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31 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2006 16:34    Onderwerp: 31 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 31. August 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT


Des Kaisers Dank an Hindenburg

Berlin, 31. August.
Seine Majestät Kaiser hat den siegreichen Feldherrn im Osten, General v. Hindenburg, zum Generalobersten ernannt, ihm das Eiserne Kreuz 1. Klasse verliehen und ihm folgendes Telegramm gesandt:

Großes Hauptquartier, 29. August 1914.
Durch den in dreitägiger Schlacht errungenen vollen Sieg über die russische Übermacht hat die Armee sich für immer den Dank des Vaterlandes erworben. Mit ganz Deutschland bin Ich stolz auf diese Leistung der Armee unter Ihrer Führung. Übermitteln Sie den braven Truppen Meine warme Kaiserliche Anerkennung.

Wilhelm I. R. 1)



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Drei Armeekorps vernichtet - 60000 Gefangene

Großes Hauptquartier, 31. August.
Die Armee des Generalobersten v. Kluck hat einen durch französische Kräfte unternommenen Versuch eines französischen Flankenangriffes gegen Combles durch ein Armeekorps zurückgeschlagen. - Die Armee des Generalobersten v. Bülow hat eine überlegene französische Armee bei St. Quentin vollständig geschlagen, nachdem sie im Vormarsch bereits ein englisches Infanterie-Bataillon gefangengenommen hatte. - Die Armee des Generalobersten v. Hausen hat den Gegner auf die Aisne bei Rethel zurückgedrängt. - Die Armee des Herzogs von Württemberg hat bei der Fortsetzung des Übergangs über die Maas den Feind zunächst mit Vortruppen überrascht, mußte aber bei dem Vorgehen stärkerer feindlicher Kräfte teilweise wieder über die Maas zurück. Die Armee hat dann die Maas-Übergänge wieder genommen und befindet sich wieder im Vorgehen gegen die Aisne. Das Fort Lesoyelles hinter dieser Armee ist gefallen. - Die Armee des deutschen Kronprinzen setzt ihren Vormarsch gegen und über die Maas fort. Nachdem der Kommandant von Montmedy mit der ganzen Besatzung der Festung bei einem Ausfall gefangen genommen worden war, ist die Festung gefallen. - Die Armeen des Kronprinzen von Bayern und des Generalobersten v. Heeringen stehen noch in fortgesetztem Kampf in Französisch-Lothringen.
Im Osten ist der gemeldete Sieg der Armee des Generalobersten v. Hindenburg ist von weitaus größerer Bedeutung, als bis jetzt übersehen werden konnte. Trotzdem neue feindliche Kräfte über Neidenburg angriffen, ist die Niederlage des Feindes eine vollständige geworden: Drei Armeekorps sind vernichtet; sechstausend Gefangene, darunter zwei kommandierende Generale, viele Geschütze und Feldzeichen sind in unsere Hände gefallen. Die noch im nördlichen Ostpreußen stehenden russischen Truppen haben den Rückzug angetreten.

Generalquartiermeister v. Stein. 1)



Ostpreußen 1. Weltkrieg: Im zerstörten Hohenstein
Im zerstörten Hohenstein
Auf den Schlachtfeldern

(Vom Kriegsberichterstatter der "Frankfurter Zeitung" auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz.)

Osterode (Ostpreußen), 31. Aug.
Ich komme soeben von den Schlachtfeldern um Hohenstein, wo wir in dreitägigem hartem Kampf einen glänzenden Sieg über die nach Nordwesten vordringenden russischen Korps erfochten. Der Vorstoß der Russen sollte über Hohenstein, das die Russen zwei Tage besetzt hielten, nach Osterode und Deutsch-Eylau zu erfolgen. Bei Hohenstein nahm nun eine deutsche gemischte Landwehrdivision den Stoß der Russen auf, unterstützt im Süden von der rechten Nebendivision, im Norden von dem aus Allenstein vordringenden Armeekorps. Die südlich von der Landwehr stehenden Truppen griffen bei Neidenburg mit stark vorgehendem rechten Flügel den Feind an, während vom Norden aus unsere Truppen über Allenstein, Wartenburg und Bischofsburg mit dem starken linken Flügel Passenheim den Gegner packten. Nun waren die Russen von drei Seiten umfaßt und nach erbittertem Kampfe nach dem Osten und Südosten in die Seen und Sümpfe geworfen. In Hohenstein selbst war der Kampf besonders erbittert. Die von den Russen besetzt gehaltene Stadt wurde von unser Artillerie überaus wirkungsvoll beschossen und steht noch jetzt zum Teil in Flammen. In Hausen sah ich dort tote Russen liegen, ebenso sind die Chausseegräben von Russenleichen voll. Die Zahl der russischen Gefangenen und der von uns eroberten Geschütze läßt sich noch nicht genau feststellen, auf allen Straßen um Hohenstein sah ich unabsehbar lange Züge von gefangenen Russen.
Mit diesem glänzenden Siege des Generalobersten Hindenburg sind die fünf bis sechs russischen Korps, die von Südosten Ostpreußen umklammern sollten, als zersprengt und somit vernichtet zu betrachten. Der Sieg ist um so bedeutungsvoller, als wir auch diesmal gegen eine bedeutende Übermacht zu kämpfen hatten. 2)


Die Schlacht im Südosten

Die Lage unserer Verbündeten ist weiter günstig

Österreichisches Kriegspressequartier, 31. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die Schlachten bei Lemberg dauern noch weiter an. Das Eingreifen einer neuen österreichisch-ungarischen Gruppe gegen Tomaszow schließt die ungeheure Schlachtenfront. Alle verfügbaren Kräfte sind auf beiden Seiten konzentriert. Die österreichische Situation ist weiter günstig. 2)


Siegesbeute aus der Schlacht bei Krasnik

Das hiesige österreichisch-ungarische Generalkonsulat stellt uns folgende Zirkulardepesche des Grafen Berchtold zur Verfügung:
"Laut Armeebefehl; General Dankl, 26. Aug.
In der ersten Schlacht bei Krasnik am 23. und 24. August wurden 6000 Gefangene gemacht, drei Fahnen, 28 Geschütze und viele Maschinengewehre erbeutet."

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2009 21:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - De Franse vlieger en aas Adolphe Pégoud overlijdt nadat hij boven het dorp Petit-Croix in de hals wordt geraakt door een zondagsschot van de Duitse onderofficier Hans Kandulski, een voormalig leerling van Pégoud.
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Julius Caesar(100 VC - 44 VC)
http://nl.escertico.wikia.com/wiki/Militaria_Wiki
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Tannenberg, 26-31 August 1914

(...) By 31 August the battle was over. The Russians had lost 125,000 men, ten times the German losses. This, combined with the defeat of the Russian First Army at the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes (9-14 September), ended any immediate threat from the Russians and provided a great boost to morale in Germany.

Rickard, J. (7 February 2001), Battle of Tannenberg, 26-31 August 1914, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_tannenberg.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

31 August 1914 - The First Lord of the British Admiralty, Winston Churchill, asked the Chief of the British Imperial General Staff to draw up a plan ‘for the seizure of the Gallipoli Peninsula by means of a Greek army of adequate strength, with a view to admitting a British fleet to the Sea of Marmara’. The Greeks produced a detailed plan for the capture of Gallipoli which would involve approximately 60,000 troops. Churchill felt that Turkey was unlikely to remain neutral between Britain and Germany and that the Turks would enter the war on the German side.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/august-december-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

31 August 1914 → Commons Sitting → SYMPATHY WITH BELGIUM.

MESSAGE FROM HIS MAJESTY.


HC Deb 31 August 1914 vol 66 c354 354

The VICE - CHAMBERLAIN (Mr. Geoffrey Howard) reported His Majesty's Answer to the Address of the 27th day of this instant August, as followeth:—

I thank you for your loyal and dutiful Address.

I will gladly convey to the King of the Belgians the sympathy and admiration with which, in common with Myself and all My People, you regard the heroic resistance offered by His Army and People to the wanton invasion of His Territory, and an assurance of the determination of this Country to support in every way the efforts of Belgium to vindicate her own independence and the public law of Europe.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/aug/31/message-from-his-majesty
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 31 August, Tsar Nicholas II ordered St. Petersburg be officially renamed Petrograd to confirm its Russian identity.

During August, German Airship Z IV flew a number of valuable reconnaissance missions over Mlava, Gumbinnen, Insterburg, and Tilsit. The Germans used reconnaissance by their aircraft and airships in East Prussia to good advantage, while the Russian commanders largely ignored the reports of their airmen.

At the beginning of September 1914, the disposition of German forces on the Russian Front consisted of seven Corps, two Landwehr Divisions, two Cavalry Divisions, one Cavalry Brigade, and reserves at Koenigsberg and Posen. German Armeeflugparks (air parks) were located at Posen and Graudenz.

In early September, the Germans had seven Feldfliegerabteilung (FFA) (flying sections) serving on the Northwest Front, while the Austro-Hungarians had seven Fliegerkompagnie (Fliks) on the Southwest Front.

The Russians had nine KAO's (Corps flying detachments) on the Northwest Front, plus another five on the Southwest Front. There were also Fortress AO's (flying detachments) at Kovno, Grodno, Osovets, Novogeorgievsk and Brest Litovsk.

http://warchron.com/tannenberg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Long Allied Retreat, Aug.25-Sep.04.1914

AUGUST 31

The Belgian Front.
==The British Marines evacuate Ostend

Paris.
==A German aircraft drops leaflets on Paris announcing that the German Army will arrive in three days

The BEF Front.
==Kitchener receives a report from Sir John French that the BEF will retreat behind the Seine, effectively taking it out of the war [~early] - the “perturbed” Cabinet and Kitchener order him to cooperate with Joffre - John French angrily refuses [late]
==Kluck’s 1st Army begins to turn southeast, away from Paris, abandoning attempts to outflank the Allied left; the Schlieffen Plan is crumbling - the German turn is detected by British aerial reconnaissance; the first uncertain reports reach Joffre [evening]
==Kluck takes Compiègne and crosses the Oise River

The Northwestern Front.
==The bypassed French garrison of Givet surrenders after being bombarded by German heavy artillery
==French 5th Army learns that the gap between it and the BEF is being penetrated by a German Cavalry Corps that crossed the Oise at Bailly and is moving eastward to cut off the French retreat over the Aisne [915.AM] - Lanrezac orders 5th Army to retreat south over the Aisne in forced marches [500.PM] - after a rapid advance, the German cavalry halts just before severing the main French road to the south [evening]

The Central Front.
==Foch forms a defensive line on the Retourne, north of Rheims

Lorraine.
==(to Sep.11) Fighting on the Grande Couronne near Nancy

French Headquarters (GQG).
==Joffre’s deputies argue for continuing the retreat beyond the Seine before counterattacking

The Western Front (general).
==In August alone, the French Army has suffered over 200,000 casualities, including 10% of its officers

http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne04.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From Marie Curie’s letters to Irène Curie

Paris, Monday, 31 August 1914

Dear Irène,

I’ve just received your sweet letter of Saturday and I wanted so much to hug you that I almost cried. This morning I was able to make my way to the train station where Fernand and Margaret were to leave—and I didn’t manage to see them. I wonder if they’ve left.

Things are not going very well, and we all have a heavy heart and disturbed spirit. We need great courage and I hope we will not lack it. We must keep the firm hope that after these bad days, good times will return. It’s in that hope that I lock you in my heart, my beloved daughters.

Mé [Mom]

http://www.aip.org/history/curie/brief/06_quotes/quotes_12.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office
Cairo

31.8.15

I'm going to write only a little, as Macdonnell has gone to the Dardanelles on a visit, Newcombe has been appointed to a R.E. Company there, and leaves on Friday, and everybody is working hard to clear things up for his successor, who is a Colonel Parker, nephew of Lord Kitchener's, and an authority on Sinai and not much else. In any case there is nothing to write about. Jimmy Strong turned up about 6.30 one night, but I only saw him for a very few minutes. He looked very well:

Today is Mother's birthday, which is why I am writing: I believe there is a post out also. For the next one there will probably be peace. I gathered from Father's letter that you had nearly all of you, been unwell. I hope it was not really serious? They say that the weather has been very bad in England lately. Salute Arnie from me. Ask him to search at Blackwell's for a copy of The Twilight of the Gods by Richard Garnett, and if it's not dear, to send it me. The book must be out of print long ago, but is probably common.

The Dardannelles expedition wasted a great chance it got. I don't like the look of things up there: and the worst is, it was such an easy business till we blundered. We are two to one there, as compared with the Turkish forces, and they have no more trained troops to send.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/contents_lists/years/1915_1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mont St Quentin – Péronne, 31 August – 2 September 1918

The great German offensives of the spring and early summer of 1918 had come to a halt by early August. The Allies – the British forces, the French and the Americans – now prepared to go on the attack themselves and the British did so east of Amiens on 8 August 1918. At the Battle of Amiens, British forces, with the Australian Corps and Canadian Corps in the vanguard south of the Somme River, pushed the Germans back nearly two kilometres in one day, a distance unheard of in the old trench warfare days of 1915–17. There now began a period, sometimes called the ‘Hundred Days’, from early August until the Armistice of 11 November, which brought the fighting to an end. During this time the German Army gradually withdrew across France and Belgium towards the German border. By the end of this period, however, German resistance was actually stiffening in the line as the nation’s leaders sought to make peace.

The five divisions of the Australian Corps were under the command of Lieutenant General Sir John Monash who had been knighted by King George V after the great success of the Battle of Amiens. For the men of the AIF the ‘Hundred Days’ was a time of almost constant advance. A series of operations, beginning with Amiens on 8 August, took them from Villers-Bretonneux, across the uplands of the Somme (a region known as the Santerre), to a little village east of Péronne called Montbrehain, a distance of about 35 kilometres. While it was a time of triumph against the Germans it came at a great cost in casualties, dead and wounded, and by late August most Australian fighting units were way under strength going into battle. Charles Bean, Australia’s official historian, wrote: ‘… most of the Australian divisions were recognised as having, since March 1918, been worked to the limit.’

Between 9 August and 31 August, as the Australians advanced they fought a number of actions whose names have been virtually forgotten – Lihons, Etinehem, Chuignes, Herleville, Bray. By 29 August the AIF had reached the great bend in the River Somme opposite the old town of Péronne. The soldiers were exhausted after days of marching and hard fighting against an enemy as yet by no means beaten. Monash now decided to push them even harder and to take Mont St Quentin and Péronne. Charles Bean, the Australian official historian, wrote:

[Monash] conceived that he might surprise the enemy by transferring his main strength to the northern side of the Somme and then rushing the height of Mont St Quentin which, rising two miles (three kilometres) behind the river bend, and looking down on the old turreted, ramparted and moated city of Peronne at its southern foot, was the recognised key of that position.
(Charles Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra, 1948, pp.479–480)

On the evening of 30 August, Australians of the Second Division, who next morning were to attempt the capture of Mont St Quentin, crossed to the north bank of the Somme to move into position. It was well into the night when the start line was reached. After two days of movement and twelve hours of fighting, the troops were given an issue of rum contrary to the usual Australian practice of issuing it after battle. ‘Never’, wrote Charles Bean, ‘was an issue more welcome’.

At 5 am on 31 August 1918, supported by artillery, two grossly under strength Australian battalions, charged up Mont St Quentin yelling wildly like a ‘lot of bushrangers’ to disguise their numbers. The cheering platoons at once ran into crowds of Germans, who seemed bewildered and quickly surrendered – indeed in many cases they were simply pushed to the rear with their hands up, leaving their machine-guns lying on the ground. They were from one of the best divisions of the German Army which had just been sent up to relieve the overstrained garrison. ‘It all happened like lightning’, wrote the historian of one of the German units, ‘and before we had fired a shot we were taken unawares.’

The Australians charged on and, by the time they reached the main German trench-line, the face of the mount ahead of them was covered with enemy soldiers fleeing over both shoulders of the hill. The Australians swept on, up, and over the summit, routing the German supports and reserves there. In the rear, other Australians crossed the Somme by a bridge which Australian engineers had saved and repaired.

On Mont St Quentin, however, the Australians, few in number, were unable to hold their gains and German reserves drove back the scattered troops from the crest. To one German writer this was proof ‘that even good Australian troops were by no means invincible if strongly attacked’. But the Australians held on just below the summit and next day it was recaptured and firmly held. On that day also, 1 September 1918, Australian forces broke into Péronne and took most of the town. The next day it completely fell into Australian hands. On those three days, without tanks or protective barrage, the Australians – at a cost of 3000 casualties – dealt a stunning blow to five German divisions and caused a general German withdrawal eastwards back to the Hindenburg Line. The taking of Mont St Quentin and Péronne have always been regarded as among the finest feats of the AIF on the Western Front and the intensity of the action is evident from the fact that seven Victoria Crosses were awarded to Australians 1 and 2 September 1918.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/mont-st-quentin-peronne-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The drama of "Le Linge"

On August 31st 1915: German bombing with gas shells at 4 o'clock A.M. At 5 o'clock P.M. German assaults. The French counterattacks retake a part of the lost ground. The fights continue the 1st and the 2nd September.

http://www.linge1915.com/historique-an.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U-boat Conference of 31 August, 1916.

Present at the conference:

1. Dr. v. Bethmann-Hollweg, Imperial Chancelor.
2. General Field Marshal v. Beneckendorff and v. Hindenburg, Chief of the General Staff.
3. Dr. Helfferich, Secretary of State of the Interior.
4. v. Jagow, Secretary of State of the Foreign Office.
5. Lieutenant General Wild v. Hohenborn, Minister of War.
6. Admiral v. Capelle, Secretary of State of the Imperial Navy Department.
7. Admiral v. Holtzendorff, Chief of the Admiralty Staff of the Navy.
8. Lieutenant GeneralLudendorff, First Quartermaster General.
9. Admiral Koch.

Recorder of the proceedings: Counselor of Legation Baron v. Grünau.

PLESS CASTLE, August 31, 1916.

Admiral v. HOLTZENDORFF:
According to the general military situation, we are placed in a situation of defense; the continuation of the war on the part of our opponents is completely dependent upon England's attitude; it is therefore necessary for us to prevent England, by the use of all means in our power, from continuing to carry on the war, and the destruction of England's ocean commerce will accomplish this purpose; the last memorial of the Admiralty staff sets out plainly what the result of this destruction would be.

The reaction of the United States and the remaining neutral Powers is used as an argument against carrying on the unrestricted U-boat warfare; that in such case the entire shipping space of the world would be made available to England; that Russia's incapacity to carry out a third winter campaign and its necessity for peace are also arguments against the taking up of the U-boat war at an early date.

In the meanwhile, time is working against us; the blockade of Germany is becoming more and more oppressive; as the result of a good harvest we will be less dependent upon imports, and, speaking from the military standpoint, we can maintain an effective defensive.

So far as the neutrals are concerned, Holland will attack the first one to put foot upon her territory; the entrance of Denmark into the war is very improbable; England will not be able to gain in freight space; no freight space will be placed at its disposal by any action of the United States; nor is this likely to be the case with regard to the South American States, since they themselves are suffering from a shortage of tonnage; the tonnage of those of our ships which are in the possession of the enemy is negligible; it is within our power to break England's determination to carry on the war to the end of the year; to put off commencing the U-boat war would put off the results in question; in this connection the question must be well considered as to whether our allies will be able to hold out any longer; if we renounce the use of the U-boat weapon we may have reason to believe that this means finis Germaniae.

Secretary of State v. JAGOW:
Unrestricted U-boat war would in any event mean the breaking of diplomatic relations with the United States, and, if American lives are lost, would finally lead to war; if the last neutral world Power were to take the side of the Entente, the smaller neutral States would be left with no choice other than to work with us or against us. [Here follow comments about the European neutral Powers.] If we take up unrestricted U-boat warfare, the attitude of all neutral Powers will be changed against us and we shall have to calculate upon establishing new fronts. Germany will in such case be looked upon as a mad dog against whom the hand of every man will be raised for the purpose of finally bringing about peace....

Secretary of State HELFFERICH:
It is to be admitted that the situation both here and in England for launching a U-boat war is more favorable now than it was a year ago or in the spring, because at that time the mere blockade on the part of the neutrals would have been sufficient to starve us. Our harvest is notably better than it was last year, but at the same time we shall be pinched, and every importation would be welcome by us....

At the same time, we must always remember that the British supplies in the way of breadstuffs and the product of the new crop assure a capacity for maintenance for the period of from four to five months without any further importations. Moreover, we can not bank upon an immediate stoppage of the British ocean commerce, since only 5 per cent of the arriving ships are destroyed monthly... If the U-boat war should result in the British seamen being unwilling to go to sea on their own account, then maritime commerce could be organized on a military basis. It is on account of all these considerations that I am not persuaded that England can be actually downed.

The reactions of the U-boat war from the political and economic standpoint must not be underestimated. Everybody is perfectly convinced that a break with the United States and a war with the United States would be unavoidable. The assumption that the hostile attitude of the United States can not reach a higher pitch so far as we are concerned, is erroneous. Up to the present time, the Allies have received from the United States in the way of loans $1,250,000,000. In the case of war, America will stand ready with all of its reserves available for the cause of the Allies, which will then become the cause of the United States. America will desire to win the war as quickly as possible and will summon all its energies for putting this wish into execution. Acting in cooperation with England, the very strongest kind of pressure can be exerted upon the neutral Powers to join the Entente. Since Denmark and Holland are dependent upon imports by water, they will be utterly unable to oppose it. We have no means of exerting pressure to avoid this result. Our need for iron is now so urgent that we are already at the point at which we can release no more. Holland can obtain from England, with limitations, whatever she needs in the way of coal. I see nothing but catastrophe following the application of the U-boat weapon at this time. A method which will lead us out of one serious situation only into the toils of another more serious, is not practical if we are not able to adopt counter-measures for the purpose of rendering the other disadvantageous result ineffectual.

Admiral v. CAPELLE:
According to the course which the war has followed up to this time, I am convinced that we are not on the road to a peace acceptable to us if we continue along the lines pursued thus far. The conviction has now forced itself upon the Nacy that nothing will lead to peace but the launching of an unrestricted U-boat war. If complete success were not to result from the U-boat war, this would not, in my opinion, lead to a catastrophe, but would, at the very worst, merely result in prolonging the war of exhaustion, just as the situation is at this time....

Imperial Chancelor v. BETHMANN-HOLLWEG:
...If we combine the results of the statements made yesterday and today no one will doubt that we shall be able to rely upon the destruction of roughly speaking, 4 million tons of British shipping within from four to six months. The Admiralty Staff is of the opinion that England will then be ready to conclude peace. This opinion is considered by other gentlemen, for instance, by Secretary of State Helfferich, as of doubtful correctness, and nobody can prove that the hoped-for success will really come about. I, too, believe that this is merely an assumption. It is certain that a complete blockade from and to England can not be carried out, because U-boats can undertake nothing in the night time. We can lay down no iron ring around England, and, moreover, our blockade can be broken by the accompaniment of transports by war-ships. I have understood Admiral von Holtzendorff to say that intercourse to and from Holland and Denmark can be stopped. Will it be possible to do this if, at the same time, we are carrying on an intensive U-boat war against the English coast?

We must realize that the break with the United States will certainly follow the launching of the U-boat war. [Here follow comments concerning European neutral Powers. ]

I believe that a decision with regard to the launching of the U-boat war without an understanding with our allies is out of the question. We must calculate, in this connection, on the contingency that Turkey will be alienated from us. A successful stroke against Enver would be followed by a separate peace on the part of Turkey which it may conclude at any day. Nor can we involve Austria-Hungary in a war with the remaining neutral Powers without asking her opinion in the matter. If the Roumanian war were to turn out unfavorably for us, the U-boat war would avail us nothing; if Austria-Hungary falls to pieces, I do not know whether we shall be able to put up any further opposition. For these reasons, a final decision seems to me to be possible only after a clearing up of the military situation.

Official German Documents Relating to the World War, Translated under the supervision of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (New York: Oxford University Press, 1923), II: 1154-1163.
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/U-boat_Conference_of_31_August,_1916.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Reaction to Official Allied Protest to Regarding Status of Submarines, 31 August 1916

On 9 July 1916 the captain of the German submarine Deutschland, Paul Koenig, docked in the U.S. A merchantmen, and therefore carrying no munitions, the newfound ability of the Germans to despatch submarines across the Atlantic was duly acknowledged by the governments of all belligerent nations as significant.

While the U.S. government allowed merchant vessels from all warring nations to dock at U.S. ports and to freely trade, in practice Britain's dominance of the seas ensured that Germany was effectively excluded from the U.S. market. Thus the arrival of the Deutschland threatened to challenge Britain's naval blockade, at least so far as trade with the U.S. was concerned.

Britain, in a joint statement with the other Allied governments, promptly despatched a note of protest to the U.S. government arguing that submarines should not be regarded as merchant vessels. In support of this argument the Allies suggested that as a submarine could not be stopped and inspected for munitions in the same manner as other vessels, her real intentions could not be verified.

The U.S. government - under constant pressure from the German government on account of suspected favouritism granted to the Allied nations - responded at the close of August 1916 with a rejection of the Allies' arguments; unarmed submarines, from whatever nation, were to be regarded as merchant vessels and accordingly permitted to trade.

Reproduced below is the reply of the U.S., written by Secretary of State Robert Lansing.

Reply of the U.S. Government to Allies' Protest Regarding the Treatment of Submarines as Merchant Vessels, 31 August 1916

Washington, August 31, 1916

The Government of the United States has received the identic memoranda of the Governments of France, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan in which neutral Governments are exhorted "to take efficacious measures tending to prevent belligerent submarines, regardless of their use, to avail themselves of neutral waters, roadsteads, and harbours."

These Governments point out the facility possessed by such craft to avoid supervision or surveillance or determination of their national character and their power "to do injury that is inherent in their very nature" as well as the "additional facilities" afforded by having at their disposal places where they can rest and replenish their supplies.

Apparently on these grounds the allied Governments hold that "submarine vessels must be excluded from the benefit of the rules heretofore accepted under international law regarding the admission and sojourn of war and merchant vessels in neutral waters, roadsteads, or harbours; any submarine of a belligerent that once enters a neutral harbour must be held there," and therefore the allied Governments "warn neutral powers of the great danger to neutral submarines attending the navigation of waters visited by the submarines of belligerents."

In reply the Government of the United States must express its surprise that there appears to be an endeavour of the allied powers to determine the rule of action governing what they regard as a "novel situation" in respect to the use of submarines in time of war, and to enforce a compliance of that rule, at least in part, by warning neutral powers of the great danger to their submarines in waters that may be visited by belligerent submarines.

In the opinion of the Government of the United States, the allied powers have not set forth any circumstance, nor is the Government of the United States at present aware of any circumstances, concerning the use of war or merchant submarines which would render the existing rules of international law inapplicable to them.

In view of this fact and of the notice and warning of the allied powers announced in their memoranda under acknowledgment, it is incumbent upon the Government of the United States to notify the Governments of France, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan that, so far as the treatment of either war or merchant submarines in American waters is concerned, the Government of the United States reserves its liberty of action in all respects, and will treat such vessels as, in its opinion, becomes the action of a power which may be said to have taken the first steps toward establishing the principles of neutrality and which for over a century has maintained those principles in the traditional spirit and with the high sense of impartiality in which they were conceived.

In order, however, that there should be no misunderstanding as to the attitude of the United States, the Government of the United States announces to the allied powers that it holds it to be the duty of belligerent powers to distinguish between submarines of neutral and belligerent nationality, and that responsibility for any conflict that may arise between belligerent warships and neutral submarines on account of the neglect of a belligerent to so distinguish between these classes of submarines must rest entirely upon the negligent power.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. IV, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/deutschland3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2010 23:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hindenburg Plan

31 August 1916 - The German government accepts the ‘Hindenburg Plan’ for militarization of the German war economy.

http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/August+31
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 0:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Miscellaneous excerpts from THE WASHINGTON TIMES, Saturday, August 31, 1918

U.S. FLYER ESCAPES

BERNE, Switzerland, Aug. 31—Lieut. "Tommy" HITCHCOCK, the American flyer, captured by the Germans while a member of the Lafayette Escadrille, has escaped from Germany. He leaped from a moving train near Ulm, and walked eighty miles to the Swiss border. He will return to the United States.

Lieutenant HITCHCOCK is a son of Major HITCHCOCK, commander of all the aviation fields on Long Island and was probably the youngest flyer in the French army. He fell behind the German lines after having been wounded in the side last March. He enlisted with the Lafayette Escadrille in June, 1917.

SAYS HE’S ALIEN TO GET OUT OF THE ARMY

Claiming that he is an alien enemy and demanding his (paper torn) the army, Oliver C. FOLEY (paper torn) in the engineers, has (paper torn) a writ of habeus corpus (paper torn).

FOLEY, according (paper torn) attorney, David E. ANTHONY, (paper torn) Hungary in 1891 and (paper torn) became a resident of (paper torn). He took out his first papers (paper torn) Indiana in 1910, but neglected to take out his second papers. FOLEY claims to be a citizen of Hungary, though not antagonistic to the United States.

He alleges that when war was declared by the United States against Germany, FOLEY called upon his local draft board and requested to be placed in class five on the grounds of being an enemy alien. The board refused to grant his request.

Captain DRURY, commander of FOLEY’s command has been served with a notice to answer FOLEY’s complaint September 10.

H. H. HARJES HURT IN FRANCE

PARIS, Aug. 31—H. Herman HARJES, of the banking firm of Morgan, Harjes & Co., and formerly high commissioner of the American Red Cross Society for France and Belgium, was seriously injured today in an automobile accident near Versailles.

BOYNTON A MARINE

Ben BOYNTON, crack quarterback of the Williams College eleven last year, has enlisted in the marine corps in Boston.

DESERTER WOMAN AIDE IS AGAIN FREE

NEW YORK, Aug. 31—Walter A. GUIDEN, the alleged deserter from Camp Upton, whose ride in the automobile of Mrs. Rebecca CARLETON led to her arrest was not produced by the Government when the woman appeared for a hearing before Samuel M. HITCHCOCK, United States Commissioner. Ralph W. HORNE, Assistant United States attorney, told the commissioner Guiden had escaped for a second time. The hearing was postponed.

GUIDEN has a way with him that tends to lead those who befriend him into trouble. Mrs. CARLETON, willing to do a kindly turn for a man in uniform, picked him up at Amsterdam avenue and 145th street and made a wide detour to take him to his home in 789 Dawson street, near Longwood avenue, The Bronx.

On the way he leaped from the automobile after a policeman had boarded it. The policeman arrested Mrs. CARLETON. He asserted she threw her arms around him and held him while GUIDEN got away.

This happened early on the morning of August 16. GUIDEN is said to have called Mrs. CARLETON’s apartment on the telephone soon after he escaped. Mrs. ALLISON told him her sister had been arrested. He said he did not want to get anybody into trouble and made an appointment to call at Mrs. CARLETON’s apartment, 124 West Seventy-second street, that night. He did so and was arrested.

Wednesday he was brought from the Governor’s Island prison to be a grand jury witness against Mrs. CARLETON. A corporal was his escort. After GUIDEN testified Mr. HORNE sent him back to the island in care of the corporal. The corporal returned alone, according to Mr. HORNE and promptly was put in GUIDEN’s cell.

Mr. HORNE said that after the grand jury session, GUIDEN invited the corporal to his home to have dinner. The invitation was accepted. Either before or after dinner, Mr. HORNE was not sure which, GUIDEN made a second escape.

Mr. HORNE said the information he has makes him certain that GUIDEN and Mrs. CARLETON never met before the ride in her automobile. She lives with her married sister, Mrs. L. Muriel ALLISON, in the Seventy-second street apartment. She has a car she drives herself.

Mr. HORNE said that Mrs. CARLETON and GUIDEN on their way to the soldier’s home stopped at a restaurant at Dawson street and Longwood avenue. There GUIDEN was seen by a member of the draft board which had called him into service. The draft board member hunted up Patrolman Samuel ROSENFELD and told him GUIDEN was a deserter.

http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~oldnewspapers/wash_times_misc_8_31_18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 0:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The war diary of the 33rd London Regiment

30-31 August 1918: Ypres
News having been received that the enemy were evacuating the Kemmel area, patrols were sent out to ascertain if enemy were still holding line about Cambridge Road - Leinster Farm. These positions were found to be still occupied by the enemy. There was a slight increase in enemy activity in artillery, machine gun and rifle fire and aircraft. He also appeared to be very alert.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-33London.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VILLERS-BRETONNEUX MILITARY CEMETERY and MEMORIAL

5392 Private Reuben Alfred Russell, 19th Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F.

31/08/1918, aged 28.

Son of the late Isaac Alfred & Bessie Russell (nee Balsdon) of Bathurst, NSW.

Reuben enlisted in the 1st A. I. F. on 10th March 1916 at Cootamundra, NSW. He was sent to Liverpool for training. In June, he was sent to the 14th Reinforcement Company of the 19th Battalion, 5thBrigade.

The 14th Reinforcements departed Sydney on the "Wiltshire" on 22 August 1916.

He arrived in Plymouth on 13th October 1916 and was sent to the 5th Training Battalion. He was sent to France on 6th December 1916 and joined the 19th Battalion on 19th January 1917. In February, he scalded his right foot and was sent back to England to recover. He rejoined the Battalion on 21st June 1917.

He was killed in action near Ticker Copse close to Peronne on the Western Front on 31 August 1918.

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1frenchextension/villersbretonneux.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2010 0:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Reed

31 August 1919 - John Reed forms American Communist Labor Party in Chicago

http://www.historyorb.com/day/august/31

(...) On February 21-22, 1919, Bryant was fiercely grilled before a Senate committee exploring Bolshevik propaganda activities in the US, but emerged resilient; Reed followed on the 22nd, delivering quick, subtle testimony which was, however, savagely distorted by the press. Later that day he went to Philadelphia to stand trial for his May speech; despite a hostile judge, press, and patriotic speech by the prosecutor, Reed's lawyer convinced the jury the case was about free speech, and he was acquitted. Returning to New York, Reed continued speaking widely and participating in the various twists of socialist politics that year. He served as editor of The New York Communist, the weekly newspaper issued by the Left Wing Section of Greater New York.

Affiliated with the Left Wing of the Socialist Party, Reed with the other radicals was expelled from the National Socialist Convention in Chicago on August 30, 1919. The radicals then split into two bitterly hostile groups, forming the Communist Labor Party (Reed's, in the creation of which he had been indispensable) and, the next day, the Communist Party of America. Reed was the international delegate of the former, wrote its manifesto and platform, edited its paper, The Voice of Labor, and was denounced as "Jack the Liar" in the Communist Party organ, The Communist. Reed's writings from 1919 display doubts about Western-style democracy and defend the dictatorship of the proletariat, which he saw as a necessary step that would prefigure the true democracy "based upon equality and the liberty of the individual."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Reed_(journalist)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2014 10:42    Onderwerp: 31 augustus 1911 Reageer met quote

Finnbar @ 31 Aug 2014 10:41 schreef:
Quote:
Luchtvaartpionier Anthony Fokker gaf op 31 augustus 1911 boven Haarlem een demonstratie met zijn eerste vliegtuig, de Spin. Met dit toestel vloog Fokker onder meer over de Sint-Bavokerk.


Lees verder: http://vandaagindegeschiedenis.nl/31-augustus/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2014 10:46    Onderwerp: Rethel: On This Day in 1914 Reageer met quote

Quote:
A century ago today the Old Contemptibles of the British Expeditionary Force were a week into the Retreat From Mons and it is easy to think there was some sort of pause in the war at this stage, but the fighting went on as the Belgian and French forces continued to face the German advance.

The town of Rethel in the French Ardennes had seen heavy fighting and more than 5100 townsfolk had fled the area. On this day in 1914 the town was set alight with more than 70% of its buildings being destroyed, as seen in this German field postcard. Rebuilt postwar, the town was once again very badly damaged in the Battle of France in 1940.




zie http://greatwarphotos.com/2014/08/31/rethel-on-this-day-in-1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Aug 2014 11:41    Onderwerp: Re: 31 augustus 1911 Reageer met quote

Finnbar @ 31 Aug 2014 10:42 schreef:
Finnbar @ 31 Aug 2014 10:41 schreef:
Quote:
Luchtvaartpionier Anthony Fokker gaf op 31 augustus 1911 boven Haarlem een demonstratie met zijn eerste vliegtuig, de Spin. Met dit toestel vloog Fokker onder meer over de Sint-Bavokerk.


Lees verder: http://vandaagindegeschiedenis.nl/31-augustus/


De Spin
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=25631

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