Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

31 mei

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2006 8:00    Onderwerp: 31 mei Reageer met quote

1916


Erfolgreiche Patrouillenunternehmungen bei Neuve-Chapelle

Großes Hauptquartier, 31. Mai.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Feindliche Torpedoboote, die sich der Küste näherten, wurden durch Artilleriefeuer vertrieben.
Die rege Feuertätigkeit im Abschnitt zwischen dem Kanal von La Bassée und Arras hält an. Unternehmungen deutscher Patrouillen bei Neuve Chapelle und nordöstlich davon waren erfolgreich; 38 Engländer, darunter 1 Offizier, wurden gefangengenommen, 1 Maschinengewehr erbeutet.
Links der Maas säuberten wir die südlich des Dorfes Cumières liegenden Hecken und Büsche vom Gegner, wobei 3 Offiziere, 88 Mann in unsere Hand fielen. Beim Angriff am 29. Mai erbeuteten wir ein im Cauretteswäldchen eingebautes Marinegeschütz, 18 Maschinengewehre, eine Anzahl Minenwerfer und viel sonstiges Gerät. Auf beiden Maasufern blieb die Artillerietätigkeit sehr lebhaft.
Östlicher und Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Keine Ereignisse von besonderer Bedeutung.

Wien, 31. Mai.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Erhöhte Gefechtstätigkeit an der beßarabischen Front und in Wolhynien dauert an.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die unter Befehl seiner K. und K. Hoheit des Generalobersten Erzherzog Eugen aus Tirol operierenden Streitkräfte haben Asiago und Arsiero genommen.
Im Raume nordöstlich Asiago vertrieben unsere Truppen den Feind aus Galio und erstürmten seine Höhenstellungen nördlich dieses Ortes. Der Monte Baldo und Monte Fiara sind in unserem Besitz. Westlich von Asiago ist unsere Front südlich der Assaschlucht bis zum eroberten Werk Punta Corbin geschlossen.
Die über den Posinabach vorgedrungenen Kräfte nahmen den Monte Priafora.
Neuerliche verzweifelte Anstrengungen der Italiener, uns die Stellungen südlich Bettale zu entreißen, waren vergeblich.
In dem halben Monat seit Beginn unseres Angriffes wurden 30388 Italiener, darunter 694 Offiziere, gefangengenommen und 299 Geschütze erbeutet.
Heute früh belegten mehrere eigene Seeflugzeuge den Bahnhof und militärische Anlagen von San Giorgio di Nogara mit zahlreichen Bomben. Im Bahnhofsgebäude wurden vier Treffer beobachtet.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nördlich der unteren Vojusa haben unsere Truppen italienische Patrouillen verjagt.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)
www.stahlgewitter.com
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2006 8:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 Battle of Jutland

Just before four o’clock on the afternoon of May 31, 1916, a British naval force commanded by Vice Admiral David Beatty confronts a squadron of German ships, led by Admiral Franz von Hipper, some 75 miles off the Danish coast. The two squadrons opened fire on each other simultaneously, beginning the opening phase of the greatest naval battle of World War I, the Battle of Jutland.

After the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915, the German navy chose not to confront the numerically superior British Royal Navy in a major battle for more than a year, preferring to rest the bulk of its strategy at sea on its lethal U-boat submarines. In May 1916, however, with the majority of the British Grand Fleet anchored far away, at Scapa Flow, off the northern coast of Scotland, the commander of the German High Seas Fleet, Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, believed the time was right to resume attacks on the British coastline. Confident that his communications were securely coded, Scheer ordered 19 U-boat submarines to position themselves for a raid on the North Sea coastal city of Sunderland while using air reconnaissance crafts to keep an eye on the British fleet’s movement from Scapa Flow. Bad weather hampered the airships, however, and Scheer called off the raid, instead ordering his fleet—24 battleships, five battle cruisers, 11 light cruisers and 63 destroyers—to head north, to the Skagerrak, a waterway located between Norway and northern Denmark, off the Jutland Peninsula, where they could attack Allied shipping interests and with luck, punch a hole in the stringent British blockade.

Unbeknownst to Scheer, however, a newly created intelligence unit located within an old building of the British Admiralty, known as Room 40, had cracked the German codes and warned the British Grand Fleet’s commander, Admiral John Rushworth Jellicoe, of Scheer’s intentions. Consequently, on the night of May 30, a British fleet of 28 battleships, nine battle cruisers, 34 light cruisers and 80 destroyers set out from Scapa Flow, bound for positions off the Skagerrak.

At 2:20 p.m. on May 31, Beatty, leading a British squadron, spotted Hipper’s warships. As each squadron maneuvered south to better its position, shots were fired, but neither side opened fire until 3:48 that afternoon. The initial phase of the gun battle lasted 55 minutes, during which two British battle cruisers, Indefatigable and Queen Mary were destroyed, killing over 2,000 sailors. At 4:43 p.m., Hipper’s squadron was joined by the remainder of the German fleet, commanded by Scheer. Beatty was forced to fight a delaying action for the next hour, until Jellicoe could arrive with the rest of the Grand Fleet.

With both fleets facing off in their entirety, a great battle of naval strategy began among the four commanders, particularly between Jellicoe and Scheer. As sections of the two fleets continued to engage each other throughout the late evening and the early morning of June 1, Jellicoe maneuvered 96 of the British ships into a V-shape surrounding 59 German ships. Hipper’s flagship, Lutzow, was disabled by 24 direct hits but was able, before it sank, to sink the British battle cruiser Invincible. Just after 6:30 on the evening of June 1, Scheer’s fleet executed a previously planned withdrawal under cover of darkness to their base at the German port of Wilhelmshaven, ending the battle and cheating the British of the major naval success they had envisioned.

The Battle of Jutland—or the Battle of the Skagerrak, as it was known to the Germans—engaged a total of 100,000 men aboard 250 ships over the course of 72 hours. The Germans, giddy from the glory of Scheer’s brilliant escape, claimed it as a victory for their High Seas Fleet. At first the British press agreed, but the truth was not so clear-cut. The German navy lost 11 ships, including a battleship and a battle cruiser, and suffered 3,058 casualties; the British sustained heavier losses, with 14 ships sunk, including three battle cruisers, and 6,784 casualties. Ten more German ships had suffered heavy damage, however, and by June 2, 1916, only 10 ships that had been involved in the battle were ready to leave port again (Jellicoe, on the other hand, could have put 23 to sea). On July 4, 1916, Scheer reported to the German high command that further fleet action was not an option, and that submarine warfare was Germany’s best hope for victory at sea. Despite the missed opportunities and heavy losses, the Battle of Jutland had left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact. The German High Seas Fleet would make no further attempts to break the Allied blockade or to engage the Grand Fleet for the remainder of World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2010 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Zeppelin Air Raids on London, 31st of May 1915

When WWI began, rumours spread about Germany’s ability to send her giant dirigibles across the sea to attack centres of population and industry.

Count von Zeppelin had developed the machines after his experience in the Franco-Prussian War, taking the concept to a practical stage after his retirement from the military. The first flew in 1900, and major investment was put into the programme as both its civil and military potential was realised. The Germans had seven working military airships when war was declared in 1914, six held by the army, the last in the hands of the navy.

For some time in the early stages of the conflict the machines were largely used for naval reconnaissance, highly effective in that role given their speed – in favourable conditions they could exceed 80mpph – and the elevations they could reach, climbing to a height of 13,000 feet or more. The military hierarchy were keen to develop their use further, however, and tests of their offensive capacity were made in bombing raids over Liege and Antwerp in 1914.

Kaiser Wilhelm seems to have been reluctant to allow the use of this new weapon against targets other than military ones, but in 1915 he was persuaded of the need to do so, partly because French bombers had by then attacked German cities. Raids on Paris, though it was closer than London, meant crossing large tracts of enemy territory, allowing the ground and air defences ahead to be prepared. London, reached by crossing mainly occupied land and the seas, was a safer target.

On January 19 1915 Great Yarmouth, Kings Lynn and Sheringham in Norfolk were raided in a test of the idea. Two civilians died, 16 were injured, and the panic in the country was evidence of the propaganda value of the tactic.

Thus on the night of May 31, 1915, Zeppelin LZ-32 flew about 400 miles to reach the English capital. The machine was about 190m long, and able to carry several tonnes of bomb which by this time had been specially adapted for aerial bombardment. For several hours the airship dropped explosive and incendiary devices over the city. Stoke Newington was the first place to suffer the attack.

Five were killed in the raid, another 35 injured. The panic seen after the Norfolk raid was magnified several times over. Talk went round of invasion by Zeppelin, and of plans for mass raids. What was very clear to the people and the government alike was that the almost non-existent air defences needed to be improved, and major effort was directed to this goal, the warning system being upgraded from policemen with whistles to a rather more sophisticated version, and development of fighter planes with the weaponry and ammunition to down the craft was urgently accelerated.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=355
Zie ook http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=138978
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 30 Mei 2010 22:27, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2010 22:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Greek legislative election, May 1915

The elections took place the 31st of May 1915. Eleftherios Venizelos and his Liberal Party achieved a landslide victory. At stake were 316 seats and the Liberals took 187 of them. Nevertheless and despite the victory of Liberals, Venizelos' dispute with King Constantine I remained.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_legislative_election,_May_1915
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2010 22:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WESTERN FRONT - NAVAL MENTIONS
ARMY DESPATCH dated 31 May 1915


War Office, 22nd June, 1915.

The following despatch has been received by the Secretary of State for War from the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, British Forces in the Field:

31st May, 1915.

MY LORD:

In accordance with the last paragraph of my Despatch of the 5th April, 1915, I have the honour to bring to notice names of those whom I recommend for gallant and distinguished service in the field.

I have the honour to be, Your Lordship's most obedient Servant,

J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, Commanding-in-Chief, The British Army in the Field.

Royal Navy.
Muirhead-Gould, Lieutenant G.
Robinson, Lieutenant L. F. (Armoured train).
Ball, No. 179150 Chief Petty Officer E.
Mewett, No. 172044 Chief Petty Officer H. (temporary Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve).

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1NavyBritishLondonGazette1504.htm#29200
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2010 22:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Capture of Amara, 1915

The Capture of the important Turkish administrative base of Amara in late May 1915 was a remarkable triumph for both the British and its commander of the Amara expedition, Sir Charles Townshend.

Also an important commercial centre Amara was sited on the Tigris river, and some 160km north of Qurna which British forces had captured in December 1914. Travel between Qurna and Amara was made difficult by land flooding - to a depth of three feet - and thus was only feasible by shallow draught boat.

Nevertheless the freshly-arrived regional British Commander-in-Chief, Sir John Nixon, was determined to continue the Indian administration's policy of 'forward defence'.

In this Nixon and the Indian government were in conflict with the wishes of the London War Office; the former intended to pursue an aggressive strategy, while the latter favoured a more cautious approach designed simply to protect critical British oil interests in the region.

However Nixon, buoyed by success in repulsing a Turkish offensive at Shaiba in April 1915, argued persuasively that unless Amara itself was seized the British HQ at Basra lay under potential threat. The Indian administration was quick to agree; the government in London more reluctantly so.

Thus, in spite of a definite shortage of equipment and supplies - notably medical supplies - Nixon, who remained at Basra, authorised newly-arrived Sir Charles Townshend (in charge of the 6th (Poona) Division) to begin operations.

Consequently a haphazard fleet of some 500 flat-bottomed boats was assembled in readiness for an expedition to Amara. Each craft bore as much artillery as it could safely bear, machine guns and mountain guns among them.

Commencing on 31 May 1915 Townshend's operation quickly secured Turkish outposts. News from reconnaissance aircraft reached Townshend the following day indicating that the main Turkish force at Ruta had opted to move north towards Amara.

Townshend promptly decided to pursue them, boarding the Espeigle and designating it his HQ. With Royal Navy support Townshend's 'regatta' (as it subsequently became known) set off quickly in pursuit.

Remarkably leaving his supporting infantry far behind - some 80km in his wake - Townshend paused on the evening of 1 June when his force sighted the rear of the Turkish force. Continuing the next day with Amara still some 80km ahead Townshend passed abandoned Turkish shipping. This augured well and he took the decision to proceed.

Arriving in Amara on the afternoon of 3 June, Townshend's tiny advance force of 100 British sailors and soldiers nevertheless persuaded the garrison of 2,000 there to surrender, the latter convinced that a hefty British army was shortly to arrive. Maintaining the bluff throughout the day Townshend was joined by the arrival of his main force the following day.

Townshend's reputation soared as news of the spectacular capture of Amara spread. More ominously it encouraged Nixon to aggressively push further up the Tigris, in spite of tightly stretched supply lines and extreme shortages of equipment.

Such a policy suggested imminent disaster; it duly arrived at Ctesiphon in late November 1915.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/amara.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Hew Grieg, 31-5-15

Hew Hutchison Grieg was born in India on 21st September 1892. He was a son of Thomas and Alice Grieg (nee Bapty) and after fighting in the Great War, went on to become an engineer.

Te lezen op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9365/6365?DMSCALE=74.71980&DMWIDTH=600&DMHEIGHT=600&DMMODE=viewer&DMFULL=0&DMOLDSCALE=12.73345&DMX=0&DMY=0&DMTEXT=&DMTHUMB=1&REC=1&DMROTATE=&x=51&y=22
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 8:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Monday 31st May 1915 – Diary of HV Reynolds - Diary of an ANZAC

‘All the T.B.Ds spent the morning patrolling the sea area between Imbros, Cape Helles and Suvla, evidently in search of an enemy submarine. A new type of aeroplane made its appearance here this morning, it is easily the largest we have seen up to date. For about an hour and a half it circled overhead giving us a wonderful exhibition of aerial stunts in diving, twisting and turning in every direction. An old type of light cruiser put in an appearance today but did no firing.’

http://forums.liveleak.com/showthread.php?p=905630
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Jutland, 31 May-1 June 1916

The greatest naval battle of the First World War. Jutland had all the ingredients to be a great British naval victory, but in the event the result was much less clear-cut. The recently appointed commander of the German High Seas Fleet, Reinhard Scheer, had returned to the policy of making sorties against the British coast, confident that his codes were secure, and thus that the main British battle fleet, at Scapa Flow in the north of Scotland could not intervene. However, the British could read German coded messages, and were aware of Scheer's plan. At the end of may, Scheer sortied with the entire High Seas Fleet, expected that the only serious threat he would meet was Admiral Beatty's Battlecruiser squadron based on the Forth. Unfortunately for his plan, the Royal Navy knew he was coming, and the Grand Fleet sailed only minutes after the High Seas Fleet.

Both fleets sailed in a similar formation, with a scouting squadron of battlecruisers sailing ahead of the main battle fleets. The battle falls into five main phases. The first came when Admiral Beatty, commanding the British battle cruisers encountered their weaker German equivalent under Admiral Hipper, (31 May) and chased them south towards the main German fleet. The second phase saw Beatty flee north, pursued by the German Dreadnoughts. So far, both sides thought the battle was going to plan, although a design flaw led to the destruction of two British battle cruisers. Now, in the third phase the Germans got a nasty surprise. Thinking themselves involved in a chase that would end with the destruction of the British battlecruisers, they found themselves under bombardment from Jellicoe's battlefleet, which they had thought to be too far north to intervene. The heavy British guns quickly forced Scheer to order a retreat, but then Scheer made what could have turned into a grievous error, turning back, possibly hoping to pass behind Jellicoe, and escape into the Baltic. However, Jellicoe had slowed down, and the German fleet found themselves crossing in front of the British fleet, and in ten minutes of gunfire suffered 27 heavy hits while only inflicted two. Once again, Scheer ordered a retreat. Finally, in the last phase of the battle, in a night of intense fighting, the retreat of the German battleships was covered by their lighter ships, while Jellicoe lost time after turning to avoid a potential torpedo attack. The Germans lost one battlecruiser, one pre-Dreadnought, four light cruisers and five destroyers, while the British lost three battlecruisers, four armoured cruisers, and eight destroyers. . However, many of the surviving German heavy ships had suffered serious damage, and one result of the battle was to increase the British dominance in heavy ships.

Jutland was the last, and largest, of the great battleship battles. Neither submarines or aircraft played any part in the battle, despite the plans of both sides. Never again did battle fleets meet again in such numbers. While the Royal Navy suffered more losses, the battle effectively ended any threat from the High Seas Fleet, which now knew it could not contest control of the North Sea with the Royal Navy. The great fleet which Kaiser Wilhelm II had been obsessed with, and which had done so much to sour relations between Britain and Germany had proved to be a blunted weapon. Despite that, the battle disappointed in Britain, where news of a new Trafalgar had been expected, and the hard fought draw at Jutland was not appreciated until much later, while the Kaiser claimed a German victory.

Rickard, J. (18 March 2001), Battle of Jutland, 31 May-1 June 1916, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_jutland.html

Zie ook:
Free eBook: Battle Fleet Action from HMS Neptune
Join the look-out in the fore-top of HMS Neptune as Admiral Beatty's battlecruisers lead the German High Seas Fleet into the massed guns of the battleships of the British Grand Fleet.

http://www.battle-of-jutland.com/free-jutland-book.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 8:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kiplings' Reporting on The Battle of Jutland, 31 May, 1916

The Battle of Jutland was described by Rudyard Kipling in his series of reports in the London Daily Telegraph, October 19, 23, 26, 31,1916, passim.
Note that Kipling, for reasons of security, used fictitious names for the destroyers.


When the German fleet ran for home, on the night of May 31, it seems to have scattered -- "starred " I believe, is the word for the evolution -- in a general sauve qui peut, while the Devil, lively represented by our destroyers, took the hindmost. Our flotillas were strung out far and wide on this job. One man compared it to hounds hunting half a hundred separate foxes.

I take the adventures of several couples of destroyers who, on the night of May 31, were nosing along somewhere towards the Schleswig-Holstein coast, ready to chop any Hun stuff coming back to earth by that particular road. The leader of one line was Gehenna, and the next two ships astern of her were Eblis and Shaitan, in the order given....

Towards midnight our destroyers were overtaken by several three- and four-funnel German ships (cruisers, they thought) hurrying home. At this stage of the game anybody might have been anybody -- pursuer or pursued. The Germans took no chances, but switched on their searchlights and opened fire on Gehenna. Her Acting Sublieutenant reports: "A salvo hit us forward. I opened fire with the afterguns. A shell then struck us in a steampipe, and I could see nothing but steam. But both starboard torpedoes were fired."

Eblis, Gehenna's next astern, at once fired a torpedo at the second ship in the German line, a four-funneled cruiser and hit her between the second funnel and the mainmast, when "she appeared to catch fire fore and aft simultaneously, heeled right over to starboard, and undoubtedly sank." Eblis loosed off a second torpedo and turned aside to reload, firing at the same time to distract the enemy's attention from Gehenna, who was now ablaze fore and aft. Gehenna's Acting Sublieutenant (the only executive officer who survived) says that by the time the steam from the broken pipe cleared he found Gehenna stopped, nearly everybody amidships killed or wounded, the cartridge boxes round the guns exploding one after the other as the fires took hold, and the enemy not to be seen. Three minutes or less did all that damage.

Eblis had nearly finished reloading when a shot struck the davit that was swinging her last torpedo into the tube and wounded all hands concerned. Thereupon she dropped torpedo work, fired at an enemy searchlight which winked and went out, and was closing in to help Gehenna, when she found herself under the noses of a couple of enemy cruisers....

The enemy did her best. She completely demolished the Eblis's bridge and searchlight platform, brought down the mast and the forefunnel, ruined the whaler and the dinghy, split the foc's'le open above water from the stern to the galley which is abaft the bridge, and below water had opened it up from the stern to the second bulkhead. She further ripped off Eblis's skin plating for an amazing number of yards on one side of her, and fired a couple of large calibre-caliber shells into Eblis at point-blank range narrowly missing her vitals. Even so, Eblis is as impartial as a prize court....

After all that Eblis picked herself up, and discovered that she was still alive, with a dog's chance of getting to port. But she did not bank on it. That grand slam had wrecked the bridge, pinning the commander under the wreckage. By the time he had extricated himself he "considered it advisable to throw overboard the steel chest and dispatch box of confidential and secret books." [These] are never allowed to fall into strange hands, and their proper disposal is the last step but one in the ritual of the burial service of His Majesty's ships at sea.

Gehenna, afire and sinking, out somewhere in the dark, was going through it on her own account. This is her Acting Sublieutenant's report: "The confidential books were got up. The First Lieutenant gave the order: 'Every man aft,' and the confidential books were thrown overboard. The ship soon afterwards heeled over to starboard and the bows went under. The First Lieutenant gave the order: 'Everybody for themselves.' The ship sank in about a minute, the stern going straight up into the air."

But it was not written in the Book of Fate that stripped and battered Eblis should die that night as Gehenna died. After the burial of the books it was found that the several fires on her were manageable, that she "was not making water aft of the damage," which meant two thirds of her were, more or less, in commission, and, best of all, that three boilers were usable in spite of the cruiser's shells. So she "shaped course and speed to make the least water and the most progress towards land."

On the way back the wind shifted eight points without warning -- and, what with one thing and another, Eblis was unable to make any port till the scandalously late hour of noon June 2, "the mutual ramming having occurred about 11:40 P.M. on May 31." She says, this time without any legal reservation whatever, "I cannot speak too highly of the courage, discipline, and devotion of the officers and ship's company." . . .

In that flotilla alone there was every variety of fight, from the ordered attacks of squadrons under control, to single ship affairs, every turn of which depended on the second's decision of the men concerned; endurance to the hopeless end; bluff and cunning; reckless advance and redhot flight; clear vision and as much of blank bewilderment as the Senior Service permits its children to indulge in. That is not much. When a destroyer who has been dodging enemy torpedoes and gunfire in the dark realizes about midnight that she is "following a strange British flotilla, having lost sight of my own," she "decides to remain with them," and shares their fortunes and whatever language is going.

If lost hounds could speak when they cast up next day, after an unchecked night among the wild life of the dark, they would talk much as our destroyers do.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Kiplings%27_Reporting_on_The_Battle_of_Jutland
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beatty's Report on The Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916

(Extracted from: The Beatty Papers, vol. 1, B.McL. Ranft, ed, Navy Records Society, 1989, p 323)

At 2.20 p.m. reports were received from Galatea, the light cruiser stationed on the eastward flanks, indicating the presence of enemy vessels. The direction of advance was immediately altered to S. S. E., the course for Horn Reef, so as to place my force between the enemy and his base. At 2.35 p.m, a considerable amount of smoke was sighted to the eastward. This made it clear that the enemy was to the northward and eastward and that it would be impossible for him to round the Horn Reef without being brought to action. Course was accordingly altered to eastward and northeastward, the enemy being sighted at 3.31 p.m. They appeared to be five battle cruisers.

After the first report of the enemy the 1st and 3rd Light Cruiser Squadrons changed their direction and without waiting for orders spread to the east, thereby forming a screen in advance of the Battle Cruiser Squadrons and 5th Battle Squadron by the time we had hauled up to the course of approach. They engaged enemy light cruisers at long range. In the meantime the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron had come in at high speed and was able to take station ahead of the battle cruisers by the time we turned E.S.E., the course on which we first engaged the enemy. In this respect the work of the light cruiser squadrons was excellent and of great value.

From a report from Galatea at 2.25 p.m. it was evident that the enemy force was considerable and not merely an isolated unit of light cruisers, so at 2.45 p.m. I ordered Engadine to send up a seaplane and scout to N.N.E. At 3.08 p.m. a seaplane was well under way; her first reports of the enemy were received in Engadine about 3.30 p.m. Owing to clouds it was necessary to fly very low, and in order to identify four enemy light cruisers the plane had to fly at a height of 900 feet within 3,000 yards of them, the light cruisers opening fire on her with every gun that would bear. This in no way interfered with the clarity of reports, which indicate that seaplane under such circumstance are of distinct value.

At 3.30 p. m. I increased speed to 25 knots and formed line of battle, the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron forming astern of the 1st Battle Cruiser Squadron, with destroyers of the 13th and 9th Flotillas taking station ahead. I turned to E.S.E., slightly converging on the enemy, who were not at a range of 3,000 yards, and formed the ships on a line of bearing to clear the smoke. The 5th Battle Squadron, who had conformed to our movements, were now bearing N.N.W., 10,000 yards. The visibility at this time was good, the sun behind us, and the wind S.E. Being between the enemy and his base, our situation was both tactically and strategically good.

At 3.48 p.m. the action commenced at a range of 18,500 yards, both forces opening fire practically simultaneously. Course was altered to the southward, and subsequently the mean direction was S.W.E., the enemy steering a parallel course distant about 18,000 to 14,500 yards.

It would appear that at this time we passed through a screen of enemy submarines. The destroyer Landrail of 9th Flotilla, who was on our port beam trying to take station ahead, sighted the periscope of a submarine on her port quarter. Though causing considerable inconvenience from smoke, the presence of Lydiard and Landrail undoubtedly preserved the battle cruisers from closer submarine attack. Nottingham also reported a submarine on the starboard beam.

Eight destroyers of the 13th Flotilla, Nestor, Nomad, Nicator, Narborough, Pelican, Petard. Obdurate. Nerissa, with Moorsom and Morris of 10th Flotilla, Turbulent and Termagant of the 9th Flotilla, having been ordered to attack the enemy with torpedoes when opportunity offered, moved out at 4.15 p.m. simultaneously with a similar movement on the part of the enemy. The attack was carried out in the most gallant manner and with great determination. Before arriving at a favorable position to fire torpedoes, they intercepted an enemy force consisting of a light cruiser and 15 destroyers. A fierce engagement ensued at close quarters, with the result that the enemy was forced to retire on their battle cruisers, having lost two destroyers sunk, and having their torpedo attack frustrated. (Some torpedoes were fired by the enemy two of which crossed the track of the 5th Battle Squadron, which had been turned away to avoid the attacks.) Our destroyers sustained no loss in this engagement, but their attack on the enemy battle cruisers was rendered less effective owing to some of the destroyers having dropped astern during the fight. Their position was therefore unfavorable for torpedo attack.

Nestor, Nomad and Nicator pressed home their attack on the battle cruisers and fired two torpedoes at them at a range of 6,000 and 5,000 yards, being subjected to a heavy fire from the enemy's secondary armament. Nomad was badly hit and apparently remained stopped between the lines. (She was sunk later by the German Battle Fleet.) Subsequently Nestor and Nicator altered course to the S.E., and in a short time the opposing battle cruisers having turned 16 points, found themselves within close range of a number of enemy battleships. Nothing daunted, though under a terrific fire, they stood on, and their position being favorable for torpedo attack, fired a torpedo at the second ship of the enemy line at a range of 3,000 yards. Before they could fire their fourth torpedo, Nestor was badly hit and swung to starboard, Nicator altering course inside her to avoid collision and thereby being prevented from firing the last torpedo. Nicator made good her escape and subsequently rejoined the 13th Flotilla. Nestor remained stopped, but was afloat when last seen. (She was sunk later by the German Battle Fleet.) Moorsom also carried out an attack on the enemy's Battle Fleet.

Petard, Nerissa, Turbulent and Termagant also pressed home their attack on the enemy battle cruisers, firing torpedoes at 7,000 yards after the engagement with enemy destroyers Petard reports that all her torpedoes must have crossed the enemy's line, while Nerissa states that one torpedo appeared to strike the rear ship. These destroyer attacks were indicative of the spirit pervading His Majesty's Navy, and were worthy of its highest traditions.

From 4.15 to 4.43 p.m. the conflict between the opposing battle cruisers was a very fierce and resolute character. The 5th Battle Squadron was engaging the enemy's rear ships, unfortunately at very long range. Our fire began to tell, the accuracy and rapidity of that of the enemy depreciating considerably. At 4.18 p.m. the third enemy ship was seen to be on fire. The visibility to the north-eastward had become considerably reduced and the outline of the ships very indistinct.

At 4.26 p.m. there was a violent explosion in Queen Mary ; she was enveloped in clouds of gray smoke and disappeared. Eighteen of her officers and men were subsequently picked up by Laurel.

At 4.38 p.m. Southampton reported the enemy's Battle Fleet ahead. The destroyers were recalled, and at 4.42 p.m. the enemy's Battle Fleet was sighted S.E. Course was altered 16 points in succession to starboard. and I proceeded on a northerly course to l ead them towards the Grand Fleet. The enemy battle cruisers altered course shortly afterwards, and the action continued. Southampton with the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron held on to the southward to observe. They closed to within 13,000 yards of the enemy battle fleet and came under a very heavy but ineffective fire. Southampton's reports were most valuable.

The 5th Battle Squadron were now closing on an opposite course and engaging the enemy battle cruisers with all guns. The position of the enemy Battle Fleet was communicated to them, and I ordered them to alter course 16 points. Led by Rear Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas, M.V.O., in Barham, this squadron supported us brilliantly and effectively.

At 4.57 p.m. the 5th Battle Squadron turned up astern of me and came under the fire of the leading ships of the enemy Battle Fleet. Fearless, with the destroyers of 1st Flotilla, joined the battle cruisers, and, when speed admitted, took station ahead. Champion, with 13th Flotilla, took station on the 5th Battle Squadron. At 5 p.m. the 1st and 3rd Light Cruiser Squadron, which had been following me on the southerly course, took station on my starboard bow; the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron took station on my port quarter.

The weather conditions now became unfavorable, our ships being silhouetted against a clear horizon to the westward, while the enemy were for the most part obscured by mist, only showing up clearly at intervals. These conditions prevailed until we had turned their van at about 6 p.m.

Between 5 and 6 p.m. the action continued on a northerly course, the range being about 14,000 yards. During this time the enemy received very severe punishment, and undoubtedly one of their battle cruisers quitted the line in a considerably damaged condition. This came under my personal observation and was corroborated by Princess Royal and Tiger. Other enemy ships also showed signs of increasing injury.

At 5.05 p.m. Onslow and Moresby who had been detached to assist Engadine with the seaplane, rejoined the battle cruiser squadrons and took station on the starboard (engaged) bow of Lion. At 5.10 p.m. Moresby, being 2 points before the beam of the leading enemy ship. fired a torpedo at the 3rd in their line. Eight minutes later she observed a hit with a torpedo on what was judged to be the 6th ship in the line. Moresby then passed between the lines to clear the range of smoke, and rejoined Champion. In corroboration of this, Fearless reports having seen an enemy heavy ship heavily on fire at about 5.10 p.m., and shortly afterwards a huge cloud of smoke and steam similar to that which accompanied the blowing up of Queen Mary and Indefatigable.

At 5.35 p.m. our course was N.N.E. and the estimated position of the Grand Fleet was N. 16 W., 80 we gradually hauled to the northeastward keeping the range of the enemy at 14,000 yards. He was gradually hauling to the westward, receiving severe punishment at the head of his line, and probably acting on information received from his light cruisers which had sighted and were engaged with the Third Battle Cruiser Squadron. Possibly Zeppelins were present also. At 5.50 p.m. British cruisers were sighted on the port bow, and at 5.56 p.m. the leading battleships of the Grand Fleet bearing north 5 miles. I thereupon altered course to east and proceeded at utmost speed. This brought the range of the enemy down to 12,000 yards. I made a report to the Commander-in-Chief that the enemy battle cruiser bore southeast. At this time only three of the enemy battle cruisers were visible, closely followed by battle ships of the Konig class.

At 6.25 p.m. I altered course to the E.S.E. in support of the Light Battle Cruiser Squadron, who were at this time only 8,000 yards from the enemy's leading ship. They were pouring a hot fire into her, and caused her to turn to the westward of south. At the same time, I made a visual report to the Commander-in-Chief of the bearing and distance of the enemy Battle Fleet. At 6.33 p.m. Invincible blew up.

After the loss of the Invincible, the squadron was led by Inflexible until 6.50 p.m. By this time the battle cruisers were clear of our leading battle squadron, then bearing about N.N.W. 3 miles, and I ordered the Third Battle Cruiser Squadron to prolong the line astern and reduced to 18 knots. The visibility at this time was very indifferent, not more than 4 miles, and the enemy ships were temporarily lost sight of.

From the report of Rear-Admiral T. D. W. Napier, M.V.O., the Third Light Cruiser Squadron, which had maintained its station on our starboard bow well ahead of the enemy, at 6.25 p.m. attacked with the torpedo. Falmouth and Yarmouth both fired torpedoes at the leading enemy battle cruiser, and it is believed that one torpedo hit, as a heavy under-water explosion was observed. The Third Light Cruiser Squadron then gallantly attacked the heavy ships with gunfire, with impunity to themselves, thereby demonstrating that the fighting efficiency of the enemy had been seriously impaired. Rear Admiral Napier deserves great credit for his determined and effective attack. Indomitable reports that about this time one of the Derfflinger class fell out of the enemy's line.

Meanwhile, at 6 p.m. Canterbury had engaged enemy light cruisers which were firing heavily on the torpedo-boat destroyers Shark, Acasta and Christopher ; as a result of this engagement the Shark was sunk.

At 6.16 p.m. Defense and Warrior were observed passing down between the British and German Battle Fleets under a very heavy fire. Defense was seen to blow up and Warrior passed to the rear disabled. It is probable that Sir Robert Arbuthnot, during his engagement with the enemy's light cruisers and in his desire to complete their destruction, was not aware of the approach of the enemy's heavy ships, owing to the mist, until he found himself in close proximity to the main fleet, and before he could withdraw his ships they were caught under a heavy fire and disabled. It is not known when Black Prince, of the same squadron, was sunk, but as a wireless signal was received from her between 8 and 9 p.m. reporting the position of a submarine, it is possible that her loss was the result of a torpedo attack. There is much strong evidence of the presence of a large number of enemy submarines in the vicinity of the scene of the action.

At about 6.05 p.m. Onslow, being on the engaged bow of Lion, sighted an enemy light cruiser at a distance of 6,000 yards from us, apparently endeavoring to attack with torpedoes. Onslow at once closed and engaged her, firing 58 rounds at a range of from 4,000 to 2,000 yards, scoring a number of hits. Onslow then closed the enemy battle cruisers, and orders were given for all torpedoes to be fired. At this moment she was struck amidships by a heavy shell, with the result that only one torpedo was fired. Thinking that all his torpedoes had gone, the commanding officer proceeded to retire at slow speed. Being informed that he still had three torpedoes, he closed the light cruiser previously engaged and torpedoed her. The enemy's Battle Fleet was then sighted, and the remaining torpedoes were fired at them; having started correctly, they must have crossed the enemy's attack. Damage then caused Onslow to stop.

At 7.15 p.m. Defender, whose speed had been reduced to 10 knots, while on the disengaged side of the battle cruisers, was struck by a shell which damaged her foremost boiler, but closed Onslow and took her in tow. Shells were falling all round them during this operation, which, however, was successfully accomplished. During the heavy weather of the ensuing night the tow parted twice, but was resecured. The two struggled on together until 1p.m. 1st June, when Onslow was transferred to tugs. I consider the performances of these two destroyers to be gallant in the extreme, and I am recommending Lieutenant-Commander J. C. Tovey of Onslow, and Lieutenant Commander Palmer of Defender, for special recognition....

Here I should like to bring to your notice the action of a destroyer (name unknown) which we passed close in a disabled condition soon after 6 p.m. She apparently was able to struggle ahead again; and made straight for the Derfflinger to attack her. The incident appeared so courageous that it seems desirable to investigate it further.

Between 7 and 7.12 p.m. we hauled round gradually to S.W. by S. to regain touch with the enemy and at 7.14 p.m. again sighted them at a range of about 15,000 yards. The ships sighted at this time were two battle cruisers and two battleships, apparently of the Konig class. No doubt more continued the line to the northward, but that was all that could be seen. The visibility having improved considerably as the sun descended below the clouds, we re-engaged at 7.17 p.m. and increased speed to 22 knots. At 7.32 p.m. my course was S.W., speed 18 knots, the leading enemy battleship bearing N.W. by W. Again after a very short time the enemy showed signs of punishment, one ship being on fire while another appeared to drop right astern. The destroyers at the head of the enemy's line emitted volumes of gray smoke, covering their capital ships as with a pall, under cover of which they undoubtedly turned away, and at 7.45 p.m. we lost sight of them.

At 7.58 p.m. I ordered the First and Third Light Cruiser Squadrons to sweep to the westward and locate the head of the enemy's line, and at 8.20 p.m. we altered course to west in support. We soon located two battle cruisers and battleships, and more heavily engaged at a short range of about 10,000 yards. The leading ship was hit repeatedly by Lion and turned away 8 points, emitting very high flames and with a heavy list to port. Princess Royal set fire to a three-funneled battleship; New Zealand and Indomitable report that the third ship, which they both engaged, hauled out of the line, heeling over and on fire. The mist which now came down enveloped them, and Falmouth reported they were last seen at 8.38 p.m. steaming to the westward, an explosion on board a ship of the Kaiser class being seen at 8.40 p.m.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Beatty%27s_Report_on_The_Battle_of_Jutland
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

South Africans at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916
By Ross Dix-Peek

The Battle of Jutland, which took place on the 31 May 1916, off the west coast of Denmark, between British and German naval forces, is well known to many southern Africans with an interest in Military history. What may not be known is that at least seven South Africans took part in that epic, although indecisive, melee-at -sea. Although merely a handful, their tale is intriguing, at least three South Africans paying the ultimate sacrifice, while Captain (later Vice-Admiral V.B. Molteno) commanded the ill-fated H.M.S. "Warrior", and Alfred Englefield Evans (later Vice -Admiral A.E. Evans) also distinguished himself, being mentioned-in-despatches.

Captain Vincent Barkley Molteno was born in Cape-Town in 1872, and was the son of the first Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, Sir John Molteno. He was the brother of Sir james Molteno, one-time speaker of the Union of South Africa's House of Assembly, and P.A. Molteno, also active in politics. Molteno joined the Royal Navy, and in August 1893, took part in the landings at Vitu, Zanzibar, landing as a Lieutenant with the Naval Brigade from the Blanche, Swallow, and Sparrow, under Commander Lindley, together with 70 "native troops", to punish a robber chief named Fuma Omari, who had apparently indulged in various acts of treachery . Omari's fortified strongholds at Pumwani and Jongeni, were stormed and captured with "great gallantry". Molteno was mentioned in despatches and awarded the General Africa Medal, Gambia, 1894, with Clasp.

Molteno later specialized in gunnery and served in the Controller's Department at the Admiralty, supervising gunnery fittings for contract-built ships, a post he held from 1907-1910. Promoted captain, Molteno was appointed flag captain of the Third Cruiser Squadron, on the 19 December 1913 . The Armoured Cruiser, H.M.S. Antrim, served as the flagship of the Third Cruiser Squadron, under command of Admiral W.C. Pakenham. Molteno commanded the Antrim during the first year of the war, before taking command of the Battleship, H.M.S. Redoubtable, which subsequently carried out a bombardment of the Belgian coast. It was then that Molteno was appointed Captain of the Cruiser, H.M.S. "Warrior",the latter having been built at Pembroke dockyard and launched in November 1905, being complete the next year.

H.M.S. "Warrior" was a "Warrior"-class cruiser of 13, 550 tons, and her armament consisted of Six 9.2 inch (230mm) guns, plus four 7.5 inch (190 mm) guns. The "Warrior" was built at Pembroke Dockyard, being launched on the 25 November 1905, and was completed over a year later, on the 12 December 1906. In August 1914, upon commencement of the war, the "Warrior" was ordered to the Adriatic where she helped prevent the break-out of the German battle cruiser, Goeben. The "Warrior" thereafter helped defend the Suez Canal, joining the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, in December 1914. Molteno commanded the "Warrior" during the battle, the "Warrior" forming part of the First Cruiser Squadron, under Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot.

" The "Warrior" went through terrible experiences. At one time the concentrated fire of the German Dreadnoughts fell upon her; the Defence and Black Prince were blown up beside her. Captain Molteno's ship suffered about 100 casualties. The wounded and the rest of the crew were all saved when she was in a sinking condition after being in tow for several hours. The gallant captain was cheered by the ship's company when they were all safely landed."

The "Warrior" was so badly damaged that she was taken in tow by H.M.S. Engadine but foundered and sank on the 1 June 1916. Molteno's war was not over, commanding H.M.S. Shannon, on the 17 December 1917, during a Royal Naval attack on German forces covering axis convoys off the Norwegian Coast. Molteno was Promoted Rear - Admiral in 1921, and Vice - Admiral in 1926 while on the retired list, having served as Aide-de-Camp to King George V in 1920.

Alfred Englefield Evans, was another South African-born officer who had made the Royal Navy his career. Born in South Africa in 1884, he was the second son of Dr E.W. Evans, his brothers also South African-born. It would seem he spent his very early years in South Africa, but was educated at Horris Hill School, and at H.M.S. "Britannia", being appointed a Midshipman in 1900. Lieutenant-Commander Evans was present during the battle and received a mention-in-despatches, and was promoted Commander the following year. Evans was later awarded the O.B.E. "for valuable services in command of destroyers and as Flag- Lieutenant to Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur C. Leveson, K.C.B., when Rear-Admiral commanding, Second Battle Cruiser Squadron." Evans also represented the Royal Navy and Hampshire at cricket. Also destined for senior rank, he was promoted Vice-Admiral in 1939.

Additional South Africans involved in the epic battle include thirty-seven year old, Lieutenant Johannes Marais Scholtz, Royal Navy Reserve (RNR), of the H.M.S. "Queen Mary", who was killed during the battle. Scholtz was the son of Jacobus and Elizabeth Scholtz, of "Scholtzenhof", Cape Province, South Africa. His application for a position in the Union Castle service in 1904, had been supported by none other than the Hon. J.H. Hofmeyer, who was an old friend of the family. Before the war, Scholtz had served as an officer with the Union Castle Line for approximately ten years, and was Second Officer of the Edinburgh Castle before joining the navy upon commencement of hostilities.

Lieutenant Esme J.R. Wingfield - Stratford, R.N., born in Pietermaritzburg, Natal, served aboard H.M.S. ""Vanguard"" during the battle, the "Vanguard" being under the command of Captain J.D. Dick. Wingfield-Straford had entered the R.N. College Osborne in 1910, and later the R.N. College, Dartmouth, and by the time of the war, was serving aboard H.M.S. Cornwall. Wingfield - Stratford was subsequently to serve aboard H.M.S. "Cornwall", " Talbot", "Vanguard", "Pansy", "Dolphin", "Titanic", and "Platypus", sadly losing his life at sea on the 15 march, 1918, being only 21 years of age.

The Reverend Cecil Wykeham Lydall, Chaplain of H.M.S. "Lion", was also lost with the Queen Mary. He was the son of Wykeham Hawthorn Lydall, who had resided at Haslemere, Hatfield Street, Cape Town, predeceasing his son. The Reverend Lydall was to have been married a few days later. Twenty-eight year old Lieutenant Douglas Burn Buchan Brown, a gunnery lieutenant, and the son of Mr B. Buchan Brown, of South Africa, was lost in H.M.S. "Indefatigable". Brown had entered the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1904, and had attained the rank of Lieutenant in December 1909.

Apart from their contribution to the Battle of Jutland, South Africans also served with distinction in the Royal Navy, Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR), Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (S.A. Division), Royal Naval Reserve (RNR), and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), during the First World War. They included Vice -Admiral John Bridges Eustace, R.N., the son of J.T. Eustace, of Wynberg, Cape Town, who served with the Ministry of Munitions during the war, being promoted Vice-Admiral in 1918; Lieutenant-Commander Neville Syfret, R.N., born in Cape Town, and who served as a gunnery-officer aboard H.M.S. Cruisers "Aurora", "Centaur", and "Curacoa" and was awarded the Croix de Guerre; Lieutenant-Commander Cecil Arthur Ward, who was the son of the Reverend Ward, of Richmond, Natal, and was awarded the C.M.G. (1919), retiring with the rank of Rear-Admiral in 1936; Harry P. Currey and W. St. Leger Searle (both Currey and Searle hailing from Cape Town), who would both attain Flag rank in the Royal Navy; Lieutenant Hugh Fortescue Currey, R.N., born in Durban, who was awarded the D.S.C. in 1915, for his services in command of the stern - wheel steamer "muzaffri" on the 24 July, 1915, when he landed a supply of ammunition for allied troops on the right bank of the Euphrates River under heavy fire from the Turkish guns; and Leonard Horatio Slatter, Leslie Oswald Brown, and Samuel Kinkead, who all served with distinction in the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS).

In addition Royal Naval ships christened with South African names also served during the war, namely H.M.S. "Good Hope", unfortunately sunk off the Chilean coast during the Battle of the Falklands in 1914; the armoured cruiser H.M.S. "Natal", launched at Barrow - in - Furness in September 1905, which was also destroyed, blowing-up in early 1916, with the loss of 380 officers and men; H.M.S. "Botha" (Destroyer - Leader), H.M.S. "Springbok" (Destroyer), H.M.S. "Cape Town", and H.M.S. "Durban" (the last two both light cruisers).Thus, South Africa's naval effort during the First World War, can be said to have been a valiant endeavour indeed!

About the Author - Born in Salisbury, Rhodesia, in 1970. Resident in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. An Archivist by profession, and freelance writer. Interested in History, Military History, the English Language and its etymology,Books, and other pursuits. contact details: e-mail address- dix-peek@webmail.co.za
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 May 1916, Commons Sitting

NEUTRAL SHIPS (CAPTURE BY GERMANS).


HC Deb 31 May 1916 vol 82 cc2679-80 2679

Colonel YATE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty how many neutral ships 2680 loaded with goods for the United Kingdom have been captured by the Germans while proceeding from Scandinavian ports to the United Kingdom and taken into German ports?

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY to the ADMIRALTY (Dr. Macnamara) The number of neutral ships bound to the United Kingdom from Scandinavian ports, which are believed to have been captured and taken into German ports between the 13th October, 1914, and 25th May, 1916, is 195. This number, however, must be considered approximate, as it is based mainly on information derived from published reports.

Mr. HOUSTON What is the amount of the tonnage?

Dr. MACNAMARA I do not know, but I will inquire.

Colonel YATE May I ask the right hon. Gentleman—

Mr. SPEAKER There is a large number of questions on the Paper.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/may/31/neutral-ships-capture-by-germans
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Douglas Haig's 3rd Despatch (German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line), 31 May 1917

General Headquarters, British Armies in France, 31st May, 1917

My Lord;

I have the honour to submit the following Report on the operations of the British Armies in France from the 18th November, 1916, to the commencement of our present offensive.

Nature of Operations

1. My plans for the winter, already decided on at the opening of the period under review, were based on several considerations:-

The enemy's strength had been considerably reduced by the severe and protracted struggle on the Somme battlefields, and so far as circumstances and the weather would permit it was most desirable to allow him no respite during the winter.

With this object, although possibilities were limited by the state of the ground under winter conditions, I considered it feasible to turn to good account the very favourable situation then existing in the region of the River Ancre as a result of the Somme battle.

Our operations prior to the 18th November, 1916, had forced the enemy into a very pronounced salient in the area between the Ancre and the Scarpe Valleys, and had obtained for us greatly improved opportunities for observation over this salient.

A comparatively short further advance would give us complete possession of the few points south of the Ancre to which the enemy still clung, and would enable us to gain entire command of the spur above Beaumont Hamel.

Thereafter, the configuration of the ground in the neighbourhood of the Ancre Valley was such that every fresh advance would enfilade the enemy's positions and automatically open up to the observation of our troops some new part of his defences.

Arrangements could therefore be made for systematic and deliberate attacks to be delivered on selected positions, to gain further observation for ourselves and deprive the enemy of that advantage. By these means the enemy's defences would be continually outflanked, and we should be enabled to direct our massed artillery fire with such accuracy against his trenches and communications as to make his positions in the Ancre Valley exceedingly costly to maintain.

With the same object in view a number of minor enterprises and raids were planned to be carried out along the whole front of the British Armies.

In addition to the operations outlined above, preparations for the resumption of a general offensive in the spring had to be proceeded with in due course. In this connection, steps had to be taken to overcome the difficulties which a temporary lack of railway facilities would place in the way of completing our task within the allotted time.

Provision had also to be made to cope with the effect of winter conditions upon work and roads, a factor to which the prolonged frost at the commencement of the present year subsequently gave especial prominence.

Another very important consideration was the training of the forces under my command. It was highly desirable that during the winter the troops engaged in the recent prolonged fighting should be given an adequate period out of the line for training, rest and refitting.

Certain modifications of my programme in this respect eventually became necessary. To meet the wishes of our Allies in connection with the plan of operations for the spring of 1917, a gradual extension of the British front southwards as far as a point opposite the town of Roye was decided on in January, and was completed without incident of importance by the 26th February, 1917.

This alteration entailed the maintenance by British forces of an exceptionally active front of 110 miles, including the whole of the Somme battle front, and, combined with the continued activity maintained throughout the winter, interfered to no small extent with my arrangements for reliefs.

The training of the troops had consequently to be restricted to such limited opportunities as circumstances from time to time permitted.

The operations on the Ancre, however, as well as the minor enterprises and raids to which reference has been made, were carried out as intended. Besides gaining valuable positions and observation by local attacks in the neighbourhood of Bouchavesnes, Sailly-Saillisel and Grandcourt, these raids and minor enterprises were the means of inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy, and contributed very appreciably to the total of 5,284 prisoners taken from him in the period under review.

Operations on the Ancre
The Enemy's Position


2. At the conclusion of the operations of the 13th November and following days the enemy still held the whole of the Ancre Valley from Le Transloy to Grandcourt, and his first line of defence lay along the lower northern slopes of the Thiepval Ridge.

North of the Ancre, he still held the greater part of the spur above Beaumont Hamel. Beyond that point the original German front line, in which the enemy had established himself two years previously, ran past Serre, Gommecourt and -Monchy-au-Bois to the northern slopes of the main watershed, and then north-east down to the valley of the River Scarpe east of Arras.

Besides the positions held by him on our immediate front, and in addition to the fortified villages of the Ancre Valley with their connecting trenches, the enemy had prepared along the forward crest of the ridge north of the Ancre Valley a strong second system of defence.

This consisted of a double line of trenches, heavily wired, and ran north-west from Saillisel past Le Transloy to the Albert-Bapaume Road, where It turned west past Grevillers and Loupart Wood and then north-west again past Achiet-le-Petit to Bucquoy.

This system, which was known as the Le Transloy-Loupart line, both by reason of its situation and as a result of the skill and industry expended on its preparation, constituted an exceedingly, strong natural defensive position; second only to that from which the enemy had recently been driven on the Morval-Thiepval Ridge.

Parallel to this line, but on the far side of the crest, he had constructed towards the close of the past year a third defensive system on the line Rocquigny, Bapaume, Ablainzevelle.

Operations Commenced

3. The first object of our operations in the Ancre Valley was
to advance our trenches to within assaulting distance of the Le Transloy-Loupart line.

Accordingly, on the 18th November, 1916, before the rapidly deteriorating condition of the ground had yet made an undertaking on so considerable a scale impossible, an attack was delivered against the next German line of defence, overlooking the villages of Pys and Grandcourt.

Valuable positions were gained on a front of about 5,000 yards, while a simultaneous attack north of the Ancre considerably improved the situation of our troops in the Beaucourt Valley.

By this time winter conditions had set in, and along a great part of our new front movement across the open had become practically impossible. During the remainder of the month, therefore, and throughout December, our energies were principally directed to the improvement of our own trenches and of roads and communications behind them.

At the same time the necessary rearrangement of our artillery was completed, so as to take full advantage of the opportunities afforded by our new positions for concentration of fire.

The Beaumont Hamel Spur

4. As soon as active operations again became possible, proceedings were commenced to drive the enemy from the remainder of the Beaumont Hamel Spur. In January a number of small operations were carried out with this object by the 3rd, 7th and 11th Divisions (Major-Generals C. I. Deverell, H. E. Watts and A. B. Ritchie), resulting in a progressive improvement of our position.

Before the end of the month the whole of the high ground north and east of Beaumont Hamel was in our possession, we had pushed across the Beaucourt Valley 1,000 yards north of Beaucourt Village, and had gained a footing on the southern slopes of the spur to the east.

The most important of these attacks was undertaken at dawn on the morning of the 11th January by the 7th Division, against a system of hostile trenches extending for some I,500 yards along the crest of the spur east and north-east of Beaumont Hamel.

By 8.30 a.m. all our objectives had been captured, together with over 200 prisoners. That afternoon an enemy counter-attack was broken up by our artillery.

Throughout the whole of the month's fighting in this area, in which over 500 German prisoners were taken by us, our casualties were exceedingly light. This satisfactory circumstance can be attributed mainly to the close and skilful co-operation between our infantry and artillery, and to the excellence of our artillery preparation and barrages.

These in turn were made possible by the opportunities for accurate observation afforded by the high ground north of Thiepval, and by the fine work done by our aircraft.

Grandcourt

5. Possession of the Beaumont Hamel Spur opened up anew
and extensive field of action for our artillery. The whole of the Beaucourt Valley and the western slopes of the spur beyond from opposite Grandcourt to Serre now lay exposed to our fire.

Operations were, therefore, at once commenced under the cover of our guns to clear the remainder of the valley south of the Serre Hill, and to push our line forward to the crest of the spur.

On the night of the 3rd/4th February an important German line of defence on the southern slopes of this spur, forming part of the enemy's original second line system north of the Ancre, was captured by our troops (63rd Division, Major-General C. D. Shute) on a front of about three-quarters of a mile.

The enemy's resistance was stubborn, and hard fighting took place, which lasted throughout the whole of the following day and night. During this period a number of determined counter-attacks were beaten off by our infantry or dispersed by our artillery, and by the 5th February we had gained the whole of our objectives

In this operation, in which the excellence of our artillery co-operation was very marked, we took 176 prisoners and four machine guns. This success brought our front forward north of the Ancre to a point level with the centre of Grandcourt, and made the enemy's hold on his position in that village and in his more western defences south of the river very precarious.

It was not unexpected, therefore, when on the morning of the 6th February our patrols reported that the last remaining portion of the old German second line system south of the river, lying between Grandcourt and Stuff Redoubt, had been evacuated.

The abandoned trenches were occupied by our troops the same morning. Constant reconnaissance's were sent out by us to keep touch with 1the enemy and to ascertain his movements and intentions.

Grandcourt itself was next found to be clear of the enemy, and by 10 a.m. on the morning of the 7th February was also in our possession (63rd Division). That night we carried Baillescourt Farm, about half-way between Beaucourt and Miraumont, capturing 87 prisoners.

The Advance against Serre

6. The task of driving the enemy from his position in the Beaucourt Valley was resumed on the night of the 10th/11th February.

Our principal attack was directed against some 1,500 yards of a strong line of trenches, the western end of which was already in our possession, lying at the southern foot of the Serre Hill. Our infantry (32nd Division, Major-General R. W. R. Barnes) were formed up after dark, and at 8.30 p.m. advanced under our covering artillery barrage.

After considerable fighting in the centre and towards the left of our attack, the whole of the trench line which formed our objective was gained, with the exception of two strong points which held out for a few days longer. At 5 a.m. a determined counterattack from the direction of Puisieux-au-Mont was beaten off by our artillery and machine gun fire. Two other counter-attacks on the 11th February and a third on the 12th February were equally unsuccessful.

The Advance towards Miraumont

7. The village of Serre now formed the point of a very pronounced salient which our further progress along the Ancre Valley would render increasingly difficult, if not impossible, for the enemy to hold.

Accordingly, an operation on a somewhat larger scale than anything hitherto attempted since the new year, was now undertaken. Its object was to carry our line forward along the spur which runs northwards from the main Morval-Thiepval Ridge about Courcelette, and so gain possession of the high ground at its northern extremity.

The possession of this high ground, besides commanding the approaches to Pys and Miraumont from the south, would give observation over the upper valley of the Ancre, in which many hostile batteries were situated in positions enabling their fire to be directed for the defence of the Serre sector.

At the same time arrangements were made for a smaller attack on the opposite bank of the river, designed to seize a portion of the sunken road lying along the eastern crest of the second spur north of the Ancre and so obtain control of the approaches to Miraumont from the west.

Our assault was delivered simultaneously on both banks of the Ancre at 5.45 a.m. on the 17th February by the 2nd, 18th and 63rd Divisions (Major-Generals C. E. Pereira and R. P. Lee commanding respectively the 2nd and 18th Divisions).

The night was particularly dark, and thick mist and heavy conditions of ground, produced by the thaw that had just set in, added to the difficulties with which our troops had to contend. The enemy was, moreover, on the alert, and commenced a heavy barrage some time before the hour of our assault, while our attacking battalions were still forming up.

None the less, our troops advanced to the assault with great gallantry. On the left of our attack (south of the river) our artillery preparation had been assisted by observation from the positions already won on the right bank of the Ancre. In consequence, our infantry were able to make a very considerable advance, and established themselves within a few hundred yards of Petit Miraumont.

The right of our attack encountered more serious resistance, but here also valuable progress was made. North of the Ancre our troops met with complete success. The whole of the position attacked, on a front of about half a mile, was secured without great difficulty, and an enemy counter-attack during the morning was easily driven off.

Next day, at 11.30 a.m., the enemy delivered a second counterattack from the north with considerable forces, estimated at two battalions, upon our new positions north of the river. His advancing waves came under the concentrated fire of our artillery and machine guns while still some distance in front of our lines, and were driven back in disorder with exceedingly heavy losses.

Eleven officers and 588 other ranks were taken prisoners by us in these operations.

Miraumont and Serre Evacuated

8. The ground gained by these two attacks, and by minor operations carried out during the succeeding days, gave us the observation we desired, as well as complete command over the German artillery positions in the upper Ancre Valley and over his defences in and around Pys and Miraumont.

The constant bombardment by our artillery, combined with the threat of an attack in which his troops would have been at great disadvantage, accordingly decided the enemy to abandon both villages. Our possession of Miraumont, however, gravely endangered the enemy's positions at Serre by opening up for us possibilities of a further advance northwards, while the loss of Serre would speedily render Puisieux-au-Mont and Gommecourt equally difficult of defence.

There was, therefore, good ground to expect that the evacuation of Pys and Miraumont would shortly be followed by a withdrawal on a more considerable scale. This in fact occurred. On the 24th February the enemy's positions before Pys, Miraumont and Serre were found by our patrols to have been evacuated, and were occupied by our troops.

Our patrols were then at once pushed forward, supported by strong infantry detachments, and by the evening of the 25th February the enemy's first system of defence from north of Gueudecourt to west of Serre, and including Luisenhof Farm, Warlencourt-Eaucourt, Pys, Miraumont, Beauregard Dovecot and Serre, had fallen into our hands.

The enemy offered some opposition with machine guns at selected strong points in his line, and his I artillery actively shelled the areas from which he had withdrawn; but the measures taken to deal with such tactics proved adequate,
and the casualties inflicted on our troops were light.

The enemy's retirement at this juncture was greatly favoured by the weather. The prolonged period of exceptional frost, following on a wet autumn, had frozen the ground to a great depth.

When the thaw commenced in the third week of February the roads, disintegrated by the frost, broke up, the sides of trenches fell in, and the area across which our troops had fought their way forward returned to a condition of slough and quagmire even worse than that of the previous autumn.

On the other hand, the condition of the roads and the surface of the ground behind the enemy steadily improved the further he withdrew from the scene of the fighting. He was also materially assisted by a succession of misty days, which greatly interfered with the work of our aeroplanes.

Over such ground and in such conditions rapid pursuit was impossible. It is greatly to the credit of all ranks concerned that, in spite of all difficulties, constant touch was maintained with the enemy and that timely information was obtained of his movements.

Le Barque and Gommecourt

9. Resistance of a more serious character was encountered in a strong secondary line of defence which, from a point in the Le Transloy-Loupart line due west of the village of Beaulencourt, crossed in front of Ligny-Thilloy and Le Barque to the southern defences of Loupart Wood.

Between the 25th February and the 2nd March a series of attacks were carried out by the 1st Anzac Corps (Lieut.-General Sir W. R. Birdwood) against this line, and the enemy was gradually driven out of his positions. By the evening of the latter day the whole line of trenches and the villages of Le Barque, Ligny-Thilloy and Thilloy had in turn been captured.

One hundred and twenty-eight prisoners and a number of trench mortars and machine guns were taken in this fighting, in the course of which the enemy made several vigorous but unsuccessful counter-attacks.

Meanwhile rapid progress had been made on the remainder of the front of our advance. On the 27th February the enemy's rearguards in Puisieux-au-Mont were driven to their last positions of defence in the neighbourhood of the church, and to the north-west of the village our front was extended to within a few hundred yards of Gommecourt.

hat evening our patrols entered Gommecourt Village and Park, following closely upon the retreating enemy, and by 10.0 p.m. Gommecourt and its defences had been occupied. Next morning the capture of Puisieux-au-Mont was completed.

Irles

10. The enemy had, therefore, been driven back to the Le Transloy-Loupart line, except that he still held the village of Irles, which formed a salient to his position, and was linked up to it at Loupart Wood and Achiet-Ie-Petit by well-constructed and well-wired trenches.

Accordingly, our next step was to take Irles, as a preliminary to a larger undertaking against the Le Transloy-Loupart line itself; but before either operation could be attempted exceedingly heavy work had to be done in the improvement of roads and communications, and in bringing forward guns and ammunition.

The following week was devoted to these very necessary tasks. Meanwhile, operations were limited to small enterprises, designed to keep in touch with the enemy and to establish forward posts which might assist in the forthcoming attack.


The assault on Irles and its defences was delivered at 5.25 a.m. on the morning of the 10th March by the 2nd and I8th Divisions, and was completely successful. The whole of our objectives were captured, and in the village and the surrounding works 289 prisoners were taken, together with sixteen machine guns and four trench mortars.

Our casualties were very light, being considerably less than the number of our prisoners.

The Loupart Line

11. The way was now open for the main operation against the centre of the Le Transloy-Loupart line, which throughout the 11th March was heavily shelled by all natures of our artillery.

So effective was this bombardment that during the night of the 12th/13th March the enemy once more abandoned his positions, and fell back on the parallel system of defences already referred to on the reverse side of the ridge.

Grevillers and Loupart Wood were thereupon occupied by our troops, and methodical preparations were at once begun for an attack on the enemy's next line of defence.

The Enemy's Retreat
The General Withdrawal


12. For some time prior to this date a number of indications had been observed which made it probable that the area of the German withdrawal would be yet further extended.

It had been ascertained that the enemy was preparing a new defensive system, known as the Hindenburg Line, which, branching off from his original defences near Arras, ran south-eastwards for twelve miles to Queant, and thence passed west of Cambrai towards St. Quentin. Various "switches", branching off from this line were also under construction.

The enemy's immediate concern appeared to be to escape from the salient between Arras and Le Transloy, which would become increasingly difficult and dangerous to hold as our advance on the Ancre drove ever more deeply into his defences.

It was also evident, however, from the preparations he was making that he contemplated an eventual evacuation of the greater salient between Arras and the Aisne Valley, north-west of Reims.

Constant watch had accordingly been kept along the whole front south of Arras, in order that instant information might be obtained of any such development. On the 14th March patrols found portions of the German front line empty in the neighbourhood of St. Pierre Vaast Wood.

Acting on the reports of these patrols, during that night and the following day our troops occupied the whole of the enemy's trenches on the western edge of the wood. Little opposition was met, and by the 16th March we held the western half of Moislains Wood, the whole of St. Pierre Vaast Wood with the exception of its north-eastern corner, and the enemy's front trenches as far as the northern outskirts of Sailly-Saillisel.

Meanwhile, on the evening of the 15th March, further information had been obtained which led me to believe that the enemy's forces on our front south of the Somme had been reduced, and that his line was being held by rearguard detachments supported by machine guns, whose withdrawal might also be expected at any moment.

The Corps Commanders concerned were immediately directed to confirm the situation by patrols. Orders were thereafter given for a general advance, to be commenced on the morning of the 17th March along our whole front from the Roye Road to south of Arras.

Bapaume and Peronne

13. Except at certain selected localities, where he had left detachments of infantry and machine guns to cover his retreat, such as Chaulnes, Vaux Wood, Bapaume and Achiet-le-Grand, the enemy offered little serious opposition to our advance on this front, and where he did so his resistance was rapidly overcome.

Before nightfall on the 17th March Chaulnes and Bapaume had been captured (61st Division and 2nd Australian Division, Major-Generals C. J. Mackenzie and N. M. Smyth), and advanced bodies of our troops had pushed deeply into the enemy's positions at all points from Damery to Monchy-au-Bois.

On our right our Allies made rapid progress also, and entered Roye. On the 18th March and subsequent days our advance continued, in co-operation with the French. In the course of this advance the whole intricate system of German defences in this area, consisting of many miles of powerful, well-wired trenches which had been constructed with immense labour and worked on till the last moment, were abandoned by the enemy and passed into the possession of our troops.

At 7.00 a.m. on the 18th March our troops (48th Division, Major-General R. Fanshawe) entered Peronne and occupied Mont St. Quentin, north of the town. To the south our advanced troops established themselves during the day along the western bank of the Somme from Peronne to just north of Epenancourt.

By 10.0 p.m. on the same day Brie Bridge had been repaired by our engineers sufficiently for the passage of infantry in single file, and our troops crossed to the east bank of the river, in spite of some opposition.

Further south French and British cavalry entered Nesle. North of Peronne equal progress was made, and by the evening of the 18th March our troops had entered the German trench system known as the Beugny-Ytres Line, beyond which lay open country as far as the Hindenburg Line.

On the same day the left of our advance was extended to Beaurains, which was captured after slight hostile resistance. By the evening of the 19th March our infantry held the line of the Somme from Canizy to Peronne, and infantry outposts and cavalry patrols had crossed the river at a number of points.

North of Peronne our infantry had reached the line Bussu, Barastre, velu, St. Leger, Beaurains, with cavalry in touch with the enemy at Nurlu, Bertincourt, Noreuil, and Henin-sur-Cojeul. Next day considerable bodies of infantry and cavalry crossed to the east of the Somme, and a line of cavalry outposts with infantry in support was established from south of Germaine, where we were in touch with the French, through Hancourt and Nurlu to Bus. Further north we occupied Morchies.

Difficulty of Communications

14. By this time our advance had reached a stage at which the increasing difficulty of maintaining our communications made it imperative to slacken the pace of our pursuit.

South of Peronne, the River Somme, the bridges over which had been destroyed by the retreating enemy, presented a formidable obstacle. North of Peronne, the wide belt of devastated ground over which the Somme Battle had been fought offered even greater difficulties to the passage of guns and transport.

We were advancing, therefore, over country in which all means of communication had been destroyed, against an enemy whose armies were still intact and capable of launching a vigorous offensive should a favourable opening present itself. Strong detachments of his infantry and cavalry occupied points of advantage along our line of advance, serving to keep the enemy informed of our progress and to screen his own movements.

His guns, which had already been withdrawn to previously prepared positions, were available at any moment to cover and support a sudden counter-stroke, while the conditions of the country across which we were moving made the progress of our own artillery unavoidably slow. The bulk of the enemy's forces were known to be holding a very formidable defensive system, upon which he could fall back should his counter-stroke miss its aim.

On the other hand, our troops as they moved forward left all prepared defences further and further behind them. In such circumstances the necessity for caution was obvious. At different stages of the advance successive lines of resistance were selected and put in a state of defence by the main bodies of our infantry, while cavalry and infantry outposts maintained touch with the enemy and covered the work of consolidation.

Meanwhile, in spite of the enormous difficulties which the condition of ground and the ingenuity of the enemy had placed in our way, the work of repairing and constructing bridges, roads and railways was carried forward with most commendable rapidity.

Enemy Resistance Increasing

15. North of the Bapaume-Cambrai Road between Noreuil and Neuville-Vitasse our advance had already brought us to within two or three miles of the Hindenburg Line, which entered the old German front line system at Tilloy-lez-Moffiaines.

The enemy's resistance now began to increase along our whole front, extending gradually southwards from the left flank of our advance, where our troops had approached most nearly to his new main defensive position.

A number of local counter-attacks were delivered by the enemy at different points along our line. In particular five separate attempts were made to recover Beaumetz-lez-Cambrai, which we had captured on the 21st March, and the farm to the north of the village. All failed with considerable loss to the enemy.

Meanwhile our progress continued steadily, and minor engagements multiplied from day to day all along our front. In these we were constantly successful, and at small cost to ourselves took many prisoners and numerous machine guns and trench mortars.

In every fresh position captured large numbers of German dead testified to the obstinacy of the enemy's defence and the severity of his losses. Our cavalry took an active part in this fighting, and on the 27th March in particular carried out an exceedingly successful operation, in the course of which a squadron of the 5th Cavalry Division (Major-General H. J. M. Macandrew) drove the enemy from Villers Faucon and a group of neighbouring villages, capturing 23 prisoners and four machine guns.

In another series of engagements on the 1st and 2nd April, in which Savy and Selency were taken by the 32nd Division (Major-General C. D. Shute) and our line advanced to within two miles of St. Quentin, we captured 91 prisoners and six German field guns.

The enemy's casualties were particularly heavy. On the 2nd April, also, an operation on a more important scale was undertaken against the enemy's positions north of the Bapaume-Cambrai Road.

The enemy here occupied in considerable strength a series of villages and well-wired trenches, forming an advanced line of resistance to the Hindenburg Line. A general attack on these positions was launched by the 4th Australian Division and the 7th Division (Major-Generals W. Holmes and T. H. Shoubridge) in the early morning of the 2nd April on a front of over ten miles, from Doignies to Henin-sur-Cojeul, both inclusive.

After fighting which lasted throughout the day the entire series of villages was captured by us, with 270 prisoners, four trench mortars and 25 machine guns.

The Hindenburg Line

16. By this date our troops were established on the general line Selency, Jeancourt, Epehy, Ruyaulcourt, Doignies, Mercatel, Beaurains, East of Selency, and between Doignies and our old front line east of Arras, our troops were already close up to the main Hindenburg defences.

Between Selency and Doignies the enemy still held positions some distance in advance of his new system. During the succeeding days our efforts were directed to driving him from these advanced positions, and to pushing our posts forward until contact had been established all along our front south of Arras with the main defences of the Hindenburg Line.

Fighting of some importance again took place on the 4th and 5th April in the neighbourhood of Epehy and Havrincourt Wood, in which Ronssoy, Lempire and Metz-en-Couture were captured by us, together with 100 prisoners, two trench mortars and eleven machine guns (48th, 8th and 20th Divisions, Major-Generals W. C. G. Heneker and T. G. Matheson commanding the two latter divisions).

General Review

17. Certain outstanding features of the past five months' fighting call for brief comment before I close this Report.

In spite of a season of unusual severity, a winter campaign has been conducted to a successful issue under most trying and arduous conditions. Activity on our battle-front has been maintained almost without a break from the conclusion of last year's offensive to the commencement of the present operations.

The successful accomplishment of this part of our general plan has already enabled us to realise no inconsiderable instalment of the fruits of the Somme Battle, and has gone far to open the road to their full achievement.

The courage and endurance of our troops have carried them triumphantly through a period of fighting of a particularly trying nature, in which they have been subjected to the maximum of personal hardship and physical strain. I cannot speak too highly of the qualities displayed by all ranks of the Army.

I desire also to place on record here my appreciation of the great skill and energy displayed by the Army Commanders under whose immediate orders the operations described above were carried out.

The ability with which the troops in the Ancre area were handled by General Sir Hubert Gough. and those further south on our front from Le Transloy to Roye by General Sir Henry Rawlinson, was in all respects admirable.

The retreat to which the enemy was driven by our continued success reintroduced on the Western front conditions of warfare which had been absent from that theatre since the opening months of the war. After more than two years of trench warfare considerable bodies of our troops have been engaged under conditions approximating to open fighting, and cavalry has been given an opportunity
to perform its special duties.

Our operations south of Arras during the latter half of March are, therefore, of peculiar interest, and the results achieved by all arms have been most satisfactory. Although the deliberate nature of the enemy's withdrawal enabled him to choose his own ground for resistance, and to employ every device to inflict losses on our troops, our casualties, which had been exceedingly moderate throughout the operations on the Ancre, during the period of the retreat became exceptionally light.

The prospect of a more general resumption of open fighting can be regarded with great confidence. The systematic destruction of roads, railways and bridges in the evacuated area made unprecedented demands upon the Royal Engineers, already heavily burdened by the work entailed by the preparations for our spring offensive.

Our steady progress, in the face of the great difficulties confronting us, is the best testimony to the energy and thoroughness with which those demands were met.

The bridging of the Somme at Brie, to which reference has already been made, is an example of the nature of the obstacles with which our troops were met and of the rapidity with which those obstacles were overcome. In this instance six gaps had to be bridged across the canal and river, some of them of considerable width and over a swift-flowing stream.

The work was commenced on the morning of the 18th March, and was carried out night and day in three stages. By 10.00 p.m. on the same day foot-bridges for infantry had been completed, as already stated. Medium type bridges for horse transport and cavalry were completed by 5.00 a.m. on the 20th March, and by 2.00 p.m. on the 28th March, or four and a half days after they had been begun, heavy bridges capable of taking all forms of traffic had taken the place of the lighter type.

Medium type deviation bridges were constructed as the heavy bridges were begun, so that from the time the first bridges were thrown across the river traffic was practically continuous.

Throughout the past winter the question of transport, in all its forms, has presented problems of a most serious nature, both in the battle area and behind the lines. On the rapid solution of these problems the success or failure of our operations necessarily largely depended.

At the close of the campaign of 1916 the steady growth of our Armies and the rapid expansion of our material resources had already taxed to the utmost the capacity of the roads and railways then at our disposal existing broad and narrow gauge railways were insufficient to deal with the increasing volume of traffic, an undue proportion of which was thrown upon the roads.

As winter conditions set in, these rapidly deteriorated, and the difficulties of maintenance and repair became almost overwhelming. An increase of railway facilities of every type and on a large scale was therefore imperatively and urgently necessary to relieve the roads.

For this purpose rails, material and rolling stock were required immediately in great quantities, while at a later date our wants in these respects were considerably augmented by a large programme of new construction in the area of the enemy's withdrawal.

The task of obtaining the amount of railway material required to meet the demands of our Armies, and of carrying out the work of construction at the rate rendered necessary by our plans, in addition to providing labour and material for the necessary repair of roads, was one of the very greatest difficulty. Its successful accomplishment reflects the highest credit on the Transportation Service, of whose efficiency and energy I cannot speak too highly.

I desire to acknowledge in the fullest manner the debt that is owed to all who assisted in meeting a most difficult situation, and especially to Major-General Sir Eric Geddes, Director-General of Transportation, to whose great ability, organising power and energy the results achieved are primarily due.

I am glad to take this opportunity also to acknowledge the valuable assistance given to us by the Chemin de Fer du Nord, by which the work of the Transportation Service was greatly facilitated.

I wish also to place on record here the fact that the successful solution of the problem of railway transport would have been impossible had it not been for the patriotism of the railway companies at home and in Canada.

They did not hesitate to give up the locomotives and rolling stock required to meet our needs, and even to tear up track in order to provide us with the necessary rails. The thanks of the Army are due also to those who have accepted so cheerfully the inconvenience caused by the consequent diminution of the railway facilities available for civil traffic.

The various other special services, to the excellence of whose work I was glad to call attention in my last Despatch, have continued to discharge their duties with the same energy and efficiency displayed by them during the Somme Battle, and have rendered most valuable assistance to our artillery and infantry.

I desire also to repeat the well-merited tribute paid in my last Despatch to the different Administrative Services and Departments. The work entailed by the double task of meeting the requirements of our winter operations and preparing for our next offensive was very heavy, demanding unremitting labour and the closest attention to detail.

The fighting on the Ancre and subsequent advance made large demands upon the devotion of our Medical Services. The health of the troops during the period covered by this Despatch has been satisfactory, notwithstanding the discomfort and exposure to which they were subjected during the extreme cold of the winter, especially in the areas taken over from the enemy.

The loyal co-operation and complete mutual understanding that prevailed between our Allies and ourselves throughout the Somme Battle have been continued and strengthened by the events of the past winter, and in particular by the circumstances attending the enemy's Withdrawal.

During the latter part of the period under review, a very considerable tract of country has been won back to France by the combined efforts of the Allied troops. This result is regarded with lively satisfaction by all ranks of the British Armies in France.

At the same time I wish to give expression to the feelings of deep sympathy and profound regret provoked among us by the sight of the destruction that war has wrought in a once fair and prosperous countryside.

I have the honour to be,
My Lord,
Your Lordship's obedient Servant,
D. HAIG, Field-Marshal,
Commanding-in-Chief, British Armies in France

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/haighindenburgdespatch.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin - The Harm of Phrase-Mongering
Published: Pravda No. 69, June 13 (May 31), 1917. Published according to the text in Pravda.

The answers of the French and the British governments clearly demonstrate the soundness of our repeated assertions that neither the Russian, nor the French, nor the British, nor the German capitalist government can throw over the policy of annexations, and that all such promises are designed to deceive the peoples.[1]

We are fighting to seize Alsace-Lorraine, we are fighting for victory, the French replied. Be good enough to comply with the treaty and fight for Russian and German Poland, the British replied.

The bitter truth that capitalism cannot be reconciled to a non-annexationist policy has been exposed once more. The policy of the “conciliators”, of those who wish to reconcile the capitalists and the proletariat, the policy of the Narodnik and Menshevik ministerialists, is an obvious failure. All their hopes on a coalition government have been shattered, all their promises have been exposed as mere verbiage.

And most harmful of all, as far as the cause of the revolution and the interests of the toiling masses are concerned, is the attempt to cover up the whole thing with phrases. Two shadings stand out in this torrent of phrases, one as bad as the other.

Rabochaya Gazeta, the organ of the Menshevik ministerialists, brings grist to the Cadet mill. On the one hand, it says: “On this basis [on the basis of the answers of the two Allied powers] there can be no agreement between them and us....” When they say “us”, do they mean the Russian capitalists? The theory of the class struggle is thrown overboard; it is much more profitable to spout phrases about “democracy” In the abstract, while trampling underfoot the elementary truth of Marxism, namely, that it is precisely within a “democracy” that the gulf between the capitalists and the proletarians is widest.

On the other hand, Rabochaya Gazeta wishes to make “an attempt at revision [of the agreements and the treaties] through a conference of representatives of the Allied governments to be specially convened”. The same old story: agreement with the capitalists, which, in fact, signifies deception of the workers by playing at negotiations with their class foes.

“The pressure of the rank and file of the French and British democracies, even pressure by the French and British proletariat alone upon their respective governments...” writes Rabochaya Gazeta. In Russia the Mensheviks are supporting their own imperialist government, but in other countries they want pressure to be brought to bear.... What is this, if not sheer phrase-mongering and humbug from beginning to end?

“We are working for it [for world peace] by convening an international socialist conference” ... to be attended by ministers from among those ex-socialists who have sided with their governments! This is “working” with a vengeance to deceive the people on a major scale by means of a series of minor deceptions.

We have Dyelo Naroda phrase-mongering “à la Jacobin”. That stern tone, those spectacular revolutionary exclamations: “we know enough” ... “faith in the victory of our Revolution” (with a capital letter, of course), “upon this or that step ... of the Russian revolutionary democracy depend the destinies ... of the entire Uprising [with a capital letter, of course] which the working people have so happily and so victoriously begun.”

Obviously, if you write the words Revolution and Uprising with capital letters it makes the thing look “awfully” frightening, just like the Jacobins. Plenty of effect at small expense. For the people who write this are virtually helping to crush the revolution and impede the uprising of the working people by supporting the Russian government of the imperialists, by supporting their methods of concealing from the people the secret treaties, their tactics of putting off the immediate abolition of the landed estates, by supporting their war policy of “offensive”, their high-handed insulting behaviour towards the local representative bodies, their presumption to appoint or endorse the local officers elected by the local population, and so on ad infinitum.

Gentlemen, heroes of the phrase, knights of revolutionary bombast! Socialism demands that we distinguish between capitalist democracy and proletarian democracy, between bourgeois revolution and proletarian revolution, between a rising of the rich against the tsar and a rising of the working people against the rich. Socialism demands that we distinguish our bourgeois revolution, which has ended (the bourgeoisie now is counter-revolutionary),from the mounting revolution of the proletarians and poor peasants. The former revolution is for war, for preserving the landed estates, for “subordinating” the local organs of self-government to the central government, for secret treaties. The latter revolution has begun to throttle the war by revolutionary fraternisation, by abolishing the power of the landowners in the local areas, by increasing the number and the power of the Soviets, and by introducing everywhere the elective principle.

The Narodnik and Menshevik ministerialists are spouting phrases about “democracy” in the abstract, about “Revolution” in the abstract in order to cover up their agreement with the imperialist, now definitely counter-revolutionary, bourgeoisie of their own country—an agreement which, in effect, is turning into a struggle against the revolution of the proletarians and semi-proletarians.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/may/31.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1st Pursuit Group History –1917

Comprised of 17th, 27th, 94th, 95th, 103rd, 147th, and 183rd Aero Squadrons

31 May 1917 - 56th Service Squadron organized at Kelly Field, Texas, as Company "I", 1st Regiment, Provisional Aviation Camp, by transfer of men from other organizations and by assignment of volunteers until unit reached strength.

http://www.1stfighter.org/history/1917.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS President Lincoln (1917-1918) -- Sinking, 31 May 1918

On the morning of 31 May 1918 the 32,500 ton (displacement) transport USS President Lincoln was steaming about 600 miles from Brest, France, bound for the United States after delivering a load of American military personnel earlier that month. 715 persons were on board, mainly ship's crew but with about 30 Army officers and men, some of whom were sick and two totally paralyzed. She was accompanied by three other Navy transports, Antigone, Rijndam and Susquehanna, steering a zig-zag course in line-abreast formation. They had left Brest two days earlier, convoyed by destroyers, but were now proceeding unescorted since the zone of most serious submarine threat had been left behind.

Just before 9 A.M. the German submarine U-90, which had been tracking the convoy for several hours, hit President Lincoln's port side near the bridge with two torpedoes, immediately killing seven men working below decks. Shortly afterwards a third torpedo struck further aft. The ship was now rapidly settling, and her Commanding Officer ordered her abandoned by all but the crews of her four six-inch guns. These remained on board, and kept firing, until President Lincoln was close to sinking, in the hope that the submarine might surface and present a target. All but those killed by the torpedo explosions had gone into the water by the time she sank at about 9:30, but three officers and sixteen crewmen were unable to get clear and were drowned.

President Lincoln's 689 survivors, including the two paralyzed Soldiers, were now adrift in her boats and life rafts. The other three transports, in accordance with standard procedure in such cases, had continued on their way, though a radio message had been transmitted reporting the sinking. About an hour after the initial torpedoing, U-90 emerged and approached the boats and rafts, searching for a senior officer who might provide intelligence. Despite an effort to remain unrecognized, Lieutenant Edouard V.M. Isaacs was discovered and made a prisoner. His heroic conduct during the subsequent five months was later recognized by the award of the Medal of Honor.

Once the submarine had left the vicinity, President Lincoln's boats and rafts were collected and lashed together in order to minimize the chances of further loss of life. During the night the destroyers Warrington and Smith arrived and took everyone on board, a considerable crowd on two ships of such modest size. While en route back to France, they encountered U-90, attacking her with depth charges, but causing no damage. The survivors of USS President Lincoln arrived back at Brest on 2 June 1918. Their ship was the largest U.S. Naval vessel to be lost in the First World War.

Lees verder op http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-p/p-lncn-l.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter of 31 May 1918 from Charles Ross Francis to Sarah Margaret Francis

France,
May 31st 1918
My Dearest Mother,
It is a most beautiful
day, the sun is shinning and
the birds are singing in the
beautiful trees around. This
is really a lovely country and
truly only man is vile. It
seems the height of absurdity
that nature should make
everything so beautiful around
and man for whose benefit
it was created should be spending
millions of dollars & wasting
thousands of lives on making it
a desolate, horrible place.
However it seems to be the
way of the world and it
has been done since the
beginning though never on so
large a scale and I suppose
it will keep on. Whenever
it comes lovely weather I
think it is too nice to waste
in fighting and when the
weather is bad I think
it is too bad to fight & so if
it depends on me there would be no war.

2
Your letter of the 28th of Apl
is the last I have received but
there ought to be another one
along anytime now as it is nearly
two weeks since the last
Canadian mail, the 19th of May,
the day after my birthday so
it was timed just right. Was
glad to hear that Jim got a
further exemption until the
1st of July. I suppose there
is no chance of his getting any
further. Herbert will be
getting so well that he will have
to join up again, if he doesn't
look out. I don't blame him
for wanting to chase around & have
a good time though, I feel as
if I could do the same my-
self. Its only a littl 21
months since I came over
here but it seems longer since
I was able to roam around
a free land.
One of the fellows from
the office went back to England
yesterday to work in London
as he had been over here 3
years & 3 months. By the time

3
I've been here that long I hope
I can do the same. Those other
fellows went over the same time
but they are going to the Royal
Air Force, the same as Bill Kraggs
did, One of the Sgt [Sargeant]
Major who owned Bessie & he
he took her with him. I'll
miss her very much as she
was with me most of the
time & is an awfully cute
little doggie. I hope he can
keep her alright in Englnad.
I may be able to see them
all when I go on leave; whenever
that is. It won't be june,
and I'll be fortunate if I
get over at all this summer.
Of course it is scarcely to
be expected these strenuous
times but I would like to
have been in Old Blighty
for a little while during
the summer again.
All the fellows out here go
in for a certain amount of
sports and one of our Units
had its Field-day, yesterday. It
was a glorious day for it and

4
it reminded me of our old
picnics at home, only there were
no women, nor any children playing
around. Oh yes there were 3
little French kids but they don't
show up much amongst a bunch
soldiers. The sports were
good and were very interesting.
All sorts of racing, wresting [wrestling] on
horse back etc. It was funny
in the wheel barrow race, with
a man on his hands for a
wheel barrow race and the
other fellow holding his legs.
One fellow carried his "wheel
barrow" all the way, the
"wheel barrow" just touching
the high spots with his
hands, they were coming
in a close second & might
have won but they fell down
in a heap within two yards
of the posts. Tell Herb
I saw Bobbie .
He took part in some of
the events but I don't know if
he won anything.

5
Does Herb ever hear from
Bill Kraggs. I have not
had a letter from him for
some time but I hear he
is getting along alright. His
London girl has gone back
on him though so he is
having rather hard luck in
that line. I haven't heard
any particulars as to the
reason but he will no
douht be feeling pretty
bad as he could hardly
think or speak of any-
thing else when he was here.
Perhaps he has met another
one by this time though.
Has Jim Taylor any
thought of getting married in
the near future. I suppose
he has no idea of coming
over here.
Best love
to all the families. Hope
to get lots of letters in
the next mail.
Your loving Son
Charlie

http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/correspondence/SMF/SMF_1918_0531
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Third Afghan War, 1919

War launched by Amir Amanullah, who had been placed on the Afghan throne in February 1919 by the army and the Young Afghan radical party, after the murder of his father. He proclaimed a Jihad against Britain, and on 3 May 1919 Afghan troops crossed the Indian border, and occupied Bagh. British Indian troops recaptured Bagh on 11 May, and pushed on into Afghanistan, while British bombers attacked Jalalabad and Kabul. Amanullah sued for peace on 31 May, and peace was restored by the treaty of Rawalpindi (8 August). The treaty reaffirmed Afghan independence, and made it clear that Afghanistan controlled it's own foreign policy. One of the first foreign policy decisions made by Amanullah was to recognise the new Soviet Union. The treaty also ended the large British subsidies to the Afghan government which had helped maintain Afghan neutrality during the First World War.

Rickard, J., Third Afghan War, 1919, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_afghan3.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2010 9:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Mrs. Kate O'Hare Begins Work for Prison Reforms," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 31 May 1920, p. 2.

MRS. KATE O'HARE BEGINS WORK FOR PRISON REFORMS

Socialist Leader Who Was Released Yesterday "Doesn't Regret a Day of 14 Months in Prison."

CALLS TERM COURSE IN CRIMINOLOGY

She Prepares Breakfast for Family at Home--She Was Met at Union Station by About 100 Friends.
______________

Mrs. Kate Richards O'Hare, Socialist leader, who was released yesterday from the penitentiary at Jefferson City, was back at work today,12 hours after her arrival here last night. A Post-Dispatch reporter found her this morning at her husband's office in the Holland Building engaged in working upon her study of prison reform, which she began while a prisoner herself.

"I regard the 14 months which I spent in prison as a 14-months' college course in criminology," she said to the reporter. "It was hard, of course, but I feel that what I learned was worth it. I do not regret a day."

Her five-year sentence was commuted Saturday by President Wilson, and Attorney-General Palmer yesterday telegraphed an order for her immediate release.

Upon her arrival at Union Station last night, accompanied by Frank P. O'Hare, her husband, she was met by their four children and about 100 friends who had been notified that she was coming in. After dinner with friends she went to the O'Hare home, 3175 Brantner place.

This morning she got breakfast for her family, and went to the office soon afterward.

Health Good After Imprisonment.

She appears to be in the best of health, and declared she was feeling well. She weighs more than when she entered prison. Her hair, perhaps, is somewhat whiter.

She was convicted of violation of the espionage act in making a speech at Bowman, N. D., in the summer of 1917, that was held to be in opposition to the conduct of the war. It was a Socialist address, such as she had been delivering for many years.

"The pioneer work of Socialism is done," she said today. "The force of events has brought Socialism to that point where the heart-breaking labor of propaganda is no longer necessary. Right now, news of the Socialist party is given a better place in your paper and all the great newspapers, than news of the other two parties."

"If the Republicans and Democrats nominate for President such reactionaries as Wood and Palmer, there will be a tremendous swing to the Socialist party, and there is likely to be such a landslide as elected Lincoln the first time.

Campaign Contributions.

"The investigation of campaign contributions by the Senate is opening people's eyes. We Socialists have known for many years that that was the way Republican and Democratic candidates were always selected, but the people didn't believe us. All Socialists know that a few rich men always dominate the nomination of candidates of the two old parties, but this is the first time the beans were ever spilled in public. You don't hear anything of millionaires contributing to Debs' campaign fund."

Mrs. O'Hare was full of the subject of prison reform. She related that when she learned, in 1919, that she would have to go to prison, she prepared an outline for a scientific study of criminology, and took it to prison with her. She has worked steadily upon it throughout her imprisonment, she said.

"I have been going up and down this country for a good many years, and I have seen a good many unfortunates," she said, "but I am convinced that the populations of the prisons are the most hopeless, helpless and friendless lot in the world. Of course, if a prisoner knows a friend of some politician, he is all right--he'll get out, but the great mass of them have no such friends.

"Most people do know that there are more people in prisons in this country today than there are in college. Every year 200,000 of these men and women, some diseased, all embittered, cynical, and harboring a special grudge, are turned loose upon the community under circumstances which make it probable that they will commit another crime.

Congratulations by Wire.

While Mrs. O'Hare was talking, she was continually interrupted by persons coming in to congratulate her upon her release. More than 30 telegrams of congratulation were received today from all parts of the country. Women who came into the [illegible] office embraced her. She had a good-humored greeting for each.

"You're a martyr in a good cause," declared one woman after hugging her.

Mrs. O'Hare laughed in some embarrassment. "No, indeed," she replied. "I learned things that I never would have got in any other way. Think of the poor souls that are still in prisons--they are the ones that deserve sympathy." Turning to the reporter, she continued: "My friends thought it would not have been so bad if I had only stayed in for three months or six months, but that a year was terrible [illegible] come out at the end of six months, I would not have been able to complete my study of prison conditions. It takes a year to really see the physical, mental and moral degeneration of the prisoners take place."

Views as to Criminals.

She said she had become convinced that psycho-analysis, as taught by Freud, furnished the best solution for the "cure" of crime. She believes, she said, that virtually all criminals "are not criminals at all, but are subnormal."

"The Missouri Prison is no worse than the most," she said. "It is the system that is wrong. Warden Painter is a good-hearted man, and a long-headed politician, and when the people of Missouri demand better conditions, he will be only too glad to put them into effect.

"The overall factory where the women work is about like the commercial factory of 15 years ago. I was able to get along in the matter of food because I got much food from the outside. Those who are without money or friends do not fare very well."

She said that for nine hours a day the women prisoners were not allowed to speak to each other--not even to those working next to them. That is one of the worst features, she said.

Kept Up With Events.

Mrs. O'Hare has kept in close touch with events. She spoke of the revelations of W. Jett Lauck, consulting economist for the railroad brotherhoods, on profiteering, and said he was doing wonderful work.

"It's a funny thing about me," she said. "The administration sent me to the pen to get rid of me, and thousands of people who had never cared anything about me, and who wouldn't have gone to hear me speak for anything, have written letters to me, and have become interested in Socialism."

She said she intended to proceed immediately with her work of compiling data on the question of prison reform. She has been in communication with a number of college professors and students of penology.

http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/kro/doc009b.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Turksch Armenië
Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 31 mei 1914
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek


Men schrijft ons: De inspecteur-generaal van Turksch Armenië de heer L.C. Westenenk is Donderdag uit Konstantinopel te Deventer teruggekeerd, zeer tevreden over den afloop van de besprekingen met de Turksche regeering, die ten doel hadden, de machtmiddelen, den inspecteur-generaal toe te kennen, duidelijk en solide vast te leggen.

Die machtmiddelen zijn van ingrijpenden en zeer verstrekkenden aard.

Als vreemde specialiteiten zullen op aanwijzing van den inspecteur-generaal benoemd worden een secretaris, een adjudant, een inspecteur van publieke werken en een inspecteur van land- en mijnbouw. De emolumenten zijn nog niet definitief vastgesteld, doch zullen zeer belangrijk zijn.

Het ligt voor de hand, dat de heer Westenenk voor deze betrekkingen het liefst landgenooten zal kiezen. Zij moeten voldoen aan eischen van groote bekwaamheid en volkomen vertrouwd zijn met de Fransche taal.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-31-5-1914.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Naar het front, 31 mei 1915

Een Hollander is vanuit Java, Nederlands-Indië speciaal naar Europa gekomen om dienst te nemen in het Engelse leger. Maar de man vangt in de rekruteringskantoren in Londen overal bot. Hij wordt eerst afgewezen voor het Belgische leger. Dan krijgt hij de tip om zich aan te melden voor het vreemdelingenlegioen.

‘Ik heb nu de keuze tussen naar Havre te gaan en verder door naar Parijs om te zien of het daar voor den duur van den oorlog opgerichte Legion Etrangère een realiteit of een fictie is, of naar Montreal via New-York, om te trachten me als Amerikaan bij het Canadese contingent te doen inlijven.’

Uiteindelijk wordt, na list en bedrog, ingelijfd in het Engelse leger.


Het was met een zeer hartige ‘Damn!’ dat ik, kletsnat en verkleumd, na enige tijd weer wakker werd en vond dat het druilregende. Het onophoudelijke gerammel en geratel van voorbijgaande artillerie, auto's en legerkarren, afdelingen cavalerie, het gemopper van mijn eveneens door den regen wakker geworden kameraden verbraken wat anders een doodse nachtelijke stilte zou zijn geweest. Het was er pikdonker, en de op en af gaande wagenlichten, welke plotseling spookachtig uit het duister opdoemden en even plotseling weer verdwenen, de drie of vier zoeklichten en de lichten der sterkogels, of misschien waren het wel vuurpijlen, welke wij bij tussenposen in de verte gewaar werden, schenen de duisternis nog te versterken.

Waarschijnlijk om aan het unheimische gevoel te ontkomen dat mij door die drukkende zwarte massa en den alsmaardoor neerziepelende regen dreigde te beklemmen, bromde ik maar met de grote hoop mee, ofschoon ik wist en voelde dat ik verkeerd deed, omdat ik daardoor het werk van de officieren om ons in de hand te houden, vermeerderde. De verstandsmens in me, het door erfelijkheid, traditie en opleiding gevormd wezen, dat geleerd heeft zichzelf te beheersen, steeds meester te zijn over de omstandigheden, hoe advers deze ook mogen zijn, zei mij, me zonder morren ook in deze omstandigheden te schikken; de fysieke mens, bekaf, uitgeput en afgemat liet zich evenwel niet langer gezeggen en ventileerde zich door het uiten van even harde vloeken als de rest over de, ‘inconsideratie van de officieren, die het uiterste van ons vergden,’ over het weer, over de voorbijgaande troepenafdelingen en wagens, wegens het lawaai dat zij maakten en de wanorde welke zij stichtten in onze gelederen. lederen vloekte trouwens.

Wij, d.w.z. de soldaten, vloekten als onderofficieren op dezen en de officieren, zó evenwel, dat zij niet de tegen hen persoonlijk gerichte verwensingen konden horen; de onderofficieren vloekten als officieren, en deze weer als opperofficieren op ons, maar zo dat wij het wèl konden vernemen. Ik geloof niet dat er een sprankje goed humeur in de gehele compagnie was overgebleven. Het kon, alles goed beschouwd, nauwelijks anders.

Toen de regen ons allen wakker maakte, waren er waarschijnlijk slechts anderhalf of twee uren van de drie verstreken, die ons als rust waren toegezegd. Want het duurde een eeuwige langen tijd voor dat het commando om aan te treden en voort te marcheren werd gegeven. En het was een ellendige, triestige troep die daar als een grijze, wazige, langgerekte, slangachtige massa over de weg voortkronkelde. Ofschoon ik me door de genoten slaap en rust, hoe kortstondig deze ook waren geweest, persoonlijk weer zoo goed als geheel opgefrist voelde, de meesten schenen nog niet van hun oververmoeidheid te zijn bekomen. De troep kroop dus meer dan dat zij flink doormarcheerde.

Die nacht zijn wij, als ik het me goed herinner, door twee dorpen getrokken. Of de bewoners allen in slaap waren, of dat de gehele bevolking gevlucht was voor het naderend oorlogsgewoel, ik weet het niet. Een ding is zeker dat ik in geen der beide plaatsen ook maar één enkelen dorpeling heb gezien. Het ene dorp leek absoluut verlaten en het andere zou den zelfden indruk hebben gemaakt, indien de enige straat welke het bezat niet gevuld was met militairen. In geen van beiden hielden wij ook maar een moment op. Alleen zagen wij in de laatste van beide onze majoor en een kapitein achterblijven, hetgeen algemeen verwondering baarde onder de troep en stof gaf tot allerlei commentaar. Beiden, zowel de majoor als de kapitein, kwamen ons evenwel weer achter op in een auto voor dat wij drie mijlen verder op waren.

Op de gis af moet het ongeveer te vier uur in den morgen zijn geweest toen wij halt hielden en van de makkers voor aan in de colonne de mededeling kregen dat de majoor en alle officieren druk aan het confereren waren met enige andere officieren, onder wie een paar Fransen die hen tegemoet waren gereden. Het resultaat van die conferentie was dat wij weer van de weg af gingen en een richting haaks op dezen insloegen, dwars over bouwland heen. Een paar honderd schreden verderop passeerden wij rechts en links van ons een paar stukken geschut die daar achter wat struikgewas en klein geboomte waren opgesteld. Munitiewagen en de bedienende manschappen waren bij de stukken Verder op, - hoeveel verder weet ik niet, misschien wel een mijl of anderhalf - kwamen we plotseling aan de eerste loopgraven. Deze waren geheel verlaten, met uitzondering van enige secties sappeurs die daar blijkbaar nog aan het werk waren. Van deze loopgraaf werden wij eerst nog door enige andere geleid, die op afstanden, van ongeveer 25, 50 en 100 meters, nu eens - evenwijdig ermee dan weer rechthoekig op de eerste liepen en eveneens onbezet waren, en daarna kwamen wij plotseling op een paar bezette. Bezet door Engelsen, wel te begrijpen. Hoever die’trenches’ zich uitstrekten, ben ik nooit te weten kunnen komen. Persoonlijk kon ik er, zelfs toen het licht begon te worden, niet meer van zien dan misschien een kleine 50 meter lengte. Zij moeten evenwel ettelijke kilometers lang zijn geweest.

De loopgraven zijn reeds zoo dikwijls beschreven, dat ik hier kortheids- en gemakshalve wel mag aannemen dat onze lezers er zich een voorstelling van kunnen vormen zonder dat ik ze nader behoef te beschrijven. Benauwd en oncomfortabel zijn ze in de hoogste mate. Het water stond er nergens lager dan kniediep en er waren hier en daar gaten, door in de wand gestoken takken of balken aangegeven, waarin een man helemaal kopje onder kon gaan, gaten den vorige avond in de trench geslagen door de Duitse 42 c.m. houwitsers; hier en daar waren ook de wanden verzakt, eveneens door het vijandelijk granaatvuur en zag men er de sappeurs en de soldaten druk bezig de ingestorte aardmassa weg te werken. Een soldaat vertelde me dat onder een dergelijk massa aarde en slijk ongeveer 20 man bedolven lagen en dat men, reeds sedert den vorige avond, bezig was hen uit te graven zonder evenwel meer dan vier man te voorschijn te kunnen halen, daar de massa te nat en te modderig was en daarom telkens weer als een kleine lawine naar beneden rolde. Diegenen van de ongelukkigen die daar begraven lagen en niet onmiddellijk door den, de instorting veroorzakende, barstende bom waren gedood, waren natuurlijk reeds lang gestikt; gesmoord in die vuile, zwarte, onsmakelijk riekende brei. Wat een akelig einde moet dat zijn!

Hier en daar lagen lijken en gewonden. Rode Kruis-soldaten waren bezig deze laatsten te verbinden en weg te dragen door de verschillende gangen en tunnels naar achteren toe; de doden scheen men voorlopig te laten liggen…

Van tijd tot tijd hoorde men een enkel schot, nu hier, dan weer daar; soms ook het droge geratel van een onsamenhangend salvo, gelost door de één of andere groep nerveuze soldaten op niets. Want men kon den vijand onmogelijk zien in de duisternis. Zelfs de zoeklichten, die zowel van vijandelijke zijde, als van de onze over het terrein speelden, lieten niets onderscheiden. En zelfs toen het dag begon te worden en men dus het terrein dat zich vóór de schietgaten in onze loopgraaf uitstrekte in zijn geheel kon opnemen, kon men niets zien. Het enige dat men soms zag, zoolang het nog donker was, was van tijd tot tijd de vuurstraal van een geweer op een afstand van naar schatting ongeveer 200 meters voor ons uit.

Het geschut deed zich niet horen voor het begon te grauwen. Wie het eerste schot heeft gelost, weet ik niet, doch de indruk is mij bijgebleven dat het onze kanonnen waren, welke het eerst het bal openden. Ik behoorde tot de eerste ploeg, die voor de schietgaten werd gezet, terwijl de overigen uitrustten. Van uit mijn schietgat zag ik ongeveer een paar honderd meter voor me uit een rij boompjes welke evenwijdig liep met onze loopgraaf, en de sergeant die het bevel over onze sectie voerde, zei ons een laaggericht vuur te onderhouden op dat geboomte, omdat de eerste Duitse loopgraaf zich daarachter bevond. Later bleek dat dit niet zo was, maar dat de Duitsers in den nacht zich zeker minstens 50 meter dichter bij ons hadden ingegraven. Wij werden dit gewaar doordat iemand plotseling een Duitse helm boven de grond zag uitsteken en weer verdwijnen. Hij waarschuwde de rest. Aan onze kant was de genie bezig om een gang te graven naar de Duitse linie.

Wij bleven dien morgen zonder ontbijt, zelfs zonder een kop koffie. We vernamen dat door de vrij overhaaste wijze waarop wij uit Boulogne waren vertrokken, wij slechts een heel klein gedeelte van ons bataljonscommissariaat hadden kunnen meenemen. De officieren beloofden ons wel dat zij zouden trachten wat thee of koffie en brood te piendjemen van een van de andere aanwezige bataljons, maar het bleef bij een belofte. Waarschijnlijk hebben zij deze niet na kunnen komen, omdat kort na het begin, de slag een verwoed karakter aannam. Niet zoozeer daar waar wij waren geposteerd, maar rechts van ons, enige kilometers verder.

Van waar wij waren, konden wij niet alleen de doffe, scherpe, knetterende slagen horen van de barstende granaten, maar wij konden zelfs de ontploffingen zien; de witte wattenachtige rookwolkjes van de kleinere kartetsen en de pikzwarte, olieachtige roetwolken van de Duitse tweeenveertigers. En daar tussen door het verwoed geratel van het geweervuur. Steeds dikker werd de stroom van gewonden die via onze loopgraaf naar achteren werden gedragen. Zij moesten langs ons heen, omdat de gangen welke uit hun eigen loopgraaf direct naar achteren en naar het veldhospitaal leidden onder vuur waren genomen.

Zelfs ik, die in vroegere jaren meer dan eens de verschrikkingen van het slagveld heb aanschouwd en meegemaakt, voelde me wee en akelig worden bij de aanblik van die bloedende, soms op vreselijke wijze toegetakelde lichamen en het gekreun en gegil van de arme drommels, die daar door het ziepelende, kletsende, vuile en ijskoude modderwater van onze trench werden gedragen.

‘How is it down there, mate?’ (Hoe gaat het daar toe bij jullie in de buurt, kameraad ?), vroeg ik een hunner, die hoewel blijkbaar ernstig gewond, toch zijn ogen open had en een druk gesprek onderhield met een der dragers. ‘Simply hell broken loosel Got a cigarette, chum?' (Eenvoudig hel!) zei hij, (‘heb je een sigaret, makker?’)’. Ik had zelf geen sigaretten bij mij, maar iemand die naast me stond gaf hem dadelijk twee of drie strootjes, één van welke hij de gewonde in de mond stak, omdat deze niet in staat was zijn armen te gebruiken.

Wij zelf hebben toen heel weinig last gehad van het granaatvuur. Slechts een kwartier lang, naar het mij voorkwam, hebben wij er van genoten. Het begon plotseling en eindigde even plotseling. Veel schade heeft het niet uitgericht, daar, zodra het begon, allen, op één man na op elke 25 meter, van de schietgaten werden genomen en samen met de overige bezetting van de loopgraaf in de onderaardse en zoogenaamd bomvrije kamers werden geplaatst, grote door balken gestutte ruimten, welke om de zooveel meters in de naar den vijand gekeerde zijde van de loopgraaf waren uitgegraven. De grootste vernieling werd wel veroorzaakt door ons eigen of door het Franse geschut, dat twee granaten in onze loopgraaf schoot, waarvan er één voor zo’n kamer terechtkwam, en zeventien man op slag doodde en ik geloof nog een twintigtal anderen gruwelijk verwondde

Schuinsrechts van ons ontwaarde ik in de verte dichte kolommen van pikzwarten rook, als van een stad of groot dorp in lichtelaaie. Het was Neuve Chapelle (Nieuwkapelle), ofschoon ik pas later, veel later, deze naam te weten ben gekomen. Naar de barstende granaten te oordelen, werd er op de meest verwoede wijze gevochten in het terrein tussen deze brandende plaats en de loopgraven van de geallieerden, die naar het scheen in de vorm van een halve cirkel om de stad heenliepen.

Na het korte bombardement, waar ik hierboven op doelde, en hetwelk al heel weinig effect op ons had, materieel of moreel, omdat wij in die onderaardse kelders de detonaties der ontploffende projectielen slechts zeer zwakjes konden horen, werd de loopgraaf weer bemand. Of het op commando geschiedde, of wèl dat de Jantjes uit eigen beweging uit hun schuilhoeken kwamen, weet ik niet, maar de mannen verdrongen zich voor de schietgaten op zulk een wijze dat iedereen, ieder ander in de weg stond. Ik denk wel dat nieuwsgierigheid om te zien wat er in de buitenwereld voorviel de drijfveer van de meesten zal zijn geweest. Een paar ‘gelukkige’ treffers van de Duitsers in de loopgraven tegenover ons, maakten echter spoedig een eind aan het gedrang. Toen twee of drie man voor de schietgaten met een kogel door de hersens neervielen, maakten de overigen, die daar niet op bevel waren geposteerd, weer dat zij zo spoedig mogelijk beneden in het midden van de gang kwamen en buiten het bereik van het vijandelijke lood, dat soms als een dichte, horizontale hagelbui over ons heen vloog met een onaangename ‘buz-zz’ dat zelfs boven het geratel der vijandelijke mitrailleurs en het geweervuur uitklonk.

Wij van onzen kant vuurden nauwelijks; onze eigen machinegeweren bleven stil. Slechts wij, die voor de kijkgaten waren geplaatst, schoten enkel als wij iets zagen, een helm of een hoofd dat boven de Duitse loopgraaf uitstak.

Ook ik loste een schot toen ik een helm zag, maar hoewel ik zeker was dat ik mijn man niet had geraakt, voelde ik me toch als een moordenaar. Ik voel er niet veel voor om alles wat er die morgen of die dag in mij is omgegaan, op papier te stellen, hoe interessant ook misschien de psychische en mentale staat waarin een mens verkeert, die beseft dat elk moment zijn laatste kan zijn, ook voor de psychologen onder mijn lezers moge wezen. Mijn gedachten waren te privé van aard om ze aan het publiek prijs te geven.

Waar ik evenwel wel op wens te wijzen is op het eigenaardige conflict dat er toen in mij omging. Daar was weer het wezen van de beschaving, de denkende mens die voelde dat hij als Hollander en buitenstaander absoluut niets met dezen strijd te maken had, en daarom ook het recht miste om ergens in Duitsland, een ‘home’, een moeder, een vrouw of een verloofde in den rouw te dompelen, of misschien ook wel enige hulpeloze schapen van kinderen vaderloos te maken; daar was de mens die redeneerde dat die vijand daar tegenover hem zijn vijand niet was, hoe onsympathiek het gehele ras hem anders ook mocht wezen.

Maar daar stond tegenover de man in kaki, de soldaat, die daartegenover stelde het niet te lochenen feit dat hij door 's konings shilling aan te nemen en diens livrei aan te trekken, zich lichaam en ziel aan die monarch had verkocht, en dat het zijn plicht was om 's konings vijanden als de zijne te beschouwen en te helpen hen te verdelgen en uit te roeien. ‘To regard his gracious majesty's enemies as his own and to exterminate them,’ waren de woorden in den eed van trouw welken hij zwoer.

Ik maak van dit conflict melding om te laten zien dat het in het geheel niet gemakkelijk is voor een man van beschaving om een doder, een vernietiger van mensen te worden.

Ik heb gevochten, die dag, zeker! In den beginne alleen zuiver uit zelfverdediging, toen onze loopgraaf bestormd werd, maar later ook uit woede teen ik onze luitjes bij hopen zag vallen, en nog later, laat het mij eerlijk bekennen ofschoon het voor iemand die reeds lang de kinderjaren achter den rug heeft, en die doorgaat voor een intellectueel, vrij kinderachtig is, uit een gevoel van nationale trots, waar ik anders niet veel last van heb, doch welke mij toen echter dwong om als Hollander niet achter te blijven bij mijn Engelse kameraden. Dat was toen wij een wilde, woeste charge uitvoerden door de buitenwijken van Neuve chapelle, en de Duitsers van huis tot huis, van straat tot straat en van tuin tot tuin voor ons uitdreven. Het was toen, dat ik bijna ad patres werd geholpen. Want door dien wedijver bezield, was ik de anderen enigszins vooruitgesneld en stond ik voor een ogenblik geheel alleen tegenover een vrij grote bende.

Na deze uitweiding, waarvoor ik m'n verontschuldigingen aanbied, laat mij thans weer tot de gebeurtenissen van dien dag terugkeren, voor zoover ik mij die weer voor de geest weet te halen.

Ik weet niet precies hoe laat het geweest is, - ik denk dat het ongeveer acht uur was, maar het kan even goed een uur later als vroeger zijn geweest, - kwam het gebulder der barstende projectielen hoe langer hoe nader. Ik heb nog nooit een lawine bijgewoond of gehoord, maar ik stel me voor dat als men de grootste en woeste lawine, welk ooit van de hellingen der Zwitserse bergen in een allesvernielende en niet te meten vaart naar beneden is gestort, verduizendvoudigd, dat dan het lawaai daarvan een vrij goede, ofschoon toch nog zeer slappe imitatie moet zijn van het donderend geraas, dat met elke seconde in kracht toenemende op ons af kwam. Binnen enkele momenten brak dan ook de storm in volle woede los over ons eigen segment van den ring van loopgraven. We keken naar onze sergeanten en naar den luitenant die het commando voerde over die sectie en die kalm aan het telefoontoestel was blijven zitten. ‘Blijven!’ was het bevel. Hij zei verder nog wat, doch door het duivels geraas konden wij hem niet verstaan. De sergeanten en de korporaals brachten evenwel zijn bevelen verder over aan de manschappen. ‘Blijven. Niet naar de funkholes’ terug. Bajonet op het geweer. Wij zullen waarschijnlijk aangevallen worden!"

Dit was dan ook werkelijk het geval, en het verschrikkelijke granaatvuur, waarmede de vijand ons trachtte te overstelpen was eenvoudig bedoeld om het terrein voorlopig schoon te vegen en ons te demoraliseren. Wat dit laatste betreft, ik geloof dat als het geschut beter gericht was, zelfs de sterksten onder ons over niet voldoende geestkracht zouden hebben beschikt om aan het moreel verlammend effect daarvan weerstand te kunnen bieden. De bommen barstten echter meest alle ongeveer 40 of 50 meter, en zelfs verder, voor en achter ons, zodat zij materieel heel weinig schade uitrichtten, maar de luchtdruk door elke ontploffing veroorzaakt en vooral door de granaten van de grote houwitsers, de z.g. Jack Johnsons, gaf ons, zelfs daar beneden in de loopgraven, het gevoel alsof elke vierkante centimeter van ons lichaam door geweldige grote zware knuppels gebeukt werd. Of het bij de anderen hetzelfde effect heeft gehad, weet ik niet, maar bij mij werkte het hoofdzakelijk op het hoofd en de longen. Ik had het gevoel alsof mijn schedel zou barsten, de ademhaling was moeilijk en pijnlijk en ik had last van misselijkheid.

Ik geloof dat de Duitsers in hun eigen loopgraaf, - in die tenminste welke het dichtste bij de onze lag - bijna evenveel last van de kanonnade moeten hebben gehad als wij.

http://www.greatdutchwar.nl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=413%3Anaar-het-front-31-mei-1915&catid=73%3Agroot-brittannie&Itemid=1
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Slag bij El Ébano

De Slag bij El Ébano was een veldslag in de Mexicaanse Revolutie. Hij werd gevochten van 21 maart 1915 tot 31 mei 1915.

Het voorgaande jaar hadden de Mexicaanse revolutionairen de dictator Victoriano Huerta uit het zadel gestoten. De strijd hervatte zich echter toen het revolutionaire leiderschap uiteenviel in de constitutionalisten van Venustiano Carranza en Álvaro Obregón en de conventionalisten van Pancho Villa en Emiliano Zapata. Hoewel de conventionalisten het grootste deel van het land in handen hadden waren de constitutionalisten in het offensief; op de Bajío was de slag bij Celaya aan de gang waarbij Obregón Villa een zware klap toebracht. Om het tij te doen keren gebood Villa de havenstad Tampico in te nemen. Om deze plaats te bereiken moesten de constitutionalisten de Oostelijke Sierra Madre doorsteken, en de Él Ebano in de staat San Luis Potosí, gelegen aan een spoorlijn, was een van de belangrijkste doorgangen van dat gebergte. De verdediging was in handen van Jacinto B. Treviño, terwijl Manuel Chao de conventionalistische aanval leidde. De eerste aanval vond plaats op 21 maart, en kon door de constitutionalisten worden afgeslagen. Door hevig artillerievuur vielen er aan beide zijden vele doden. De gevechten zetten zich wekenlang voort, zodat dat de conventionalisten een doorbraak konden forceren, ook niet toen Chao werd vervangen door Tomás Urbina. De constitutionalisten zetten tijdens de gevechten ook vliegtuigen in. Vanaf 15 mei slaagden de constitutionalisten erin, nu de conventionalisten verzwakt waren wegens hun nederlaag elders in Celaya, de constitutionalisten terug te dringen. Op 31 mei voerden de constitutionalisten de definitieve aanval uit, waarna de conventionalisten gedwongen werden hun stellingen op te geven en hun aanval af te blazen, waarbij zij veel munitie en materieel kwijtraakten. Na gelijktijdige nederlagen elders in het land zag Villa zich gedwongen zich terug te trekken naar het noorden van het land.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_El_%C3%89bano
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Jutland, 31st May 1916, poster celebrating Allied victory

http://www.newhamstory.com/node/2624
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 18:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Diary Entry - 29th to 31st May, 1916 - There was nothing doing these days. Bosche sent over some 8-inch armour piercing stuff near the 15th one day, but only about 15 rounds, doing no damage. The 15th had bad luck shooting one night - they had a premature which penetrated a dug out and killed Oakleigh's servant, who was preparing his dug out for the night. I must add that the dug out had tin sides to it and only one layer of sand bags halfway up the walls. My turn came for the OP on Wednesday, but it is a dull, uninteresting front and I got very tired of it.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/05/diary-entry-29th-to-31st-may-1916.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geschiedenis van Hoogovens

Op 19 april 1917 presenteerde H.J.E. Wenckebach zijn plannen om in Nederland een hoogovenbedrijf op te zetten bestaande uit: drie hoogovens, een kooksfabriek met bijproductenfabriek en een cementfabriek voor verwerking van hoogovenslak.

Gevolg was de oprichting op 31 mei 1917 van het Comité voor oprichting van een hoogovenstaal- en walswerk in Nederland”, met als doel het opzetten van een geïntegreerd staalbedrijf, met staalfabriek en walserij.

Als vestigingsplaats werd IJmuiden boven Rotterdam verkozen vanwege de vaste ondergrond. Gestart werd met een bouwplan voor de eerste fase die bestond uit: twee hoogovens, een kooksbatterij en de nodige infrastructurele voorzieningen als een buiten- en binnenhaven, spoorwegemplacement, elektrische centrale en een bijproductenfabriek voor het reinigen van kooksovengas.

Lees verder op http://www.hoogovensmuseum.nl/?page_id=999
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Slag om Mesen - 7 juni 1917

(...) De voorbereidende artilleriebeschietingen bij Mesen begonnen op 31 mei 1917. De Duitsers reageerden met zware beschietingen, onder andere met granaten met mosterdgas die op gebieden werden afgevuurd waar aanvallende troepen op weg naar de startlinies misschien doorheen zouden moeten gaan. (...)

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/battlefields/messines-7-june-1917.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Crossfield Chronicle, 31 mei 1918

http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/CFC/1918/05/31/1/Ad00102_5.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:15, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS President Lincoln (1917-1918)

Painting by Fred Dana Marsh, 1920, depicting the ship sinking after she was torpedoed by the German submarine U-90 on 31 May 1918. Twenty-six lives were lost with her, and one officer was taken prisoner.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-p/p-lncn-l.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cantigny

The Battle of Cantigny which takes place from May 28 to 31, 1918 is still extremely important in the United States history because it is the first major American battle of the Great War.

http://www.somme-battlefields.com/battlefields/discover_the_25_nations/american_sites
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 31, 1919: Literary Digest

This illustration by Harry Grant Dart -- a man who was no stranger to the cartoonish and the fantastical -- shows the U.S. airmail service in the not-too-distant future. The image appeared on the May 31, 1919 cover of Literary Digest and shows mail bags attached to parachutes, which are then dropped by airplane; all eyes of a small town fixated on this postal payload from the heavens.

While the first aerial mail service in the United State was tested in 1911, it wasn't until May 15, 1918 that the first mail route from New York to Washington D.C. was established. A few months later the U.S. Postal Service took over airmail duties from the U.S. Army, but regularly scheduled cross-country airmail didn't begin until 1924.

As one might expect, it took a long time to modernize airmail service, but Dart's image -- however quaint it appears today -- depicts one revolutionary step forward in making our world feel that much smaller.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/amphalon/5657170990/ & http://www.paleofuture.com/blog/2011/4/23/fast-mail-of-to-morrow-1919.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Landbouwhuishoudonderwijs
Bron: Leeuwarder Courant 31 mei 1919

Gisteren had in de bovenzaal der Coöperatieve Zuivelbank alhier de oprichting plaats van den Bond van Vereenigingen van oud-leerlingen bij het landbouwhuishoudonderwijs in Friesland.
De oprichting had plaats op initiatief en onder leiding der drie huishoudkundigen bij de Friesche Maatschappij van landbouw, n.l. de dames M. v.d. Knoop, H.A.M. van Pernis en T. Oosterbaan.

http://www.frieslandzoalshetwas.nl/?aflnr=22
Lees hier verder: http://www.frieslandzoalshetwas.nl/?q=1&z=1&aflnr=22&artid=1
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919: The Winnipeg General Strike

Saturday, 31 May 1919 - Moose Jaw
May 31, 1919 - A member of the Executive of the Citizens' Committee of One Thousand delivers an address in Moose Jaw who are in the midst of their own sympathetic General Strike. The discussion was about the inner workings of the 1000 - how it was established and why.

Though he reiterated that the main purpose of the committee was to keep essential services going, he certainly does not hide his disdain for the strikers and the strike committee.

Bekijk de afbeelding... http://1919winnipeggeneralstrike.blogspot.com/2009/05/may-31_31.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Medailles van het Nationaal Comité voor Hulp en Voeding 1914-1918
RR Marijnissen

Datum van instelling en verschillende klassen - Deze medailles werden ingesteld op 31 mei 1919 in vier klassen : de 1ste Klasse (verguld brons met een rozet op het lint), de 2de Klasse in verguld brons, de 3de in zilver en de 4de Klasse in brons.

Beschrijving van de medaille - De medaille toont aan de voorzijde een vrouw met kroon tussen een eikenloofkrans, dit stelt België voor. De achterzijde toont in het midden de letters "CN" (Comité National) en de jaartallen "1914" en"1918".Rondom de rand staat de lezen: EN SOUVENIR DE SA COLLABORATION - TER HERINNERING AAN ZIJN MEDEWERKING. Boven en onder de jaartallen staat een korenaar. Het lint is rood gekleurd met 2 dikke witte randen.

Criteria voor de toekenning van de medaille - De medaille werd uitgereikt aan Belgen die werkten voor het comité voor hulp en voeding voor hun toewijding. De medaille werd dus uitgereikt aan burgers die meehielpen met de distributie van hulpgoederen zoals voedsel. In het staatsblad van 21 Augustus werden de rechthebbenden gepubliceerd, het waren 230 bladzijden vol.

Ook wel de bonenmedaille - Deze medaille wordt ook wel de bonenmedaille genoemd omdat tijdens de oorlog gigantisch veel gedroogde bonen zijn uitgedeeld en de medaille veel uitgereikt is.

http://www.militair.net/Militaria/Onderscheidingen/BE%20Hulp%20en%20Voeding%201919/
Ook hier: http://forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/De_Medailles_van_het_Nationaal_Comit%C3%A9_voor_Hulp_en_Voeding_1914-1918
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:12, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadian War Diaries - North Russia Expeditionary Force

War diaries - North Russia (Siberian) Expeditionary Force, 16th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery

http://data2.collectionscanada.ca/e/e047/e001168778.jpg via http://data4.collectionscanada.ca/netacgi/nph-brs?s1=russia&s13=&s12=&l=20&s9=RG9&s7=9-52&Sect1=IMAGE&Sect2=THESOFF&Sect4=AND&Sect5=WARDPEN&Sect6=HITOFF&d=FIND&p=1&u=http://www.collectionscanada.ca/archivianet/02015202_e.html&r=1&f=G via http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/warDiaryLac/wdLacP32.asp
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 31 Mei 2018 10:11, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Mei 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Baron de Kerchove

Op 31 mei 1919 verstuurde de Gentse procinciegouverneur Baron de Kerchove een omzendbrief naar alle gemeentebesturen, waarin hij mededeelde dat de Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken het goed vond "de gelukkige bevrijding van België te herdenken door het planten van eenen boom die bestemd is de gedachtenis der slachtoffers van den oorlog te vereeuwigen". De minister verzocht verder "de gemeentebesturen vooral in de landelijke gemeenten, aan den voet van den herinneringsboom of groep boomen, eenen steen te plaatsen of gedenkzuil waarop de namen van de soldaten der gemeente die voor het Vaderland gestorven zijn, gegrift staan". Hij wenste verder dat alle gemeentebesturen hierrond een feest zouden op het getouw zetten, dat diende samen te vallen met de "eerste verjaring van den terugkeer des Konings in België".

http://www.standbeelden.be/standbeeld/853
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 May 1918: It Was the Machine Gunners of the 3rd Division Who Showed Up First at Château-Thierry

On 30 May, after being released by General Pershing, the 2nd and 3rd Divisions of the AEF were ordered to report to the French 6th Army, which had fallen back to the vicinity of Château-Thierry ,where the German penetration had reached its deepest point in France. There was apprehension of the Germans crossing the Marne, at least in sufficient force to seize a bridgehead available for later renewed attacks. It was the 3rd Division that was given the job of defending the Marne river line at Château-Thierry.

The division's infantry entrained to go by railroad, a procedure which, because of the demoralization of the French railway service by the German advance, was certain to require several days. One unit of the division, however, was ready to make its own way to the Marne. This was the 7th Machine Gun Battalion, which was equipped with its own motor transport.

The battalion left Laferté-sur-Aube at 2:55 p.m., 30 May. After a 24-hour forced drive, the battalion reported to the French commander at 2:00 p.m. on 31 May and was ordered to proceed at once to Château-Thierry to aid in the defense of the Marne bridges there. Breakdowns and lack of gasoline had delayed some of the cars, but there were 17 machine gun squads present [to continue on].

Arriving at Château-Thierry close to 6:00 p.m., a reconnaissance determined that the 10th French Colonial Division was in contact with the German advance at the northern edge of the city. [Château-Thierry straddles both the northern – its larger section – and southern sides of the Marne.] The battalion set up its guns on the south bank where its fire could defend the approaches to the bridges and in addition could command much of the city on the north side of the Marne.

When darkness fell that night one section of Company A, under 1st Lt. J.T. Bissell, was sent across the west bridge to take up an outpost position on the north bank. He was to fight a delaying action if attacked, to keep the main line of the battalion notified of developments, and to fall back to the sought bank if attacked in force.

The Germans pounded the south bank that night with a bombardment so severe that in spite of the extended fashion in which the battalion was posted, 14 of its personnel were wounded before morning. In spite of the deterrent effect of the bombardment, by 4:00 a.m. the battalion had 17 guns in position and firing. Belated squads, which had been delayed on the road, arrived from time to time, and these were held in reserve.

During the day of 1 June the Germans pressed their advance vigorously. To the northwest they drove the French into Belleau Wood, and to the west they took [the village of] Vaux and Hill 204, towering above the surrounding terrain, and thus completely isolated Château-Thierry. They failed, however, to penetrate into the city in force, and much of this failure may be ascribed to the machine gun barrage maintained by the 7th Battalion, which had so set up its guns to command most of the streets in the city on the north bank.

The Germans attempted without success to mask their advance by the use of smoke bombs. In addition, they bombarded the battalion's gun positions but failed to reduce the volume of firing.

After darkness fell the night of the 1st, the Germans began to filter into the city in force. Toward 1:00 a.m., 2 June, Lt. Bissell's outpost party was pushed back by the weight of this advance. Thereupon he led his party toward the west bridge with the intention of crossing to join the rest of the battalion on the south bank.

The German infiltration, however, had come from the northwest and before Bissell's detachment reached the north end of the west bridge, the bridge was occupied in force by Germans. They turned a fierce machine gun fire on the approaching Americans, scattering the detachment.

Bissell then made his way toward the east bridge accompanied by a few American soldiers and a group of Poilus. They found it impossible to approach of the constant fire directed upon its approaches by the Americans on the south bank. After giving up an attempt to swim the river, Bissell ventured into the field of fire and shouted to the Americans on the south bank until they recognized his voice. As a result of his courage, fire was halted long enough for him and his followers to get across to the south bank.

Unfortunately, during the confusion of the last hectic few minutes of his adventures, Bissell had been informed by a French officer that the west bridge, which he knew was held by Germans, had been crossed successfully by [the enemy]. When Bissell imparted this startling information to the American officer in charge of the defense around the east bridge, the latter ordered a retreat in order to save his detachment from capture. The peculiar error was discovered before it caused any damage, and the Americans returned to the south bank posts they had been holding so effectively.

As a matter of fact, the French had managed to blow up the west bridge before the Germans had crossed it. [Some eyewitnesses reported] a number of Germans about to cross were caught by the explosion and their bodies hurled far into the air and out over the river. At any rate, no German that night or later crossed the Marne into the southern part of Château-Thierry.

Meanwhile, the main body of the 3rd Division, moving more slowly by railroad and later by marching, approached the area with orders to prevent the Germans from crossing the river between Château-Thierry and Dormans [to the east]. The infantry, without artillery or engineers, reached the scene on 3 June. The regiments passed to the control of the French and were assigned defensive positions on the south bank of the Marne.

[By preempting other possibilities for their adversaries advancing south, the 3rd Division had fulfilled its mission, which was to prevent the Germans from crossing the Marne at Château-Thierry.] During June, the scattered elements of the 3rd Division were put to a variety of uses. On 7 and 8 June, the 30th Infantry [long associated with San Francisco's Presidio] assisted the French in their assault on Hill 204. Between 15 and 22 June, the 7th Infantry relieved the Marines in Belleau Wood. The Doughboys also participated in night raids to capture German prisoners for interrogation. Other elements of the division were constantly and somewhat aimlessly shifted around along the south bank of the Marne.

[But] by patiently exerted pressure on the French corps command[er], Major General Dickman commanding the division, at length drew his scattered units together, so that in July it presented a unified front to the enemy along the south bank of the Marne east of Château-Thierry. It was there to play one of the greatest roles falling to an American division during the war.

Sources: 3rd Division ABMC History; Doughboy Center Website
http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2014/05/31-may-1918-it-was-machine-gunners-of.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31st May 1918 : Disaster at Allonville

In the early hours of 31 May 1918 two German artillery shells exploded on a barn in the town of Allonville, near Amiens France, where soldiers of the Australian Infantry Force (AIF) were sleeping:

« Two companies of the 14th Battalion had been sleeping in two large barns at Allonville, which was so far behind the Allied lines they thought they would be safe. However the Germans must have known that both the 4th Division and the 4th Brigade HQs where there and were trying to hit them.

A shell landed on the roof of one of the barns and it collapsed on top of the men.

The survivors had not seen such carnage since Pozière. Men were screaming and crying . No one could see much for the dust everyone got to work, digging out the dead and wounded… »


from : Hell, Hope and Heroes by Roy RAMSEY , The Memoirs of Private Roy RAMSEY, AIF

found also in : The British Empire and the First World War by Ashley Jackson :

« Several high explosive rounds from a German rail gun were fired at the Château d’Allonville, several kilometers behind the Somme Front, which was occupied by 4th Division Headquarters.

Two shells hit an adjacent barn in which 2 companies of the 14th Battalion were resting : 18 men were killed and 68 wounded.

As the Official Australian war correspondent, Charles Bean was at Allonville the morning after and he wrote of the incident in his diary:

« The Germans were told some time ago, apparently, probably by a man of ours who they captured, … »


The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) records the names of 18 of the AIF soldiers killed on Friday 31 May 1918. Many were killed instantly by the two exploding German shells which brought down the heavy slate roof of the barn. Others (twelve names are known), mortally wounded, died later that day or soon afterwards.

The following lists, prepared from CWGC records and other military sources, name 30 Australian soldiers who died as a result of the bombings.

Christian names or initials,service numbers and ages are shown where known:

I. Killed by the first shell (14):
George Powell, 18, 7588
George Ray, 29, 5757
Arthur Riley, 27,
Norman McLeod, 38, 55A, 2nd ANZAC Light Horse Regiment
Robert Mann, 27, 1383
John Mills, 26, 2491
Albert Anderson, 21, 1668
Charles Ballis, 29, 6221
Sidney Beverley, 24
Thomas Brinkworth, 27 (ex ANZAC)
Robert Delaney, 4th Light Horse Regiment, 21
Leopold Downey, 27
John Dunn, 26
Lawrence Hustler, 22 , 1266 (ex ANZAC)

II. Killed by the second shell (4):
Bertie George Englert, 31, 7342, Pte
William Wootton, 23, 7606, Pte
Richard Madigan, 21, 6126, Pte
Hugh Kent, 21, 602, L/Cpl

III. Mortally wounded, and died later that day, or soon afterwards (12):
Leslie H J Witcombe (DOW 31.5.18)
Brennan (DOW 31.5.18)
Green (DOW 31.5.18)
Leigh (DOW 31.5.18)
Smith AE (DOW 31.5.18)
Evans (DOW 31.5.18)
Reddish (DOW 31.5.18)
Radnell (DOW 1.6.18)
Best (DOW 4.6.18)
Belgrave (DOW 4.6.18)
Newbold (DOW 8.6.18)
Delora (DOW 13.6.18)
Who is the 19 th soldier who rests in the the row B in Allonville Cemetery with the 18 Australian men? He was not an Australian soldier as his service number shows : Frederic Cooper, 22, M2/133557, Private, Royal Army Service Corps, 31 May 1918

I hope, I will find . Somebody has certainly the answer.

http://commemorationcentenaireallonville2018.unblog.fr/2018/02/18/version-en-anglais/
Zie ook hier: https://www.greatwarforum.org/topic/180862-disaster-at-allonville-31st-may-1918/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Abbeville, France. 31 May 1918

Members of Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps (QMAAC), marching from No. 2 Stationary Hospital at 1.45p.m. in the funeral procession of their comrades, who were killed in the enemy air raid, on the night of 29-30 May 1918. Bombs were dropped on Camp 1, one bomb fell into a protection trench, killing eight members, while one died of wounds shortly after, and seven others were slightly wounded.

Foto... https://www.awm.gov.au/index.php/collection/C393680
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War I Draft Registrations - 31 May 1918



The Humboldt Republican - Humboldt, Iowa - 31 May 1918 - Page 1

More Soldiers off for Camp Dodge.

Another lot of Humboldt county boys left for Camp Dodge Tuesday of this week. They were escorted to the depot with the usual display of patriotism, and the leave-takings were especially pathetic. These boys, as is usual with the Humboldt county draft, are a handsome lot, and a pride to the county that sends them. The boys answering the call this time are:

Walter L. Strait, Humboldt
Floyd M. Breiner, Humboldt
Fred S. Smith, Humboldt
Soren Sorenson Tjener, Bradgate
Robert A. Pavey, Rutland
William Cathart, Hardy
Harry Lanning, Gilmore
Tom R. Onerem, Thor
Ole O. Halsrud, Ottosen
Carl Knusslein, Bode
Will L. Dougal, Humboldt
Theodore O. Olson, Thor
Jens M. Schultz, Humboldt
Toral Larson, Thor
Otto Peterson, Humboldt
Enoch J. Whitfield, Gilmore
Leo Einer, Larchwood
George E. Debe, Rockwell City
Leo. D. Nellis, Humboldt
Harvey G. Enfield, Hardy
Fred C. Jarsen, Bode
Chas. H. Closes, Livermore
George F. VanDriest, Humboldt
Martin O. Saverude, Hardy
Carl Cuntson, Humboldt

http://iagenweb.org/humboldt/military/WWIDraft053118.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 31st 1918 - Soldier loses ear...gets 2 new ones, men's hair fashions, WWI horses get gas masks

The date is May 31st 1918, and we take a look back at some interesting little tidbits in the nations newspapers.

Lee verder op http://kfgo.com/blogs/thoughts-from-the-nighttime/941/may-31st-1918-soldier-loses-earget-2-new-ones-mens-hair-fashions-wwi-horses-get-gas-masks/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cupid camouflaged: a Red Cross silent movie

Cupid camouflaged is a lost film from the era of Australian silent movies, and was produced in 1918 as a fundraiser for the war work of the Australian Red Cross.
The actors were amateurs, all well-known figures in Sydney society. Society also provided many of the film’s locations, including Dame Eadith Walker’s mansion Yaralla at Concord, the Knox family mansion Rona at Bellevue Hill, Mr and Mrs Arthur Allen’s seaside house Moombara at Port Hacking, as well as the grand Double Bay houses Eynesbury and Gladswood. Eynesbury was the home of Sir Albert and Lady Gould, Gladswood the residence of Mr and Mrs Spencer Brunton. Mrs Eleanor Brunton was a keen charity worker and the first honorary treasurer of the NSW division of the Red Cross Society.

Although the Cupid camouflaged cast were amateurs, the director Alfred Rolfe was a professional who had been making silent films since 1911. His credits included Will they never come?, a patriotic drama produced by Australasian Films Ltd in April 1915. Australian defence authorities recognised the value of cinema as a recruitment tool and allowed Rolfe to use Australian soldiers in training at Liverpool army camp as extras in the film. Rolfe directed at least two other World War I pictures, both seen as recruiting films: The hero of the Dardanelles, which opened in July 1915, and How we beat the Emden, which first showed in December 1915. Rolfe’s cinematographer on Cupid camouflaged was Lacey Percival, who also had an earlier war picture to his credit, The martyrdom of Nurse Cavell, produced in January 1916.

The premiere for Cupid camouflaged was held at Sydney’s Theatre Royal on 31 May 1918. Percival’s photography was generally admired but the film’s storyline was slight – featuring matchmaking, mistaken identity, elopement, and true love winning through – and the reviews were at best lukewarm. The Sunday Times (2 June 1918) judged that ‘in producing this film, Mr Alfred Rolfe had much to cope with’ but ‘had made the best of a difficult job and turned out a creditable piece of celluloid amusement’. The Mirror (7 June 1918), on the other hand, found the film ‘a poor advertisement for the acting talent of the nobility of Sydney’, and The Sun (2 June 1918) declared it to be a ‘play without substance’. But all agreed that the film had succeeded in its purpose of swelling the coffers of the Red Cross, raising £1100 in ticket sales on the opening night. Everybody who was anybody in Sydney society had turned out to see themselves or their friends in the pictures.

https://sydneylivingmuseums.com.au/ww1/cupid-camouflaged-red-cross-silent-movie
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15528
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Mei 2018 10:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE RENAULT FT – DEVELOPMENT AND COMBAT DEBUT

On the 31st May 1918 the Renault FT was used in action for the first time at Ploissy-Chazelle, southwest of Soissons. The 501st Regiment d’Artillery Speciale used 31 tanks to support a counter-attack against German forces advancing towards the Forest of Villers-Cotterets.

The ‘Charge at Chaudun’ was a great success for the crews of the new tank. They had caused panic in the German ranks and crippled two German Divisions at the cost of just 5 vehicles. This was in spite of unfavourable conditions and inadequate infantry support. Similar actions over the next few weeks convincingly proved the new tank’s worth.

The FT that debuted that day introduced new elements to tank warfare, both conceptually and in design terms. It would go on to become the most produced tank of the First World War and afterwards the first tank to be sold worldwide. However it had to overcome political opposition and mechanical problems to make it to the battlefield.

Swarm Tactics - The FT was a radically different design to previous British and French tanks. Rather than a large, heavy vehicle, the concept behind it was for a small and light tank that would be more manoeuvrable, harder to hit and could be fielded in large numbers. The tanks would be used in swarms to overwhelm German defences with mobility and mass.

General Jean Baptiste Estienne, commander of the French tank force, the Artillerie Speciale, was the leading advocate of this concept. It also appealed to industrialist Louis Renault, and after a meeting between the two in July 1916 the Renault company began work on a tank, producing a wooden mock-up by October.

Incidentally, the tank’s name has no particular meaning. FT was simply the next designation available in the internal Renault naming system. The vehicle’s other common name, FT-17, appears to have originated after the war.

Development - The new tank faced immediate obstacles. After the prototype was demonstrated on the 30th December 1916 objections were raised by both politicians and military officers. The tank was considered too small to be useful on the battlefield. There were also concerns around manufacturing the numbers required, with a shortage of armour plate being a particular issue, along with questions over the relative priority of FTs and other vehicles.

These objections were overcome, and February 1917 the original order for 100 tanks was increased to 150. Trials took place in April and May, and as a result the order was increased by 1000, then by a further 2500 in September for a total of 3650. Orders increased still further until by October 1918 7820 had been ordered for the French Army alone (although the war ended before most of these were built, with total production by the Armistice reaching 3177).

Even once production was underway bureaucracy and the complicated civil-military relationships within French military procurement caused a great deal of friction, especially in the supply of spare parts and the organisation of training programmes.

Problems and Shortages
- The FT’s problems followed it into production and service with the Army. As feared, the sheer size of the order stretched the capacity of the available factories, and only 114 had been built by October 1917.

Manufacturing standards on the early tanks were inadequate, with the majority requiring rework at the factory, and as late as the beginning of April 1918 only 10% of the 453 tanks delivered to the Army by then were combat ready.

Problems and delays continued even after the first deliveries. Spare parts were in short supply, and in particular poor quality fuel filters and fan belts affected availability throughout the war. The first FT unit, the 1st Battalion des chars légers, was formed on the 18th February 1918. It was scaled for 75 tanks, but didn’t receive them until the 21st March. Even then, they arrived without armament. Both delays and availability of spares did improve over the course of the war.

Layout and Armament - Often considered the first modern tank, the layout of the FT was revolutionary and has been used on almost every tank since. The driver was in the front of the hull, the engine in the rear and a 360 degree rotating turret with the rest of the crew (in this case just 1 man) on top.

Originally armed with an 8mm M1914 Hotchkiss machine gun, after the April 1917 trials the idea of fitting some with the 37mm SA18 Puteaux gun instead was adopted. Of the original 1150, 650 were ordered with this weapon and named char canon, MG armed tanks being chars mitrailleurs. To ease production an omnibus turret that could be adapted to take either weapon was developed by the Girod company. Actual production was split around 2:1 in favour of chars mitrailleurs.

As it became available in greater numbers during the summer of 1918 the FT played an increasingly important role, especially in the open warfare of the Hundred Days. Swarms of FTs were a key part of the French Army’s offensive tactics and one the Germans were never able to devise an effective counter to.

Written by Ian Hudson, Research Assistant

http://tank100.com/headline-news/ft-17/ via http://tank100.com/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group