had made the supreme sacrifice for King and country. As the next of kin, a grateful British Government sent his parents a Memorial Death Plaque, commonly called the 'Dead Man's Penny' by the troops.

The history of the Dead Man's Penny began in 1916 with the realisation by the British Government that some form of an official token of gratitude should be given to the fallen service men and women's bereaved next of kin. The enormous casualty figures not anticipated at the start of WWI back in 1914 prompted this gesture of recognition. In 1917, the government announced a competition to design a suitable plaque with a prize of 250 pounds. There were 800 entries from all over the Empire, the Dominions, and even from the troops on the Western Front. Mr E Carter Preston of Liverpool, England, the eventual winner.

The selected design was a 12 centimetre disk cast in bronze gunmetal, which incorporated the following; an image of Britannia and a lion, two dolphins representing Britain's sea power and the emblem of Imperial Germany's eagle being torn to pieces by another lion. Britannia is holding an oak spray with leaves and acorns. Beneath this was a rectangular tablet where the deceased individual's name was cast into the plaque. No rank was given as it was intended to show equality in their sacrifice. On the outer edge of the disk, the words, 'He died for freedom and honour'.

A scroll, 27 x 17 centimetres made of slightly darkened parchment headed by the Royal Coat of Arms accompanied the plaque with a carefully chosen passage written in old English script,

'He whom this scroll commemorates was numbered among those who, at the call of King and Country, left all that was dear to them, endured hardness, faced anger, and generally passed out of sight of men by the path of duty and sacrifice, giving up their own lives that others may live in freedom. Let those who come after see to it that his name be not forgotten.'

Beneath this passage, written in the same style, was the name, and rank and service details of the deceased. To accompany the scroll, again in old English script, a personal message from King George V.'

'I join with my grateful people in sending you this memorial of a brave life given for others in the Great War.' ------------George R I.

The plaques were packaged in stiff cardboard wrapping folded like an envelope and sent to the next of kin. Production of the plaques and scrolls, which was supposed to be financed by German reparation money, began in 1919 with approximately 1,150,000 issued. They commemorated those who fell between 4 August 1914 and 10 January 1920 for home, Western Europe and the Dominions whilst the final date for the other theatres of war or for those died of attributable causes was 30 April 1920. Unfortunately, the production and delivery of the plaques was not a complete success and the scheme ended before all the families or next of kin of the deceased received the official recognition they should have. There were some relatives who returned the pennies to the Australian Government in protest as they felt it was insulting and it did not replace their loved one's life. Of course, nothing can replace a life lost but for those 'Dead Man's Pennies' that are in private or public collections, museums and national archives, they are a constant reminder of the ultimate price paid by the men and women of the armed services during the Great war of 1914-1918.

Reference
Dead Man's Penny. Australian War Memorial Encyclopaedia.
A Very Poor Exchange. Elizabeth Rummins. Western Ancestor Article, June 1995. Digger History. Internet. www.diggerhistory.info/pages-medals/dea-penny.htm Photographs. Author's collection.
R.J.Bruce. Service record from National Archives [Canberra] and personal information in author's collection.


http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/memorials/166-dead-mans-penny.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Voorpost van de Hindenburglinie, Bellenglise – St Quentin kanaal - 18 september 1918

In augustus en begin september 1918 trok het Duitse leger zich aan het Westelijk Front terug onder een opeenvolging van aanvallen van de Geallieerden. Vanaf 8 augustus rukten de legers van de Britse Expeditie Strijdkrachten op vanaf een linie tussen Arras in het noorden en de vereniging met de Franse strijdkrachten ten zuiden van Villers-Brettoneux. Tegen 2 september hadden de Duitsers hun bolwerken in de bocht van de Somme bij Mont St Quentin en Péronne verlaten en trokken ze zich terug naar de posities van de oude Hindenburglinie van maart 1917. Voor de Geallieerden was de aanval en verovering van deze verdedigingswerken duidelijk de volgende stap. Als ze daarin slaagden zouden de Duitsers gedwongen worden nog meer van de Franse grond op te geven die ze in 1914 hadden veroverd, maar de meeste Geallieerde bevelhebbers verwachtten dat de oorlog tot in 1919 zou blijven voortduren en dat er geen succesvol einde bereikt zou kunnen worden voordat de Amerikaanse troepen in Europa volledig opgebouwd waren.

Op 18 september vielen de Eerste en Vierde Australische Divisies de voorste rand van de Hindenburglinie aan. De voorste rand stond bekend als de voorpost van de Hindenburglinie. Deze linie bestond uit oude Britse loopgraven, drie linies diep, waarvan het Duitse bevel had besloten om deze aan de verdedigingswerken van de Hindenburglinie toe te voegen. Door middel van aggressieve patrouilletactieken die ‘vriendelijke inname’ genoemd werden, veroverden de Australiërs op 11 september de eerste van deze linies. De tweede en derde linie waren te sterk voor deze tactieken en vereisten een aanval op grote schaal. Het Britse Oorlogskabinet was bezorgd dat er bij een aanval op de Hindenburglinie zware verliezen geleden zouden worden, maar de bevelhebber van de Britse Expeditie Strijdkrachten, veldmaarschalk Sir Douglas Haig, vond dat de aanval op ‘de oude Britse linies het moreel van het Duitse leger zou beproeven en helpen bij de beslissing of de echte Hindenburglinie daarachter wijselijk aangevallen kon worden.’

Het regende terwijl Britse en Australische strijdkrachten zich op 18 september naar de startlijnen bewogen. Het spervuur van de artillerie, dat om 5u.20 begon was volgens velen het zwaarste dat ze ooit gezien hadden. Ondanks de dichte mist was de aanvallende infanterie in staat om richting te houden en veel Duitsers werden in de mist ingehaald en afgesneden. Sergeant Maurice Buckley van het 13de Bataljon (New South Wales), die impulsief met een Lewis machinegeweer schoot, bestormde twee vijandelijke voorposten die de opmars tegenhielden. Toen de bevelhebber van zijn peloton een Duitse stelling met een veldkanon en loopgraaf-mortier aanwees, riep sergeant Buckley zijn sectie toe om hem te volgen en viel die post aan, terwijl hij nog meer korte stoten met zijn Lewis geweer afvuurde. Hij schakelde één geweerstelling uit en terwijl hij onder vijandelijk vuur van machinegeweren het terrein overstak, schakelde hij nog een stelling uit. Daarna schoot hij in de ingang van een schuilhol en nam 30 Duitsers gevangen die bij een Duits hoofdkwartier van bataljons behoorden. Voor zijn moed werd Buckley het Victoriakruis toegekend.

Om 8u.30 begon de tweede fase van de aanval. Ondersteund door een kruipend spervuur van de artillerie inclusief rookbommen, maar zonder de hulp van de mist die tegen die tijd opgetrokken was, bereikten de Australiërs, die aanvielen waar de oude Britse linies en de Duitse voorposten zich dicht bij elkaar bevonden, tegen 10u.30 hun tweede en derde doelwit. In de sector van de Vierde Divisie bevonden de oude Britse linies en de Duitse voorposten zich echter op heuvelruggen die 1500 meter uit elkaar lagen. De troepen op deze zuidelijke flank staken de open valleien over, maar werden tegengehouden door de sterk verdedigde voorpost van de Hindenburglinie die goed met dichte prikkeldraadversperringen beschermd was. Om 11u.00 brak het 46ste Bataljon (Victoria) door het prikkeldraad met de dubbele hulp van een korte, zware regenbui en een spervuur van de artillerie en nam zijn derde doel in waarbij 550 Duitsers gevangen genomen werden. Tezelfdertijd velde het 14de Bataljon (Victoria) meer vanuit het noorden deze loopgraven. De troepen aan de noordelijke flank van de Vierde Divisie hadden gebruik gemaakt van de veroverde loopgraven om een stelling in te nemen waar granaten konden worden gebruikt om hun derde doelwit in te nemen. Deze successen brachten de Australiërs naar de hoogtes die op Bellicourt en het St Quentin kanaal uitkeken. Ze waren tot de voornaamste verdedigingswerken van de Hindenburglinie opgerukt.

Op 18 september 1918 veroverden Australiërs 4300 gevangenen en 76 kanonnen ten koste van 1260 slachtoffers. Ze waren ver voorbij de flanken van Britse strijdkrachten gestormd om te demonstreren hoe zwak de verdediging van Hindenburg was. Dit moedigde de Britten aan om door te gaan met een grote aanval op wat werd beschouwd als de grootste vijandelijke stelling aan het Westelijk Front. Samen met Franse en Amerikaanse successen in het zuiden leek het nu mogelijk om de oorlog voor de winter van 1918-19 tot een succesvol einde te brengen.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/hindenburg-outpost-line-bellenglise-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Epéhy, 18-19 September 1918

The battle of Epéhy was a short battle fought in preparation for the great Allied attack on the Hindenburg line. At the end of the battle of Amiens, the British had reached that line on the northern half of the line, but had fallen short to the south.

The attack was launched by the Fourth Army and one corps from the Third Army, on a seventeen mile front around Epéhy. The Germans were forced back three miles, losing 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns in the process. Once again the Australians played a major role in the fighting.

The battle achieved its main objective, putting the Fourth Army in place in preparation for the upcoming attack on the Hindenburg Line. German resistance was more determined than at Amiens, but not as stiff as it had been earlier in the war.

Rickard, J (5 September 2007), Battle of Epéhy, 18-19 September 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_epehy.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enkele gegevens over de oorlog 1914-1918 te Boekhoute

Reeds van in 1915 moest iedere burger steeds een paspoort bij zich hebben. Het werd afgeleverd door de gemeente en droeg een rode stempel «Kommandantur Ertvelde». Maar Boekhoute kreeg nog een bijzondere stempel: «Bewohner des Grenzgebietes» en een grote E 4 : «Etappen gebiet 4e leger». Voor de weerbare mannen van 18 tot 45 jaar stond er een derde stemel op «In Ueberwachtung» en zij hadden daarbij nog een witte «Meldekaart» want zij moesten zich iedere maand op het stadhuis aanmelden, om die kaart te laten afstempelen. De eerste stempel droeg de datum 18 december 1915, de laatste 18 september 1918.

Men moest ook een vergunning aanvragen om te vissen. Dat kostte 2 frank. Maar het was verboden te vissen op een afstand van minder dan 100 meter van bruggen en sluizen, alsook op een afstand van minder dan 6 km. van de Nederlandse grens, zodat onze mensen maar in de Vliet gingen vissen.

In 1915 werd de ganse lengte van de grens Belgie-Nederland afgesloten door een ijzeren draad, de zogenaamde hollekensdraad, en dit tot op een hoogte van drie meter. De grens werd voortdurend bewaakt door de Duitse grenswacht en de draad werd gedurende de nacht en ook geregeld over dag onder elektrische stroom gezet. Zo trachtte de vijand het overlopen van jonge mannen naar het Belgisch leger, de spionnagediensten, het overbrengen van brieven en dagbladen en ook de smokkel, uit te schakelen.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~noemeetjesland/meetjesland/ons_meetjesland/1974_2/oorlog_Boekhoute_1914_18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ORDER OF BATTLE OF EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE, SEPTEMBER 1918
James Hanafin

Herein is presented an Order of Battle of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in Palestine at the outbreak of the Battles of Megiddo (Battle of Sharon and Battle of Nablus).

http://www.ordersofbattle.darkscape.net/site/history/open4/uk_eygptianexpeditionaryforce1918.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edward VIII of the United Kingdom

Edward VIII, King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David -- Dates: June 23, 1894 to May 28, 1972). Edward was King from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on January 20, 1936 until his abdication on December 11, 1936 after which he became The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor.

quotations - Italy:
"...they are indeed a repulsive nation these dagoes, both the men and the women & I'm just longing to quit them for good & all !!!"
(18 September 1918)

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Edward_VIII_of_the_United_Kingdom
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Al-Hashimi, Faysal b. al-Husayn b. Ali, later King Faysal I of Iraq (1883-1933)

The Arab revolt
The Hashemite Army was divided into three bodies, each commanded by a son of the Sharif Husayn: The Southern Army under Amir Ali, with its HQ in Rabigh; the Eastern Army under Amir Abdallah with HQ at Wadi Ais; and the Northern Army under Amir Faysal, poised at Wajh with its inland forward operational base at Bir Jaydah, some 50 miles due West of the Hijaz Railway. Faysal's military task was to form efficient units out of the Bedouin auxiliaries which could withstand regular Turkish forces and at the same time, to use their mobile capabilities in a guerrilla warfare to destroy bridges and railway lines. His political task was to seek the support of Arab tribes that lay across his projected route of advance to the North. His assignment was "one of political proselytisation: to preach the gospel of Arab emancipation and fire the minds of the tribes with the glow of his own fervour" (Antonius: 219). On 6 July 1917 Faysal's army captured Aqaba, perhaps the most spectacular success of his forces - one that marked a "turning point" (El-Edross: 101) in the Arab campaign. Now the Arabs held an important supply base only 130 miles south-east of the EEF, threatened the flank of the Turkish Army operating against the British in Palestine and in the Sinai and the Turkish forces that were deployed in Arabia and along the length of the Hijaz Railway from Amman to Madina. Faysal was now able to comply effectively Allenby's wish to destroy the Turkish lines of communication.

The main object was the railway station of Dera, which was the focal point in the Turkish road and rail communications system, but which lay outside the strategic reach of Allenby's cavalry. On 18 September 1918 Faysal's army, operating from its forward base in Azraq, destroyed the railway around Dera and thus isolated the village completely. A day later the battles of Megiddo began, leading to the annihilation of the Turkish 7th and 8th Army.

http://www.gwpda.org/bio/f/faysal.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

13th Battalion AIF Le Verguier

18 September 1918: The main line of the final objective in the Australian attack on Ascension Farm and Le Verguier. This photograph, taken on the morning of the attack, shows a section of the Hindenburg outpost system in possession of 13th and 14th Battalions, who had been following in the wake of the advance in order to take over, with Battalions of the 4th Division, the front line from which the main Hindenburg line was stomed on 29 September 1918. Ascension Farm can be seen on the skyline.

Identified, front to back:
Private (Pte) E. E. Glenwright, 14th Battalion
7595 Pte N. McL. Young, 13th Battalion
6456 Pte S. C. Aburrow, 13th Battalion
1663 Sergeant A. E. Miller, 13th Battalion
unidentified
2925 Corporal A. B. Williams MM, 13th Battalion
7556 Pte S. Reid, 14th Battalion
3606 Pte F. M. Brown, 13th Battalion
7753 Pte W. J. Strettles, 13th Battalion

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:13thBattalionAIF_Le_Verguier.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ignace Paderewski on the League of Nations, 18 September 1919

With Germany defeated in November 1918 the path was cleared for a newly constructed Polish republic to be established with Allied backing; this was duly declared on 10 February 1919. This was however by no means the end of uncertainty for Poland, with the ultimate makeup of Europe yet to be agreed at the Paris Peace Conference, and with military disagreements with Russia, the Ukraine and Czechoslovakia rumbling on.

Statement by Paderewski on the League of Nations, 18 September 1919

From a Polish point of view, our one hope of future security as a State lies in the League of Nations. Upon it, and I fear upon it alone, depend the liberty of the Polish people and the successful development of democratic and liberal government in Poland.

Standing, as we are, between Germany on one side and Russia on the other, we cannot hope to maintain our integrity during these years, while we build up the strength of our people, unless we have the protection of the League.

Poland at the present moment has 500,000 men under arms. Our people are short of food supplies, short of clothing, short of many of the necessaries of life. We are compelled to make every sacrifice to sustain the army, and this, with our population needing its resources for the up-building of the nation, in order that we may protect ourselves from encroachment.

Today we are defending 1,500 miles of front against Bolshevist forces, and in so doing, we stand as the front line in Europe against Bolshevist invasion from the east.

We are endeavouring to maintain this front line and at the same time to achieve an economic stability, to recuperate our people from the effects of repeated invasions of German and Russian armies. The task is a terrible one. The tax upon our strength will be too great unless we can have the assurance that there will be a body in the world to whom we can appeal for aid in the righting of our wrongs.

Poland has set up a democracy under the inspiration of the American people. Had it not been for American intervention in Europe we might possibly have had some semblance of independent Government under an autocratic overrule, but with American intervention and American help we have sought to establish not only the independence of the State, but also the internal liberty of our people, through the difficult road of democracy.

The pressure is upon us on all sides through military action and through Bolshevist propaganda and an intense propaganda from Germany. Unless we have a protective power in the world, under whose strength we can secure an opportunity for peaceful development and the solution of our internal problems, free from distracting and antagonistic influences, I fear for the safety of our democracy.

The great power and the support which it may furnish need not be military, its moral and economic force is all that we ask, and that power is the League of Nations.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VII, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/poland_paderewski2.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Sep 2010 22:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WOMEN'S ROYAL NAVAL SERVICE

On 18 September 1919 the Director WRNS received a letter from Their Lordships expressing appreciation for the Wrens' contribution to the war effort.

'On the occasion of the general demobilisation of the Women's Royal Naval Service, I am to request that you will communicate to all concerned Their Lordships' high appreciation of the efficient manner in which the Service has been organised and conducted, of the zeal and exemplary conduct which its members have shown in the performance of their duties and of the assistance which they have afforded to the Naval Service generally.'

http://www.thewrens.com/history/1917-19.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2018 7:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

18 September 1918 - Lt MacCrea Stephenson was killed in action on this day

1st Lt MacCrea Stephenson, 11th Aero Sqdn, US Army.
Born at Wabash, Indiana on 7 August 1889, MacCrea was a sales manager for the American Garment Company prior to enlistment. He enlisted at Indianapolis into the US Army Air Service on 8 May 1918 and he was trained at the University of Ohio and Wilbur Wright Field, Ohio. MacCrea was transferred to the 11th Aero Squadron on 21 November 1917 and it was with this unit that he saw his overseas service. He was killed in action over Jarny (Meuse) on 18 September 1918 and he was initially buried in the American Cemetery at Thiaucourt. MacCrea's body was repatriated post-war.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/on-this-day/18-september-1918-lt-maccrea-stephenson-was-killed-in-action-on-this-day/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Sep 2018 7:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

POETRY FOUNDATION: September, 1918
BY AMY LOWELL

This afternoon was the colour of water falling through sunlight;
The trees glittered with the tumbling of leaves;
The sidewalks shone like alleys of dropped maple leaves,
And the houses ran along them laughing out of square, open windows.
Under a tree in the park,
Two little boys, lying flat on their faces,
Were carefully gathering red berries
To put in a pasteboard box.
Some day there will be no war,
Then I shall take out this afternoon
And turn it in my fingers,
And remark the sweet taste of it upon my palate,
And note the crisp variety of its flights of leaves.
To-day I can only gather it
And put it into my lunch-box,
For I have time for nothing
But the endeavour to balance myself
Upon a broken world.


https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/42990/september-1918
Over de dichteres: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/amy-lowell
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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