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29 augustus

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2006 6:41    Onderwerp: 29 augustus Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 29. August 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Hindenburgs Sieg über die Russen bei Tannenberg -
Fünf russische Armeekorps und drei Kavalleriedivisionen geschlagen

Berlin, 29. August.
Unsere Truppen in Preußen unter Führung des Generalobersten v. Hindenburg haben die vom Narew vorgegangene russische Armee in Stärke von fünf Armeekorps und drei Kavalleriedivisionen in dreitägiger Schlacht in der Gegend von Gilgenburg - Ortelsburg geschlagen und verjagen sie jetzt über die Grenze.

Generalquartiermeister v. Stein. 1)


Großer Sieg in Ostpreußen

Berlin, 29. Aug. (W. B.)
Zur Lage in Ostpreußen wird übereinstimmend berichtet, daß dank der Tapferkeit unserer Truppen und Führer es den Russen trotz ihrer gewaltigen Übermacht nicht gelungen ist, unsere Stellungen zu nehmen. Der vom Generalquartiermeister am 25. August als bevorstehend angekündigte entscheidende Kampf hat begonnen. 2)



Ostpreußen 1. Weltkrieg: Im zerstörten Soldau
Im zerstörten Soldau
Die Niederlage der Russen

Danzig, 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Das stellvertretende Generalkommando gibt bekannt:
Soldau ist von den Deutschen wiedergewonnen worden. Der linke Flügel der Russen ist im Rückzug auf Mlawa. 2)




Militärische Veränderungen - Pour le Mérite für General Ludendorff
Ludendorff

Ludendorff

Berlin, 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Mit der Stellvertretung des Kriegsministers ist, wie die "Neue Gesellschaftliche Korrespondenz" mitteilt, der Generalmajor Wild v. Hohenborn, bisher Direktor des Allgemeinen Kriegsdepartements, beauftragt worden. Stellvertretender Chef des Generalstabs der Armee ist der General der Infanterie Frhr. v. Manteuffel, stellvertretender Kommandierender General des Gardekorps der General der Infanterie und Generaladjutant v. Loewenfeld.
General Ludendorff, dem der Kaiser wie dem General v. Emmich den Orden Pour le Mérite verliehen hat, ist inzwischen, wie die gleiche Korrespondenz meldet, vom Kaiser im Hauptquartier empfangen worden. Der Kaiser umarmte den tapferen General und hängte ihm mit eigener Hand den Orden um. 2)


Aus Löwen und Mecheln

Amsterdam, 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach Mitteilung des belgischen Gesandten in London brennen in Löwen auch die herrliche Kathedrale und die Universität mit der berühmten Bibliothek. Verschiedene Notabeln seien erschossen worden, zuvor hätten die Einwohner die Stadt verlassen müssen. Ein Teil der Männer sei gefangen. Frauen und Kinder seien nach anderen Orten gebracht worden.
Die Belgier fahren mit ihren nunmehr kindisch anmutenden Siegesberichten fort. So wird offiziell aus Antwerpen mitgeteilt, der belgische Ausfall auf Mecheln sei vollständig geglückt, da es gelungen sei, die deutschen Verteidigungswerke zu vernichten und ein bereits nach Süden abziehendes deutsches Korps zu zwingen, nach Mecheln zur Verstärkung zu kommen. Die Stadt Mecheln selbst hat infolge der Beschießung durch die Belgier und dann durch die Deutschen sehr gelitten. 2)


Ein Aufruf an die französische Bevölkerung

Paris, 29. Aug. (W. B. Nichtamtlich.)
Der in der vergangenen Nacht unter dem Vorsitz des Präsidenten Poincaré zusammengetretene Ministerrat billigte den Wortlaut eines Aufrufs der neuen Regierung an die Bevölkerung. Der Wortlaut ist folgender:

"Franzosen!
Die Regierung nahm von dem Kampfplatz Besitz. Das Land weiß, daß es auf Wachsamkeit und Energie zählen kann, weiß, daß sie auf das Land zählen kann. Seine Söhne vergießen ihr Blut für das Vaterland und die Freiheit an der Seite der englischen und belgischen heldenmütigen Armee, sie halten ohne Zittern den furchtbarsten Sturm von Eisen und Feuer aus, der je ein Volk überschüttet hat. Alle bleiben aufrecht. Ruhm den Lebenden und Ruhm den Toten. Menschen fallen, aber die Nation bleibt bestehen. Der endgültige Sieg ist gesichert; ein sicher großer, aber nicht entscheidender Kampf beginnt. Wie auch der Erfolg sein wird, der Krieg wird fortdauern. Frankreich ist nicht eine so leichte Beute, wie ein unduldsamer Feind sich eingebildet hat. Der Franzosen Pflicht ist tragisch, aber einfach: den Eindringling zurückzuwerfen, ihn zu verfolgen, unseren Boden von seiner Gegenwart, die Freiheit von seinen Fesseln zu befreien, auszuhalten bis zum Möglichsten, bis zum Äußersten, falls nötig bis ans Ende, unseren Geist und unsere Herzen über die Gefahren hinauszuheben, Herr unserer Geschicke zu bleiben.
Während dieser Zeit marschieren unsere Verbündeten, die Russen, mit entschlossenen Schritten auf die Hauptstadt des Deutschen Reiches zu, die von Angst beherrscht zu werden beginnt. Das Beibringen von neuen Truppen und ihr Zurückziehen nach Niederlagen werden vom Lande alle Opfer fordern, alle Hilfskräfte verlangen, die es an Menschen und Kraft geben kann. Seien wir daher fest entschlossen. Das nationale Leben, unterstützt von finanziellen und administrativen Maßnahmen, wird nicht unterbrochen. Laßt uns Vertrauen haben zu uns selbst und alles vergessen, was nicht das Vaterland betrifft. Wenden wir das Gesicht gegen die Grenze. Wir haben eine Methode, einen Willen. Wir werden siegen!"

Der Aufruf ist von allen Ministern unterzeichnet. 2)


Französische Flieger über dem Elsaß

Straßburg i. E. 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Über Schlettstadt und die Nachbarorte flogen vorgestern französische Flieger, die Bomben warfen, ohne jedoch, nach einem Bericht des "Schlettstadter Tageblatts", irgendwelchen Schaden anzurichten. 2)


Landung englischer Truppen in Ostende

Amsterdam, 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Churchill teilte im Unterhaus mit, daß neue englische Truppen in Ostende gelandet seien. Die "Times" berichtet hierüber, daß der Gemeinderat in Ostende zunächst die Landung von Truppen wegen der hiermit verbundenen Beunruhigung der Hotelgäste, die aus vom Innern geflüchteten Belgiern bestehen, abgelehnt, später aber angenommen habe.
Wegen der großen Anzahl der in Ostende anwesenden Flüchtlinge wurden sämtliche Badekutschen als Schlafstätten eingerichtet. 2)


Das Kaiserpaar in Bad Nassau

Bad Nassau, 29. Aug. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Der Kaiser und die Kaiserin trafen heute Nachmittag in Bad Nassau zusammen, um in schicksalsschwerer Stunde sich zu begrüßen. Die Zusammenkunft fand im Schlosse des Freiherrn vom und zum Stein statt, in dem die Majestäten mehrere Stunden in Zurückgezogenheit verweilten. Die Majestäten begrüßten dann in teilnehmender Weise jeden einzelnen der zahlreichen verwundeten Krieger, die sich gegenwärtig in Bad Nassau befinden. Die Kaiserin besuchte vor ihrer Rückreise nach Homburg das Kurhaus sowie das als Reserve-Lazarett eingerichtete Henriette-Theresieninstitut und zeigte jedem einzelnen Soldaten die wärmste persönliche Teilnahme. 2)




S. M. S. "Cöln"
Ein Seegefecht in der Nordsee

Berlin, 29. Aug. (W. B.)
Im Laufe des gestrigen Vormittags sind bei teilweise unsichtigem Wetter mehrere moderne englische Kreuzer und zwei englische Zerstörerflottillen (etwa 40 Zerstörer) in der deutschen Bucht der Nordsee nordwestlich von Helgoland aufgetreten. Es kam zu hartnäckigen Einzelgefechten zwischen diesen und unseren leichten Streitkräften. Die deutschen kleinen Kreuzer drängten heftig nach Westen nach und gerieten dabei infolge der beschränkten Sichtweite mit mehreren starken Panzerkreuzern ins Gefecht. S. M. Schiff "Ariadne" sank, von zwei Schlachtschiffkreuzern der Lion-Klasse auf kurze Entfernung mit schwerer Artillerie beschossen, bis zuletzt feuernd, in die Tiefe. Flottillenchef und Kommandant sind gefallen. Ein beträchtlicher Teil der Besatzung (voraussichtlich 250 Köpfe) konnte gerettet werden. Auch das Torpedoboot "V 187" ging, von einem kleinen Kreuzer und zehn Zerstörern aufs heftigste beschossen, bis zuletzt feuernd, in die Tiefe. Flottillenchef und Kommandant sind gefallen. Ein beträchtlicher Teil der Besatzung wurde gerettet.
Die kleinen Kreuzer "Cöln" und "Mainz" werden vermißt. Sie sind nach einer heutigen Reutermeldung aus England gleichfalls im Kampf mit überlegenen Gegnern gesunken. Ein Teil ihrer Besatzung (9 Offiziere und 81 Mann) scheint durch englische Schiffe gerettet worden zu sein. Nach der gleichen englischen Quelle haben die englischen Schiffe schwere Beschädigungen erlitten. 2)


Die Mannschaft des Kreuzers "Magdeburg"

Danzig, 29. Aug. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die "Danziger Zeitung" veröffentlicht mit Genehmigung des Reichsmarineamts folgendes: Gestern lief das Torpedoboot V 26 in den hiesigen Hafen ein und machte fest, um den kleinen Kreuzer "Amazone" vorbeizulassen, der die Geretteten und Verwundeten des Kreuzers "Magdeburg" von "V 26" übernommen hatte und nach Danzig gedampft war. Bei der Vorbeifahrt brachte die gerettete Mannschaft der "Magdeburg" drei Hurras auf die Mannschaft des "V 26" aus. 14 Tote wurden heute gemeinsam beigesetzt. 40 Verwundete kamen in die hiesigen Lazarette. 2)


Die Blockade von Kiautschou

London, 29. Aug. (Indirekt. Priv.-Tel.)
Die japanische Botschaft kündigt an, daß die Blockade der Küste von Kiautschou am 27. August 9 Uhr morgens begonnen hat. 2)


Die Deutschen in Tsingtau

Berlin, 29. Aug. (W. B. Amtlich.)
Während in ganz Deutschland das wärmste Interesse besteht an dem heldenmütigen Kampfe, welchen die tapfere Marinebesatzung von Tsingtau gegen die japanisch-englische Übermacht bis zum Äußersten durchkämpfen wird, ist zugleich tiefe menschliche Teilnahme verbreitet an dem Schicksal der Frauen und Kinder, die sich in der Kolonie befanden. Es wird deshalb überall das Gefühl der Beruhigung und Genugtuung erwecken, daß es nach zuverlässigen Nachrichten gelungen ist, die Familien aus Tsingtau zu entfernen und nach neutralem chinesischen Gebiete zu bringen. Inzwischen dürften sie bereits in Schanghai eingetroffen sein. Von der Marineverwaltung ist rechtzeitig alles veranlaßt worden, um diese Familien mit Geldmitteln und sonst in jeder Weise zu unterstützen. 2)


Der Reichsverband gegen die Sozialdemokratie stellt seine Tätigkeit ein

Berlin, 29. Aug. (Priv.Tel.)
Der Vorstand des Reichsverbandes gegen die Sozialdemokratie veröffentlicht folgende Erklärung:

Der Reichsverband gegen die Sozialdemokratie hat unmittelbar nach dem denkwürdigen Reichstagsbeschluß vom 4. August seine gesamte Tätigkeit eingestellt und seine Provinzialstellen und Ortsgruppen angewiesen, so lange der Kriegszustand dauert, völlig passiv zu bleiben. Das glänzende Verhalten des gesamten deutschen Volkes während der Mobilmachung und vor dem Feinde gibt dem Vorstand Veranlassung auszusprechen, daß der Reichsverband nicht nur unbedingten Gottesfrieden während der Dauer des Krieges halten wird, sondern auch die Hoffnung hegt, daß späterhin eine politische Bekämpfung der Sozialdemokratie nicht mehr erforderlich sein möge. Er gibt sich der Zuversicht hin, daß in Zukunft nach Überwindung aller das deutsche Vaterland bedrohenden Feinde etwa entstehende wirtschaftliche Streitigkeiten ausschließlich auf nationaler Grundlage sich werden erledigen lassen. Der Vorstand des Reichsverbandes hat das gesamte Bureaupersonal, Schreibmaschinen sowie seine Druckerei unentgeltlich den nationalen Wohlfahrtsbestrebungen zur Verfügung gestellt und eine Spende für das Rote Kreuz bewilligt.

Berlin 29. Aug. (W. B.)
Die "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" schreibt:
Der Reichsverband gegen die Sozialdemokratie hat, wie er mitteilt, seine Tätigkeit gegen die Sozialdemokratie eingestellt. Dieser Entschluß ist angesichts der vom ganzen deutschen Volk ohne jeden Unterschied der Partei bewiesenen Opferfreudigkeit mit Dankbarkeit zu begrüßen. Er bekundet die richtige Erkenntnis der Lage, in der es keine Parteien, sondern nur ein von dem einmütigen Willen, das Vaterland bis zum letzten Atemzuge zu verteidigen, beseeltes Volk gibt. Zugleich ist er für die der Belehrung noch bedürfenden Feinde ein neuer Beweis, wie aussichtslos die Rechnung auf parteipolitische Spaltung in unseren Reihen war.2)


Handeln, nicht trauern


Kronprinz Rupprecht

München, 29. Aug. (W.B.)
Der Kronprinz Rupprecht von Bayern richtete anläßlich des Hinscheidens seines Sohnes, des Erbprinzen Luitpold, an den König ein Telegramm, das mit den Worten schließt: Die Pflicht heißt jetzt handeln, nicht trauern. 2)


Amerikas Neutralität

Washington, 29. Aug. (Nichtamtlich.)
Präsident Wilson veröffentlicht eine Erklärung, in der er die Neutralität der Vereinigten Staaten im Kriege zwischen Japan und Deutschland und zwischen Japan und Österreich-Ungarn ankündigt.2)

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2006 6:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 Women’s Defense Relief Corps created in Britain

On this day in 1914, with World War I approaching the end of its first month, the Women’s Defense Relief Corps is formed in Britain.

Though women’s rights organizations in Britain had initially opposed the country’s entrance into the First World War, they reversed their position soon enough, recognizing the potential of the war effort to gain advancement for British women on the home front. As early as August 6, 1914, just one day after Britain declared war on Germany, an article published in the women’s suffrage newspaper Common Cause stated that: “In the midst of this time of terrible anxiety and grief, it is some little comfort to think that our large organization, which has been completely built up during past years to promote women’s suffrage, can be used to help our country through the period of strain and sorrow.”

In addition to the two nursing organizations that existed in 1914—the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) and the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs)—several new women’s organizations sprung into being over the course of the war. Created with the support of the British secretary of state for war, Lord Horatio Herbert Kitchener, the Women’s Defense Relief Corps came into being in late August 1914. The corps was made up of two divisions: a civil section, the goal of which was to substitute women for men in factories and other places of employment in order to free those men for military service; and a “semi-military” or “good citizen” section, where women were actively recruited for the armed forces. This latter group was trained in drilling, marching and the use of arms; its members were exhorted to protect not only themselves but their loved ones on the home front in case of possible invasion by the enemy.

Another organization founded during World War I was the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), created in July 1917. Members of the WAAC supported the war effort more directly, enlisting in the army to perform labors such as cookery, mechanical and clerical work and other miscellaneous tasks. For the first time, British women were sent to the battlefields of the Western Front to serve their country, thus freeing more male soldiers to do battle in the trenches against the German enemy. By the end of the war, some 80,000 women had served Britain as non-combatants, both on the home front and on the front lines in France and Belgium.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2006 6:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Es geschah am August 29....
Heute haben/hätten folgende Teilnehmer des Ersten Weltkrieges Geburtstag......

Ereignisse am heutigen Tag im Jahr...
1918 Bapaume von britischen Truppen eingenommen

http://www.westfront.de/today/today.pl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2006 6:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 29. August

1914
Hindenburgs Sieg über die Russen bei Tannenberg
Fünf russische Armeekorps und drei Kavalleriedivisionen geschlagen
Pour le Mérite für General Ludendorff
Aus Löwen und Mecheln
Ein Aufruf an die französische Bevölkerung
Französische Flieger über dem Elsaß
Landung englischer Truppen in Ostende
Das Kaiserpaar in Bad Nassau
Ein Seegefecht in der Nordsee
Die Mannschaft des Kreuzers "Magdeburg"
Die Deutschen in Tsingtau
Der Reichsverband gegen die Sozialdemokratie stellt seine Tätigkeit ein
Amerikas Neutralität

1915
Verfolgung der Russen auf der ganzen Front
Der russische Rückzug in Ostgalizien

1916
Hindenburg Chef des Generalstabes des Feldheeres
Ludendorff Generalquartiermeister
Gefechte mit russisch-rumänischen Vortruppen
Die Kämpfe im ungarisch-rumänischen Grenzgebirge

1917
Sturmerfolg am mittleren Sereth
Ein Tag siegreicher Abwehr am Isonzo

1918
Noyon geräumt
Fortsetzung des schweren Ringens von Arras bis Bapaume
Die neuen Linien östlich Bapaume - östlich Noyon

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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 15:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New Zealand occupation of Samoa, 29 August 1914

Introduction - Information on the New Zealand involvement in the First World War normally consists of the units serving on Gallipoli, the Western Front, Egypt and Palestine. Less well known is the occupation of Samoa on 29 August 1914, which was the first military action to be performed by the newly established New Zealand armed forces.

Mobilisation of the New Zealand Army - New Zealand's response to the outbreak of war on 4 August was quick and wholehearted. Compulsory military training had begun in 1912 and had already yielded some 29,500 Territorials and 26,500 senior cadets. In addition, there were 10,000 reservists, or over 66,000 men in all.

The occupation of Samoa, 29th August 1914 - No Imperial role for the New Zealand military forces had been decided before the war, but on the night of 6 August 1914, a message from the Secretary of State for War was received by His Excellency the Governor: "If your Ministers desire and feel themselves able to seize the German wireless station at Samoa, we should feel that this was a great and urgent Imperial service ..."

Leuk artikel op http://www.chakoten.dk/cgi-bin/fm.cgi?n=945
Zie ook http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/capture-of-samoa
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Aug 2010 15:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Belgian Grey Book - Diplomatic Correspondence Respecting the War (July 24-August 29, 1914)

M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Belgian Ministers abroad.
Antwerp August 29, 1914.


Sir,
Under date of the 17th August, I addressed a despatch to the Belgian Minister at London, in which I felt bound to call attention to certain allegations made by the German Government which are mentioned in the Blue Book recently published by the British Government.

I have the honour to enclose for your information a copy of the despatch in question and of its enclosures.

I request that you will bring its contents to the notice of the Government to which you are accredited.

Enclosure 1 - M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs., to Count de Lalaing, Belgian Minister at London.

Brussels, August 17, 1914.

Sir,
The Blue Book recently published by the British Government contains (see No. 192, p. 92) the text of a telegram despatched from Berlin on the 31st July by Sir E. Goschen to Sir E. Grey, in which the following passage occurs:-

" It appears from what he [his Excellency the Secretary of State] said, that the German Government consider that certain hostile acts have already been committed by Belgium. As an instance of this, he alleged that a consignment of corn for Germany had been placed under an embargo already."

The incident to which the German Secretary of State alluded in his conversation with Sir E. Goschen, and which he considered as an hostile act on the part of Belgium, doubtless refers to the application of the Royal decree of the 30th July, which provisionally prohibited the export from Belgium of certain products. As you will see from the explanation in the following paragraph, the incident with which we are reproached has in no wise the eharacter which Germany has wished to attribute to it.

The Royal decrees dated the 30th July and published in the Moniteur belge the following day forbade, provisionally, the export, both by land and by sea, of a series of products, more especially of cereals. On the 31st July the German Minister at Brussels called my attention to the fact that the Antwerp customs were detaining cargoes of grain addressed to Germany, which, as they were merely transshipped in our port, were in reality only in transit. Herr von Below Saleske requested that the vessels carrying these cargoes should be allowed to depart freely. The very day on which the German Minister's request was received the Foreign Office brought the matter to the notice of the Ministry of Finance, and the following day, the 2nd August, that Department informed us that instructions had been forwarded to the Belgian Customs giving full and entire satisfaction to Germany.

I cannot do better than enclose, for your information, copies of the correspondence exchanged on this subject with Herr Below Saleske. You will observe that nothing in our attitude can be taken as showing any hostile dispositions towards Germany; the steps taken by the Belgian Government at that time were nothing more than those simple precautions which it is the right and duty of every State to adopt in such exceptional circumstances.

It would be as well that you should address a communication to the British Government in order to explain the real facts of the case.

Enclosure 2 - Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister at Brussels, to M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs.

Brussels, July 31, 1914.

Sir,

I am informed from Antwerp that the Customs have forbidden the despatch of vessels containing cargoes of grain for Germany.

In view of the fact that it is not in this case a question of the export of grain, but of grain in transit, the goods in question having been merely transhipped at Antwerp, I have the honour to ask your good offices in order that the vessels in question may be allowed to leave for Germany.

At the same time I beg your Excellency to inform me if the port of Antwerp is closed for the transit of those goods specified in the Moniteur of to-day.

Awaiting your Excellency's reply at your earliest possible convenience, I have, &c.

Enclosure 3 - M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister at Brussels.

Brussels, August 1, 1914.

Sir,
Is reply to your Excellency's note of the 31st July, I have the honour to inform you that the Belgian decree of the 30th July concerns only the export and not the transit of the products mentioned.

I at once communicated your note to the Minister of Finance and begged him to issue precise instructions to the Customs officials in order that any error in the application of the abovementioned decree might be avoided.

Enclosure 4 - M. Davignon, Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Herr von Below Saleske, German Minister at Brussels.

Brussels, August 3, 1914.

Sir,
With reference to the note which your Rxcellency was good enough to address to me on the 31st July, I have the honour to inform you that the Minister of Finance has instructed the Customs that the prohibitions established by the Royal decrees of the 30th July last, only apply to actual exports, and do not, therefore, extend to goods regularly declared in transit at the time of import. Moreover, when duty-free goods are declared to be for actual consumption, although they are really intended for export, they are commonly the object of special declarations of free entry which are considered as transit docurnents. In short, if it should happen that such goods had been declared as for consumption without restriction, as though they were to remain in the country, the Customs would still allow them to leave the country as soon as it had been duly established by despatch receipts, bills of lading, &c., that they were to be exported forthwith in transit

I would add that the export of grain with which your note deals was authorised on the 1st August.

http://www.gwpda.org/papers/belgrey.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Guise, 1914

Also referred to as the Battle of Guise-St. Quentin, the Battle of Guise was launched by French General Charles Lanrezac's Fifth Army on 29 August 1914 in the wake of its dismal failure at the Battle of Charleroi.

Pursued by by Karl von Bulow's victorious Second Army, Lanrezac's force was facing north in the face of their German enemy on 27 August. With the British under Sir John French similarly retreating to their left (in the aftermath of the Battles of Mons and Le Cateau), a clear gap existed to the French right.

French Commander-in-Chief consequently Joseph Joffre resolved to establish a counteroffensive Allied line along the River Aisne; however Lanrezac, France's pre-eminent pre-war military strategist, initially refused Joffre's instruction to advance northwest between Guise and St. Quentin.

It required a personal visit by the formidable (and forceful) Joffre to convince Lanrezac that by advancing northwest it would provide the French with sufficient time to install the new French Sixth Army at the northern extremity of the Western Front.

Douglas Haig - at that time commanding the BEF's I Corps - initially offered support to the French but was quickly countermanded by Sir John French.

Thus on 28 August 1914 Lanrezac brought his forces into position for the advance northwest. Unfortunately his plans fell into German hands, with the consequence that von Bulow awaited Lanrezac's advance the following day with his Second Army ready to strike.

In the event von Bulow's counterattack obliged the left of Lanrezac's force to retreat across the Oise, where it subsequently joined to protect the right at Guise. Despite this setback the French succeeded in making progress and took possession of Guise on the evening of 29 August 1914.

In spite of his success in capturing Guise Lanrezac's position was precarious and liable to fall under the weight of heavy German assault. Joffre therefore authorised a French withdrawal later the same evening; it was put into effect the next morning with Lanrezac taking care to destroy the Oise bridges as he went.

The battle was regarded as a simple defeat by the public at large in France despite evidence to the contrary. Although it contributed to a further deterioration of Lanrezac's already declining reputation (he was ultimately dismissed) it undoubtedly served to delay von Bulow's advance, time placed to effective use by Joffre as he patched up the rest of the French line.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/guise.htm
Zie ook http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/charles42.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Aug 2010 15:55, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 15:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Tannenberg (1914)

The main battle (26 August to 30 August)

By the evening of 28 August the full extent of the danger to the Russians was evident. Their I Corps on the left and VI Corps on the right were both retreating. Meanwhile the center was having serious supply problems and could no longer hope to maintain an offensive. Samsonov had no option but to order a retreat to the southeast and attempt to reorganize near the border. Meanwhile he asked Rennenkampf to ignore Königsberg and turn southwest to help.

It was too late. François by this time had advanced due east to form a line to the south of the Russians between Niedenburg and Willenburg, directly in their line of retreat. At the same time, XVII Corps in the north had moved southwest to meet him. The next day the Russian center met these troops on their way to regroup, and realized they were surrounded. A pocket formed east of Tannenberg, near Frogenau, and was pounded by artillery throughout 29 August.

Attempts by the Russian First Army to come to their aid were also far too late to help. The German cavalry screen proved effective at delaying them, and by the time the battle was already over their closest unit was still to the northwest of the initial contact between XVII German Corps and VI Russian Corps, perhaps as much as 45 miles (70 km) from the trapped Second Army. Other Russian units were scattered back along the line to Königsberg, leaving the First Army itself in a dangerously spread-out position.

By the time the battle ended on 30 August, Samsonov's Second Army was destroyed, with 92,000 Russian troops captured, another 78,000 killed or wounded, and only 10,000 (mostly from the retreating flanks) escaping. The Germans suffered fewer than 20,000 casualties and captured over 500 guns. Sixty trains were required to transport captured Russian equipment to Germany.

Rather than report the loss of his army to Tsar Nicholas II, Samsonov committed suicide by shooting himself in the head on 29 August 1914.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tannenberg_(1914)#The_main_battle_.2826_August_to_30_August.29

Alexander Samsonov

Shocked by the disastrous outcome of the battle and unable to face reporting the scale of the disaster, for which he knew he would be held responsible, to Tsar Nicholas II, Samsonov never arrived back to headquarters. Samsonov committed suicide on August 30 1914 near Willenberg, although other versions of his death suggest that he suffered a massive heart attack. In 1916 his body was handed over by the Germans to his wife, through the intercession of the Red Cross.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Samsonov
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Aug 2010 16:00, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 15:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Year 1914

On 29 August, on the Southwest Front, Ruzskiy's Russian 3rd Army defeated the Austro-Hungarian 3rd Army at Lutzow on the Zlota Lipa River, and continued their advance on Lemberg.

On the Southwest Front, Russian forces repulsed an Austro-Hungarian 2nd Army counter-offensive on the Gnila Lipa River in Galicia. The Austro-Hungarians lost 20,000 prisoners, with many killed in action. The Russian 8th Army captured Halicz, on the Dniester River.

Tsar Nicholas II approved a decision to establish the All-Russian Union of Towns and Cities, limiting its existence to the duration of the war.

http://warchron.com/tannenberg.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 29 August 1914

Western Front
Stiff French rearguard fights.
British retire to line Compiegne-Soissons.
Germans occupy La Fere, Rethel, Amiens, etc.

Eastern Front
East Prussia: Battle of Tannenberg ends in the rout of Samsonov's Second Army.

Naval and Overseas Operations
Cameroons: British reverse at Garua.
Samoa: German portion occupied by New Zealand troops.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_08_29.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Long Allied Retreat, Aug.25-Sep.04.1914

AUGUST 29

The Belgian Front.
==The German destruction of Louvain is reported in the world press, provoking international outrage

Paris.
==Distant gunfire can be heard in Paris
==Gallieni’s authority is extended to a twenty mile radius around the capital

The Far Northwestern Front.
==Strong attacks by Kluck’s 1st Army against the French 6th Army at Proyart and Rosières, southwest of Péronne on the far left of the Allied line [morning]
==German forces occupy Amiens

The BEF Front.
==Joffre meets with Sir John French at Compiègne, but is unable to persuade him to halt the BEF’s retreat [afternoon]
==John French orders the main British base to be moved from Le Havre to St Nazaire
==The BEF retreats from Noyon and La Fère

The Northwestern Front.
==(to Sep.05) The surrounded French fortress at Maubeuge is subjected to bombardment by German heavy artillery
==The Battle of Guise: Lanrezac attacks the German 2nd Army: a French assault northwest toward St. Quentin [morning] is blocked and driven back over the Oise - powerful German attacks near Guise [morning-afternoon] are effectively counterattacked by d’Esperey’s I Corps, which marches into action with flags flying and bands playing [530.PM] - German 2nd Army is badly mauled
==German 3rd Army occupies Rethel on the Aisne

The Central Front.
==Foch’s force (later designated French 9th Army) begins to form in the gap between the 4th and 5th Armies

French Headquarters (GQG).
==Unable to stabilize his front, Joffre is forced to order a renewed general retreat [1000.PM] - GQG is compelled to fall back from Vitry-le-François to Bar-sur-Aube

German Headquarters (OHL).
==OHL moves forward from Coblenz to Luxembourg City - on the train journey the Kaiser rhapsodizes about “piles of (French) corpses six feet high” to the disgust of Moltke

http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Wars/Marne/Marne04.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 1914

More early war footage. I have been looking to see if there are any specific rules for the early phase of WW1 and haven't really had any luck. Maybe it's time to create my own set - maybe call it 'The Guns of August' although that isn't original.

Filmpje. Leuke bloggert... http://1815-1918.blogspot.com/2010/08/august-1914.html
Hoofdmenu: http://1815-1918.blogspot.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg, 26. - 30. August 1914

Verfolgungskämpfe am 29. August

Am Morgen des 29. August fahren Ludendorff und Hoffmann nach Hohenstein, um die Truppen, die stark durcheinander gekommen sind, an Ort und Stelle zu entwirren und mit den Kommandeuren Rücksprache zunehmen. Rechts und links vom Wege stehen die jubelnden Truppen, dazwischen die endlosen Kolonnen von russischen Gefangenen. Noch immer lässt sich nicht übersehen, wie groß die Zahl der Gefangenen sein wird. Zur Gewissheit wird jedoch, dass die Einkreisung der beiden russischen Korps durch Abdrängung nach Osten gelungen ist.

Hier in vorderster Linie erhält Ludendorff einen russischen Funkspruch, der von Rennenkampf kommt, leider aber nur teilweise mitgelesen werden konnte: "Mit Rücksicht auf die schweren Kämpfe, welche die 2.Armee zu führen hat, befiehlt der Oberbefehlshaber zur Unterstützung ... vorzuschicken und Kavallerie zu gemeinschaftlichem Vorgehen auf... in Marsch zu setzen." Dieses Fragment bestätigt die Auffassung des Armee-Oberkommandos, dass Rennenkampf sich langsam in Bewegung setzen will. Er marschiert aber auch jetzt noch nicht gegen die 8. deutsche Armee, sondern tastet nach Königsberg. Noch im Laufe dieses Tages gelingt es, weitere Funksprüche Rennenkampfs aufzufangen, wonach die Masse seiner Armee tatsächlich wieder im Einschwenken gegen Königsberg ist.

Gegen Mittag erlässt Hindenburg einen Befehl an die Kommandierenden Generale. Er ist nicht misszuverstehen und bezieht sich wohl in erster Linie auf das Verhalten des Generals von François bei Neidenburg. Der Befehl ist einzeln gerichtet: "An den Königlichen General pp. und Kommandierenden General des pp..." - "In den wenigen Tagen meines Oberbefehls sind von den mir unmittelbar unterstehenden Verbänden wiederholt, selbstverständlich in bester Absicht, Einwände gegen meine Anordnungen erhoben; auch ist die Ausführung meiner Befehle mehrfach durch Nichtbefolgung oder Durchkreuzung meiner Absichten erweitert worden. Infolgedessen lag mitunter die Gefahr eines Misserfolges an Stelle des nunmehr glücklich erzielten Erfolges vor. Ich weiß, dass es nur dieses Hinweises bedarf, um in Zukunft derartige Missverhältnisse nicht mehr in Erscheinung treten zu lassen.
Der Oberbefehlshaber
v. Hindenburg."


http://www.tannenberg1914.de/3_tannb/2908.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Accrington Pals | September 1914: Enlistment

In August 1914, the prospect of war against Germany was of less immediate concern to the people of Accrington than the continuing lock-out at Howard & Bullough's machine works, the town's major employer. Accrington's prosperity had been built on the spinning and weaving of cotton, but by 1914 the industry was already in decline. Following the refusal of Howard & Bullough's management to meet the demands of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (A.S.E.) for trade union recognition and a minimum wage1, up to 600 engineers at the works went on strike on 2nd July. Six days later, the management locked-out the whole workforce of nearly 5,000 men and boys. Although members of the A.S.E. received £1/week lock-out pay while on strike and 1,100 members of the Gasworkers and General Labourers Union received 10s (50p)/week, some 2,000 non-union workers were left without any income.2

As the lock-out at Howard & Bullough's continued throughout August, the small British Expeditionary Force was engaged in bitter defensive battles at Mons on the 23rd and at le Cateau on the 26th. An emotive article published in the Accrington Observer & Times of 29th August under the byline of T. Clayton used news of the fighting to bring pressure on the striking engineers to return to work:-

Men of Bullough's, what are you doing in this time of stress and trial? Shall I tell you the plain and unvarnished truth? You are daily wasting bright golden hours in registering yourselves at your club house. You are sitting on your heels on the kerbstones twiddling your thumbs. You are propping up the railings of the Ambulance Hall. You are trapesing aimlessly through the the already too crowded streets. You are lounging, sitting and standing near the war office in Dutton-street discussing tactics and methods of a warfare in which you will not, either with hammer or gun, play your part for the honour of your country.3

(...) It was during the last days of August that the first Pals battalions were raised in Manchester and Liverpool. Largely through the initiative of Lord Derby, cities and towns were being allowed to raise at their own expense battalions of local men who would serve together for the duration of the war. A letter to the editor of the Observer & Times from 'A Patriot' urged Accrington to follow suit:-

We hear of great numbers of men coming forward in different parts of the country, and Manchester is earning itself distinction for the readiness of its men to offer themselves. Why not Accrington?5

Accrington's mayor, Captain John Harwood, would certainly have read the letter from 'A Patriot' with some interest. Harwood's mind was probably already working on similar lines and, on 31st August, two days after the letter was published, he contacted the War Office with an offer to raise a half-battalion from the Accrington district. Undaunted by the Army Council's reply that its policy was to accept no less than a full battalion, Harwood raised his offer on Sunday 6th September to one of a full battalion of 1,100 men.

Notes
1. The A.S.E. were seeking a minimum wage of 36s (£1.80) per week of 53 hours for textile fitters and turners; 37s (£1.85) for tool-men, millwrights and mechanics.
2. Accrington Observer & Times, Saturday 11th July 1914, page 8.
3. Accrington Observer & Times, Saturday 29th August 1914, page 4.
5. Accrington Observer & Times, Saturday 29th August 1914, page 5.


Lees verder op http://www.pals.org.uk/enlistment.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

East York's Regiment in 1914-1918

10th (Service) Battalion (1st Hull) - Formed in Hull, 29 August 1914, by Lord Nunburnholme and the East Riding TF Association. Commonly known as the Hull Commercials Battalion. June 1915 : attached to 92nd Brigade, 31st Division.

Lees verder op http://www.hullwebs.co.uk/content/l-20c/conflict/ww1/pals/ey-regiment.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Before Gallipoli - Australian Operations in 1914

On 7 August 1914 the British War Office requested that Australia seize the German colonies in Nauru, the Caroline Islands and New Guinea. The primary reason for this request was to prevent enemy wireless stations from passing information to the German East Asiatic Squadron of the Imperial German Navy, commanded by Admiral Graf von Spee, that might hinder British efforts to bring it to battle. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) acted swiftly to eliminate the enemy threat to the Empire’s shipping. On 11 August the destroyers HMAS Parramatta, HMAS Yarra and HMAS Warrego, covered by the light cruiser HMAS Sydney, prepared to launch a torpedo attack on the German anchorages in Simpsonhaven and Matupi Harbour, New Britain, but found the enemy squadron gone. Landing parties were placed ashore at Rabaul and Herbertshöhe to destroy the wireless station, but when it was learned that the station lay inland it was clear that an expeditionary force would be required. Meanwhile, the battlecruiser HMAS Australia was scouring the Pacific for Von Spee’s squadron. Von Spee was aware of the threat, recording in his diary on 18 August that ‘the Australia is my special apprehension—she alone is superior to my whole squadron.’

On 29 August 1914, in Australia’s first coalition operation, a New Zealand Expeditionary Force of 1400 troops landed at Apia, Western Samoa, covered by the guns of Australia, and the cruisers HMAS Melbourne, HMS Psyche, HMS Pyramus, HMS Philomel and the French Montcalm. With no troops to defend the islands, the German Administrator surrendered on 30 August. The wireless station and harbour facilities were thereafter denied to Von Spee’s squadron.

http://www.eurekacouncil.com.au/referencing.htm#Before Gallipoli - Australian Operations in 1914
Zie ook http://www.laluciole.net/eas/eas03a-eastwardjourney.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in Diving History -- 29 August 1915 -- USS SKATE (F-4) raised.

The Navy's first deep-sea submarine salvage was of the USS SKATE (F-4), which was lost in approximately 51 fathoms (306 feet) while making a short submerged run off the island of Oahu, Hawaii, in March 1915. This was the Navy's first loss of submarine and crew.

The F-4 had a length of 142 feet, with a submerged displacement of 400 tons and a designed depth of 200 feet. After the accident, an oil slick and air bubbles about 2 miles from the harbor entrance lead to dragging operations that positively located the boat; there were no apparent signs of life. The submarine lay far deeper than any divers had ever descended with existing equipment and methods. In and effort to reach the boat on the day of the loss; two Navy Divers dove to a depth of 190 and 215 feet, but neither reached or sighted the vessel. The only chance of saving any possible survivors was to drag the boat into shallow water because no lifting gear could be made and rigged in the time available. Dragging would work only if the boat was not completely flooded. Sweeps were made by the NAVAJO and INTREPID to pass a wire rope around the hull and drag it into shallow water. An attempt at this was made the following day, but the boat could not be moved. Rescuing the crew appeared hopeless but one more attempt was warranted. A dredge was brought to the scene; if a portion of the submarine remained unflooded and buoyant, there was a possibility of moving the boat into shallow water by heaving with the dredge and towing with tugs. No progress could be made (one of the wires parted at its maximum load). This answered the question whether the F-4 was filled with water -- it was, and rescue effort was regretfully concluded.

Because the F-4 was the Navy's first submarine loss, there was an intense desire within the Navy to determine the cause of the casualty. There was also a huge public outcry for the recovery of the bodies of the crew. Naval Constructor LCDR Julius Furer, who was in Hawaii for the construction of the new Naval Station at Pearl Harbor, was placed in charge of the technical side of salvage. After evaluation the situation and consultation with Navy Salvors, it was determined that multiple short lifts and tows were the only feasible way of raising the boat. Faced with a lack of specialized equipment for the job and a base under construction in Hawaii; Salvors were forced to do what they do best - improvise with what was on hand to get the job done. Two sturdily constructed 104x36 foot barges belonging to a local construction company had the strength to support the downed submarine. A lifting system was built using I-beams planned for a coal storage facility, sugar mill shafts were used as windlasses along with miscellaneous machinery that was either available or made for the job.

Knowing that the positions of the lift slings would be crucial to the success of the salvage and that their positions could only be verified visually, five of the Navy's top Divers were ordered in from the Navy Yard. At the time the Navy Yard was responsible for the test and review of all diving equipment and techniques. These divers were Gunner Stillson, Frank Crilley, Stephen Drellishak, Frederick Nilson and William Loughman. Chief Crilley made the first dive just two days after arrival. He reached the F-4, more than 300 feet down, and reported that the boat was upright but the slings would have to be moved. The difficulty of working at this depth cannot be overstated. Keep in mind that all of these dives were conducted with air -- breathing HE02 had not been discovered yet. The futility of attempting to work at these depths was demonstrated when a diver remained on the bottom for thirty minutes trying to pass a small reeving line. He was unaware of fatigue on the bottom, but collapsed from exhaustion on the surface and did not regain strength for several days. In another instance Chief Loughman became entangled in a steel hawser at a depth of 250 feet down breaking his hip in process. Loughman fell unconscious and GMC Frank W. Crilley dove in after him, disregarding personal safety. He found Loughman and worked for an hour and a half to free him. For his heroism, Crilley became the first Navy Diver to be awarded the Medal of Honor on February 15, 1929. For more info on this heroic rescue see the "This Day in Diving History" email sent April 17.

After multiple lifts over the course of months the submarine had been moved to 48 feet of water by June. The problem was now how to move her in one lift through Honolulu Harbor with out breaking the sub up which would totally block the harbor. It also had to achieve a depth of 25 feet or less to fit into existing drydocks. In order to accomplish this, Salvors developed what would be known as the submarine pontoon salvage method. To do this, chains were moved under the boat and attached to huge pontoons that were built for this operation. These pontoons were 32 feet long with a lifting capacity of 420 tons and were built with wooden sheething all around to prevent impact, chaffing, or puncture to the hull due to frequent contact. On 29 August, the pontoons were blown dry, the submarine was towed into the harbor and placed in drydock. It was immediately discovered that the cause of the accident was leakage through rivet holes where the rivets had been eaten away by battery acid. This resulted in immediate design changes to all U.S. Navy Submarines.

The methods, lessons learned, and equipment employed in this operation would be used during the raising of the USS SQUALUS (SS-192) years later.

http://navxdivingu.blogspot.com/2009/09/this-day-in-diving-history-29-august.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress noted for her starring roles in American films.[1] She won three Academy Awards, two Emmy Awards, and the Tony Award for Best Actress. She is ranked as the fourth greatest female star of American cinema of all time by the American Film Institute. She is best remembered for her role as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca (1942), a World War II drama co-starring Humphrey Bogart.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingrid_Bergman
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

29 August 1915 - A combined British, Anzac and Gurkha force failed to take Hill 60 at Suvla.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/august-october-1915.html

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

29 August 1915

Second Lieutenant Hugo Throssell, 10th Light Horse Regiment (Western Australia), of Cowcowing, Western Australia, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his outstanding bravery on the night of 29-30 August at Hill 60. Throssell's VC brought to nine the number of VCs gained by members of the AIF during the Gallipoli campaign.

Between 29 August and 14 September, two stretcher-bearers at the 1st Field Ambulance treated 199 dental cases. They performed 122 extractions, 29 amalgam fillings, 6 dressings, 30 minor operations, 2 partial upper dentures, 2 partial lower dentures and 19 repairs.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.html

Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell

Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell VC (27 October 1884 – 13 November 1933) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Hugo Throssell was born in Northam, Western Australia on 27 October 1884, the son of former Premier of Western Australia George Throssell. In 1914, he joined the 10th Light Horse Regiment, Australian Imperial Force. His brother, Ric, also served in the war and died near Gaza. Throssell's son was named after him.

As a second lieutenant Hugo Throssell fought at Gallipoli, where he had landed on 4 August. He saw action in the desperate Battle of the Nek. According to the Australian Dictionary of Biography:

"This experience increased his eagerness to prove himself in battle. He wanted to avenge the 10th L.H.R. which, like so many of the Anzac troops, was battle-worn, sick and depleted. His chance came later that month at Hill 60 during a postponed attempt by British and Anzac troops to widen the strip of foreshore between the two bridgeheads at Anzac and Suvla by capturing the hills near Anafarta. Hill 60, a low knoll, lay about half a mile (0.8 km) from the beach. Hampered by confusion and lack of communication between the various flanks, the battle had been raging for a week with heavy losses."

A few weeks later, he fought at Hill 60:

"On 29–30 August 1915 at Kaiakij Aghala (Hill 60), Gallipoli, Turkey, Second Lieutenant Throssell, although severely wounded in several places, refused to leave his post during a counter-attack or to obtain medical assistance until all danger was passed, when he had his wounds dressed and returned to the firing line until ordered out of action by the Medical Officer. By his personal courage and example he kept up the spirits of his party and was largely instrumental in saving the situation at a critical period."

Whilst recuperating from his wounds in London he was introduced to Katharine Susannah Prichard, who later became a famous Australian author and socialist. He eventually returned to active service, rejoining the 10th Light Horse in the Middle East where he fought in a number of engagements, and achieved the rank of captain. He returned home in 1918 and in 1919 married Prichard.

In the following years Hugo was an outspoken opponent of war, and claimed that the suffering he had seen had made him a socialist. His stance on the futility of war outraged many people, especially as they were coming from a national war hero and the son of a respected and conservative former premier. His very public political opinions badly damaged his employment prospects, and he fell deeply into financial debt. On 13 November 1933, he killed himself (while his wife was away on a trip to the Soviet Union).

Hugo Throssell's Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. In 1983 his son Ric presented it to the People for Nuclear Disarmament. The Returned Services League of Australia bought the medal and presented it to the Australian War Memorial.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Throssell
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Hill 60 - the last battle: 29 August 1915
Brad Manera

In 1924, Charles Bean, Gallipoli veteran and Australia's official war historian, would describe the battle fought on Kaiajik Aghala (Hill 60) in August 1915 "as one of the most difficult in which Australian troops were ever engaged" (1). Like many of the actions fought on Gallipoli, the battle was confused and inconclusive.

This paper aims to focus on the final phase of the battle of Hill 60, the fighting that occurred before sunrise on Sunday morning, 29 August 1915 around a position marked on British maps as D-C Trench.

History and the battle of Hill 60

The Gallipoli campaign must rank among the most studied and analyzed in history. Yet the battle of Hill 60 is often overlooked and rarely examined in detail. It was not a victory that yielded seven Victoria Crosses like Lone Pine, nor has it been accorded the noble tragedy status of the loss of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade at the Nek. It was, however, some of the most fought over real estate on the ANZAC-Suvla front and was the last offensive action of the campaign.

Shortly after the failure of the British and French to capture the Dardanelles, John Masefield wrote a history of the campaign. His description of the action at Hill 60 was short and to the point:

Two thrusts made by the men of ANZAC in the later days of August, secured an important well and the Turkish stronghold of Hill 60. This Last success made the line from ANZAC to Suvla impregnable (2).

W. Stanley MacBean Knight in The history of the great European War, also published before the Armistice, gave Hill 60 two paragraphs:

The last days of the month were illuminated by a brilliant affair carried through by the troops under General Birdwood's command. Our objective was to complete the capture of Hill 60 north of the Kaiajik Aghala, commenced by General Cox on the 21st. … [MacBean Knight finishes with] its success gave us complete command of the under-feature, an outlook over the Anafarta Sagir Valley, and safer lateral communications between ANZAC and Suvla Bay. Our casualties in this highly contested affair amounted to 1000. The Turks lost out of all proportion more (3).

Both of these accounts, though brief, do not give an accurate indication of the outcome of the battle. These uncritical accounts were probably the result of the vague reports on the outcome of the fighting on the hill at the time. With impending winter and the inability to break the stalemates on the beachheads, critical examination of a single action was brushed aside by the failure of the campaign.

Even at the time, commanders at divisional level were unaware of the practical outcome of the action. Inaccurate reports led Birdwood to believed the hill had been taken and reported this to Lt Gen Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (MEF), who would claim to Kitchener that the result of the action was "400 acres added to the territories of ANZAC" (4). In reality, the battle may have made the ANZAC-Suvla link marginally more secure. But it was not to prove a vital link anyway, and at no stage was the summit of Hill 60 ever in British hands.

Bean's Volume II devotes an entire chapter to Hill 60 and it remains the most complete account of the battle (5). General histories of the campaign since have offered few insights into any of the fighting around Hill 60 (6), despite Alan Moorehead's observation that the 21 August "assault on Scimitar Hill and Hill 60 …. in terms of numbers of men engaged this was the greatest battle fought in the Gallipoli campaign" (7).

Perhaps Bean did his job so well that few historians since have dared criticise or challenge his account. The individual histories of the Australian infantry battalions and Light Horse regiments that fought at Hill 60 offer substantially less detail than he provides and the unit war diaries are extremely brief (8). (When trying to confirm Bean's account using the war diaries, I recalled a comment by Spike Milligan, an often overlooked British military historian, made while he worked on his autobiographical account of the Second World War. While studying the war diary of a British artillery regiment he wrote, "If brevity is the soul of wit this [battery] diary was written by Oscar Wilde." (9)) So it is from Bean and from the letters, diaries and interviews of those who did the fighting that we can glean a reasonably clear picture of the confused fighting on Hill 60.

Taking the battle to the Hill

Hill 60, or Kaiajik Aghala (10), was described by Charles Bean, as "little more than a swelling in the plain", but "near its foot were two useful wells" (11) (a strategic feature in the thirsty Gallipoli campaign). The feature is so low that when Bean printed photographs of it in the official history, he had to outline it in black for the reader.

Failure to capture the feature during the Suvla landing does not appear to have unduly worried the commanders of the MEF. "All of these points, including Hill 60 could easily have been secured on August 7, when troops of the 40th British and 4th Australian Brigades had walked over them, or even on the 8th" (12). By the night of the 12th, when the 9th Battalion of the Worcester Regiment attempted to take one of the wells and was driven back by heavy Turkish fire, it was too late. The Turks were digging trenches across the summit of the hill and linking it by a long communication trench to their nearest fortified position, Hill 100, over a kilometre away to the southeast along a gradually rising ridge.

Hill 60 was included as an objective for the renewed Suvla offensive of 21 August. Its capture would link Suvla with the ANZAC beachhead. In this operation, Hill 60 and its surrounds were to be attacked from the southwest by the Connaught Rangers, New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade and the 4th Infantry Brigade AIF.

The attack was poorly coordinated and let down by inadequate artillery support. After initial success, the British and empire troops were driven back by a determined counter-attack, leaving only the New Zealanders in possession of a small section of captured trench. The next day, elements of the 5th Infantry Brigade, AIF were committed to the battle. Most of the Brigade had been on Gallipoli barely 48 hours before being sent into this fight. They were ordered to "assault with bomb and bayonet only." When the commander of the 18th Battalion, 46-year-old Alfred Ernest Chapman, pointed out that they had not been issued with bombs yet, the reply was that "they must do the best that was possible without them" (13). Nineteen-year-old Private Ernest Henry Stephenson, from the same battalion, recorded in his diary that "our men are being bombed and have no ammunition to retaliate" (14). The outcome was inevitable.

The attack on 22 August, though bravely pressed, was driven back with almost 50 per cent casualties. Of the 3,985 British and empire troops sent against the Turkish positions on Hill 60 on 21-22 August, 1,302 were killed, wounded or missing. Bean observed that "slight though it was, this gain was the only one achieved on the whole [Suvla] battlefront" (15).

The toehold on Hill 60 after 22 August was insufficient to adequately link ANZAC and Suvla. ANZAC Commander, General Birdwood, sought and received permission to strengthen his northern flank by capturing the summit of the hill. The renewed attack was planned for 25 August. The only available troops were those who had been sorely tested in the previous weeks. All of the units were under strength and most of the men were ill or nursing minor wounds.

The assault on Hill 60 was delayed to 27 August. The renewed attack would be undertaken by the New Zealanders, Connaught Rangers and 18th Battalion, AIF who had made the attacks on the same feature a week earlier. They were joined by elements of the 4th Infantry Brigade, AIF, survivors of the failed attack on Hill 971 on 7-8 August. Since the last attack, the Turks had been extending and strengthening their trenches. The intended attack was based on very vague ideas of the strength of the Turkish garrison and on maps of the enemy trenches that were largely supposition. Aerial reconnaissance was in its infancy and was not requested for this operational plan and most of Hill 60 was covered by metre high scrub.

The Connaughts would attack from the left, with New Zealanders and the 18th Bn in the centre and elements of the 4th Bde uphill from Kaiajik Dere on the right.

The attack began at 4 pm on 27 August. The bombardment, although heavy by Gallipoli standards, was particularly ineffective against the position to be attacked by the Australians. It served more to warn the Turks of the Australian attack than to destroy their defences. The 4th Brigade's attack was launched uphill from Kaiajik Dere. Bean wrote that, "while the men in the advanced trench awaited the order to charge hostile rifle and machine gun fire was tearing the parapet to pieces above their heads. When the whistle blew, and Capt Connelly [a solicitor from Bendigo] of the 14th led out the first line on to the wheatfield, it was at once swept away" (16). The second line met a similar fate. The dozen survivors, all wounded, crawled back to their trenches at dusk.

The British and New Zealanders, attacking the maze of trenches leading up to the summit of the hill from the west and south-west, met with initial success but were driven back with severe casualties to a perimeter only slightly deeper than what the New Zealanders had held before the battle. Australian infantry from the 18th Battalion charged uphill over broken ground into withering Turkish fire, towards the southern trenches on Hill 60 and the communication and fighting trench that linked it to Hill 100. For the second time in less than a week, they were cut down in waves. As the light died, the survivors were directed to reinforce the gains the New Zealanders had made. In his diary, teenaged Private Stephenson wrote, "All that night the fighting was terrific, the trenches were very close, and consequently bombs were the chief weapons, and they are no toys" [emphasis added] (17). Adding to the terror of the battle, shelling set the wheat field alight. By the time darkness had fallen, the British position on Hill 60 had depth but faced a complex maze of enemy trenches to the east and was flanked to the north by a long trench, gently winding from west to east toward the summit of the hill. It was known on the British map as D-C Trench, with "D" being the western, or seaward, end and "C" the eastern end running into the northern sector of the Turkish trench system on the summit of Hill 60. Reinforcements were desperately needed before the attack lost all momentum. Two regiments, the 9th and 10th, from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, AIF (who, like all of the Australian Light Horsemen on Gallipoli, were fighting dismounted) were rushed to support the operation.

At 11.30 pm, Lt Col Carew Reynell and 140 of his 9th Light Horse charged alongside the trenches held by the New Zealanders toward the summit of Hill 60. Exactly what happened to the South Australians and Victorians of the 9th that night will never be known. Whether they lost their way or were driven by rifle fire and bursting bombs, they veered to the left. They ended up arriving in D-C Trench in small groups. Reynell and his men took the trench and fought until killed by counter-attacking Turks.

Major Harry Parsons led another party of the 9th in an attack to capture D-C Trench from the western end. After initial success, Parsons and his men were driven back, holding onto barely 70 metres of the western end of the trench. At sunrise on the 28th, the survivors of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles and the 18th Battalion, AIF still held the trenches on the western approaches to Hill 60. The 9th Light Horse Regiment had their piece of the western end of D-C Trench, a position that had been taken then lost by the 18th Battalion on 22 August and by the 5th Connaught Rangers on the 27th. The day settled into what was becoming a pattern for the battle as both sides spent daylight hours deepening and extending the trenches and fighting bombing duels while trying to rest for the nights attacks and counter-attacks (18).

Hill 60 - the last battle

If there is a criticism of Bean's account of the Battle of Hill 60, it his failure to estimate the strength of the Turkish Army deployed to the battle. In 1919, Turkish officer Zeki Bey told Bean that he was sent to command the Turkish 21st Regiment on Hill 60 (Bomba Tepe) in the second half of August. He was away recovering from illness at the time of the attack but claims the garrison facing the Australians was only a single company of gendarmes supported by two machine-guns (19). This meagre garrison would have been insufficient to generate the counter-attacks described by Bean. The Turkish General Staff History, volume 2 indicates a much stronger force than Zeki Bey suggests. This account states that, for the attack on August 22, the Hill was held by the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the 21st Turkish Regiment from the 7th Division, recently reinforced by the 2nd and possibly the 1st Battalions of the 33rd Regiment of the same Division (20). Even if the Turkish units were as depleted as the Australian units committed to the battle (and there is no reason to believe otherwise), the defenders were at least as strong as the attacking force and with possibly greater access to resupply and reinforcement.

At 4 pm on the warm afternoon of 28 August 1915, officers of the 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment were taken from their temporary bivouac on Damakjelik Bair, down across Kaiajik Dere, the gully still strewn with the detritus of recent battle, and up into the trenches on Kaiajik Aghala - Hill 60. These trenches, held by the remnants of the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade and the 18th Australian Infantry Battalion, were the south-western perimeter of a maze of trenches that crowned the hill. Most of the trench system was still held by the Turks. The officers of the 10th were shown the position. According to Bean, General Godley instructed the officers of the 10th "that he wanted them to take a trench on the summit of Hill 60" (21). Capture of this trench would, after construction of a short linking trench, allow the Australians "to obtain touch with the New Zealanders and round off the position" (22). They were to take the rest of D-C trench. The attack would go in at 1 am. There would be no artillery support.

The 10th Australian Light Horse Regiment was raised in Western Australia. By 29 August it had been involved in some of the fiercest fighting on Gallipoli. From its usual strength of between 500 and 600, the regiment could barely muster 180 men. One of its officers, Lieutenant Tom Kidd, noted in his diary on the 28th, "we were not in very good fettle; although the men were game enough for anything & had no time for grumblers" (23). The regiment had just lost its founding CO, as Lieutenant Colonel Noel Brazier had been wounded in the face by shrapnel during the move from Russell's Top to Damakjelik Bair. For the attack on Hill 60, the regiment's under-strength A and B Squadrons were combined. Popular and brave 33-year-old grazier Captain Phil Fry commanded them. C Squadron was led by 20-year-old Duntroon graduate Captain Horace Robertson.

The West Australians did not have a clear idea of the enemy's strength and much of the Turkish position on the hill to the east of D-C Trench was hidden by metre high scrub. They could not know that the Turks also were being reinforced, this time by elements of the 17th Regiment of the 6th Division (24).

The men of the 10th filed through the trenches held by the New Zealanders toward their start line. Tom Kidd was Fry's second in command. He described the attack in his diary:

Leaping over our parapet of our trenches (where we had assembled) previously at 1 am, a momentary pause was made on top of & the men formed a strait line in close order. At ordinary times this might have proved dangerous but as it happens it gave a sort of elan to the Charge. The Turkish trenches could be plainly seen in the moonlight. As arranged they were rushed quietly in order to make a complete surprise which … eventuated in our sector. C squadron was not so lucky & had many casualties between the trenches (25).

Bean explains that C Squadron was caught in the open and took casualties because "the line … cheered as it started. A [Turkish] machine gun immediately flashed in the dark" (26). Lieutenant Burges, Robertson's second in charge was hit at this time, Sergeant Major McWhirter and a number of men from C Squadron were killed. As soon as the machine-gun started it was pelted by bombs. The bombs were thrown by a five man team who had left the trenches ten minutes before the attack to crawl forward to locate and silence the machine-gun that was known to be in the area. The bomb throwers were led by Lieutenant W.L. Sanderson (27) who had survived the charge at the Nek and had just been commissioned in the field.

About twenty men were killed or wounded in the assault, most of them with Burges and McWhirter. The rest reached the Turkish trenches and drove off the defenders in a series of short, bloody clashes. They were confronted with not only dead and dying Turks but also the corpses of Reynell's 9th Light Horse who had been killed the night before. Although short in duration, the taking of the main trench involved fighting with bayonet, bomb and rifle at very close quarters. Kidd's diary records, " I myself made rather an undignified entrance to the enemy trench. As I made a leap over the parapet my foot caught and I ended up in the trench bottom pretty well on my head wrenching my knee and back a bit. (28)" Others dashed along the winding trench in the dark alone or in small groups driving out the defenders and trying to link up with the other squadron. Again Kidd describes the scene. "[Second Lieutenant Colin] MacBean was killed in this. He met 4 Turks killed 2 the third shot him in the stomach. Sgt [Noel] Kidson shot one Bill Hunter shot the other" (29).

From the western end of D-C trench a strong bombing party from the 9th Light Horse led by Lieutenant J.M. McDonald broke into the Turkish position, "advancing so rapidly that it narrowly escaped a struggle with the troops of the 10th into whom it ran" (30). At the other end of the trench, the Western Australian light horsemen had got to within 20 yards of the intersection of D-C Trench and the labyrinth of Turkish defences on the summit of Hill 60. They stopped to consolidate their position with a wall of sandbags at a bend in the trench. They knew the Turks would counter-attack at any minute. While his men filled sandbags 2/Lt Hugo Throssell peered into the darkness straining for sight or sound of Turkish counterattack. He did not have long to wait. Before the barrier was complete "the Turks began to feel their way back … he shot five in succession at this corner before the enemy ascertained the position of the Australians and began to bomb" (31). All along the line, the light horsemen were heaving corpses over the parapets and digging to deepen and strengthen the trench. Captain Fry was everywhere instructing and encouraging his men, frequently walking along the parapet to move from position to position quickly until his men "almost forced him to come down into shelter" (32).

The Turks may have been holding D-C trench with a light garrison at the time of the attack, but their response and counter-attack was immediate and very violent. On Hill 60 that night, small groups of men killed each other at very close range with the bayonet and hand grenade or thrown "bomb". The war diary of the 10th Light Horse Regiment states that on 29-30 August, Australians and Turks flung between 3,000 and 4,000 bombs at each other (33). So many that the Turks would remember the knoll as Bomba Tepe (Bomb Hill).

The most threatened position was the eastern end of the trench held by 2nd Lt Throssell and a small band of light horsemen, including Squadron Sergeant Major Henderson, Corporal Ferrier, Lance Corporal MacNee and Troopers Renton and Stanley. They stood behind a flimsy wall of sandbags and held back assault after assault along the trench from the east or through the scrub from the north. Throssell, in a letter to Ferrier's mother, tried to recreate the scene:

The Turks are fine fighters and extremely brave men, and all that night they stood one side of this barrier within five yards of us trying to bomb us out. … I have just casually mentioned that the Turks counter-attacked three times; that does not sound very much, but I can assure you that with the Turks within 5 yards of you with only a couple of feet sandbag barrier between, and with hundreds of them coming at you with fixed bayonets in the front, the chances of coming through that ordeal alive are very remote (34).

During the first counter-attack the Turks hurled what appeared to be a large biscuit tin full of explosive at Throssell's position. The blast demolished his wall of sandbags. He and his surviving men were driven back a few metres and threw up another sandbag barrier.

All along the line, groups of Turkish infantry assaulted D-C Trench from the north and from the north-east. Lt Arthur Leake was shot in the back of the head while facing an attack from this quarter - the Turks were attacking the newly captured position from three sides.

After more than half an hour, the counter-attack was beaten back. But barely had the surviving light horsemen gathered their breath when a second counter-attack emerged from the darkness. A line of Turkish assault troops stormed down from the northeast while teams of bombers probed the rest of the line. They almost reached the barricade of sandbags. A bursting bomb killed Captain Fry, leaving Throssell the only officer alive at the top end of D-C Trench. This attack was also beaten back.

The third and most serious counter-attack was made just before first light. Two waves of Turkish infantry advanced, with bayonets fixed, up the gentle slope to the trench from the north. Their numbers seemed overwhelming. Kidd wrote, "the men fought valiantly against great odds. … The trench … & shelters were soon filled with our dead and dying but the few men left under Lt Throssell and Sgt Henderson fought like lions & killed many Turks" (35). Throssell, in an interview with his hometown newspaper the Northam Advertiser, claimed the Turks who attacked during the third counter-attack appeared to be fresh and very determined troops (36). These may have been the recently arrived reinforcements from the 17th Regiment.

Again Throssell and his men were all injured by bullets and bomb fragments and forced to yield a few yards of trench. Kidd noted, "as Throssell was hit I ordered him to withdraw after pulling out our wounded as these places were perfect death pits" (37). At the climax of the third counter-attack, the Turks closed to within ten metres of the light horsemen. In one small pocket of the battle Throssell, Henderson, Ferrier, Renton MacNee and Stanley were all wounded but still fighting from their exposed position. McMahon was killed at this time and the Turks launched another attack at the Australian rear. Kidd met this threat by personally leading a dozen of his men in counter-attack. Just as they appeared to be overrun, a small party of New Zealanders and men from the 18th dragged a machine-gun into the open to engage the enemy. Kidd's men and the machine-gun fire drove them back. It is not clear who dispatched the machine-gun. Whether it was the inspired initiative of an individual or small group will never be known, but D-C Trench held and the attack faded to a deadly bombing and sniping duel. The attack had lasted an hour.

Sid Ferrier (reputed to have thrown 500 bombs that night) (38) caught a bomb thrown by a retreating Turk but it exploded before he could return it. He would have his arm amputated and die of tetanus ten days later.

With daylight the counter-attacks ceased. According to Lt Col Arthur Olden, author of the 10th Light Horse's regimental history and one of the officers wounded in the August fighting, there were barely 70 men of the 10th Light Horse left alive and fighting on Hill 60 by the 30th of August (39).

Tom Kidd recorded that, "All of the officers withdrawn to rest in bivouac, being the healthiest animal I remained on duty & took command … weary but damned pleased with myself" (40).

After the battle, Kidd recommended Throssell for the Victoria Cross. He would be the only Australian light horsemen to win that greatest of awards for valour. Of his men, Henderson, MacNee, Renton and Stanley would be awarded Distinguished Conduct Medals. Tommy Renton lost his leg (41).

The summit of Hill 60 was never wrested from the Turks but, by holding the seaward slopes, the ANZAC flank was secured and the link with Suvla opened. In 1920, Major Fred Waite, New Zealand's historian of the Gallipoli campaign wrote, "The struggle near Kaiajik Aghala was the last pitched battle on the Peninsula" (42).

Looking back, the fighting on Hill 60 on 29 August 1915 seems inconclusive. However, after the failure - or at best, limited success - of the grand offensives that started the month - the British landing at Suvla, the Australian charges at Lone Pine and the Nek, the assaults by the New Zealanders at Chunuk Bair and the Australians at Hill 971 - little victories in the battles to consolidate limited gains had impact beyond the raw statistics of ground taken and casualties inflicted. Hill 60 was such a battle.

Endnotes:
1. Bean, C.E.W. Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 747
2. Masefield, J. Gallipoli Heinemann London 1916 page 160
3. Knight, W. Stanley MacBean The history of the great European War volume V England c1918 page 162
4. Hamilton to Kitchener, 31 Aug. War Office Tels 3, 15, Cab 19/31.
5. Bean, C.E.W. Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 Chapter XXVI
6. For example, John Robertson's excellent ANZAC and empire, published in 1990, gives a more detailed account but still takes no more than a page. Others omit it altogether.
7. Moorehead, A. Gallipoli London 1956 page 295 [Mead and Beckett illustrated edition 1989 page 246]
8. One of the most heavily committed units the 18th Battalion AIF did not produce a unit history. Wanliss N. The History of the Fourteenth Battalion AIF Melbourne 1929 and Chataway, T.P. History of the 15th Battalion 1914-1918 Brisbane 1948 each devote less than ten pages to their accounts of the battle.
9. Milligan, S. Rommel gunner who? Penguin 1974 page 48
10. Spelling of Turkish place names are based on those used in the Australian Official History published in the 1920s
11. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 724
12. Bean, ibid. page 724
13. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 740
14. War diary of Private E.H. Stephenson 18th Bn AIF, unpublished, in the possession of his son, Mr Jim Stephenson of Goulburn
15. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 744
16. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 749
17. War diary of Private E.H. Stephenson 18 Bn AIF, unpublished, in the possession of his son Jim Stephenson of Goulburn
18. War diary of Private E.H. Stephenson 18 Bn AIF, unpublished, in the possession of his son Jim Stephenson of Goulburn
19. Bean Gallipoli mission AWM Canberra 1948 pages 225-226
20. Troop strengths at Hill 60 (Bomba Tepe) according to Kenan Celik's translation of the Turkish "official" (i.e., General Staff) history, Volume 2, June 1915 to January 1916. The title is: Birinci dunya harbi'nde Turk Harbi: Canakkale cephesi harekati Call No: 940.4259 T939
21. Bean, Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924 page 756
22. Bean, ibid. page 756
23. PR82/137 Kidd, Thomas Anderson (Major b.1879 d.1957) Diaries mentioning Gallipoli; Hill 60 (Gallipoli); Nek (Gallipoli); Palestine; Quinn's Post; Walker's Ridge; Romani; 10 Light Horse Regiment; 1915-1916
24. Troop strengths at Hill 60 (Bomba Tepe) according to Kenan Celik's translation of the Turkish "official" (i.e., General Staff) history, Volume 2, June 1915 to January 1916. The title is: Birinci dunya harbi'nde Turk Harbi: Canakkale cephesi harekati Call No: 940.4259 T939
25. Kidd diary op. cit.
26. Bean, op. cit page 757
27. William Lauchlan Sanderson would survive the war and return to Western Australia with a Military Cross and an Order of the British Empire. AWM 133 AIF Nominal Roll
28. Kidd diary op. cit.
29. ibid
30. Bean op. cit. page 757
31. ibid page 758
32. ibid
33. 10 ALH war diary entry for 29 August AWM 4 Roll 165 10 ALH R 10/15/1-10/15/50
34. 1DRL/0581 Throssell, Hugo Vivian (Captain, Vc, 10 Light Horse Regiment, AIF B. 1884 D. 1933) Letter written by THROSSELL to mother of Cpl Ferrier giving circumstances of his death; Report by Throssell on action at Hill 60, Gallipoli 29 Aug 1915, the action for which he received his VC and recommendation for "Special mention" for two troopers of 10 ALH Regt
Gallipoli; Hill 60 (Gallipoli); 10 Light Horse Regiment; 1916 , 3 ITEMS letter 2/Lt Throssell to Mrs Ferrier, 4 March 1916 re death of Cpl Sid Ferrier
35. Kidd diary op. cit
36. Northam Advertiser March 1918
37. Kidd diary op. cit
38. Olden, A C N Westralian cavalry in the war McCubbin Melbourne 1921 page 59
39. ibid. page 61
40. Kidd diary op. cit
41. For the citations of the decorations earned at Hill 60 by members of the 10th Light Horse Regiment see the London Gazette of 15 October 1915 for Throssell's VC and the Commonwealth Gazettes of 24 February 1916 for the Distinguished Conduct Medals to Henderson, MacNee and Stanley and the CG of 21 September 1916 for Renton's DCM
42. Waite Maj DSO NZE The New Zealanders at Gallipoli Whitcome and Tombs Ltd Auckland 1921 page 259

References
Published Books
Bean, C E W Gallipoli Mission AWM Canberra 1948
Bean, C E W Official History of Australia in the War 1914-1918 Volume II A&R 1924
Chataway, T P History of the 15th Battalion 1914-1918 Brisbane 1948
Knight, W Stanley MacBean The History of the Great European War volume V England c1918
Masefield, J Gallipoli Heinemann London 1916
Milligan, S Rommel Gunner Who? Penguin 1974
Moorehead, A Gallipoli Hamish Hamilton London 1956
Moorehead, A Gallipoli Mead and Beckett illustrated edition 1989
Olden, A C N Westralian Cavalry in the War McCubbin Melbourne 1921
Robertson, J ANZAC and Empire Cooper London 1990
Waite Maj DSO NZE The New Zealanders at Gallipoli Whitcome and Tombs Ltd Auckland 1921
Wanliss N The History of the Fourteenth battalion AIF Melbourne 1929

Newspapers/Gazettes
Commonwealth Gazettes of 24 February 1916
Commonwealth Gazettes of 21 September 1916
London Gazette of 15 October 1915
Northam Advertiser March 1918

Unpublished
war diary of Private E H Stephenson 18 Bn AIF, in the possession of his son Jim Stephenson of Goulburn

AWM Research Centre
AWM 133 AIF Nominal Roll
1DRL/0581 THROSSELL, HUGO VIVIAN (CAPTAIN, VC, 10 LIGHT HORSE REGIMENT, AIF B. 1884 D. 1933) LETTER WRITTEN BY THROSSELL TO MOTHER OF CPL FERRIER GIVING CIRCUMSTANCES OF HIS DEATH; REPORT BY THROSSELL ON ACTION AT HILL 60, GALLIPOLI 29 AUG 1915, THE ACTION FOR WHICH HE RECEIVED HIS VC AND RECOMMENDATION FOR "SPECIAL MENTION" FOR TWO TROOPERS OF 10 ALH REGT
Gallipoli; Hill 60 (Gallipoli); 10 Light Horse Regiment; 1916, 3 ITEMS letter 2/Lt Throssell to Mrs Ferrier, 4 March 1916 re death of Cpl Sid Ferrier
10th ALH war diary entry for 29 August AWM 4 Roll 165 10 ALH R 10/15/1-10/15/50
PR82/137 KIDD, THOMAS ANDERSON (MAJOR b.1879 d.1957) Dairies mentioning Gallipoli; Hill 60 (Gallipoli); Nek (Gallipoli); Palestine; Quinn's Post; Walker's Ridge; Romani; 10 Light Horse Regiment; 1915-1916
Birinci dunya harbi'nde Turk Harbi: Canakkale cephesi harekati Call No: 940.4259 T939
Hamilton to Kitchener, 31 Aug. War Office Tels 3, 15, Cab 19/31


http://www.awm.gov.au/events/conference/gallipoli_symposium/manera.asp
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Friedrichsfeld Concert of August 1915

The Théatre de l'Exil presented a four-act comedy, "Le Gendre de Mr. Poirier," to the prisoners of war at Friedrichsfeld on 29 August 1915. The Comité d'Initaitive et de Bienfaissance (Committee of Initiative and Charity) sponsored the performance with American YMCA support. At the bottom left of the program, note the coat of arms for the prison camp. The American War Prisoners' Aid secretary, who probably attended the show, made notes on the back of the program. The YMCA often supported theatrical performances for the benefit of the prison camp population with costumes, props, and scripts.(1)

Note 1: Concert du 29 Aoft 1915, 29 August 1915. Armed Services Records Box 53, Folder: "Prisoner of War Work in Germany-1914-1915," Kautz Family YMCA Archives, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Uit: Pursuit of an 'Unparalleled Opportunity'. The American YMCA and Prisoner of War Diplomacy among the Central Power Nations during World War I, 1914-1923, by Kenneth Steuer, http://www.gutenberg-e.org/steuer/index.html
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T. E. Lawrence to A. B. Watt

Military Intelligence Office
War Office, Cairo

29.8.15

Dear Watt
Many thanks for your letter in June last. I couldn't answer it, either then or now, as this Dardanelles show lags all the time. Of course you understand that you will be 'wanted' if ever we go your way:- and there's an off chance of it. Only the big show must go wrong or right first. I never knew quite so leisurely a proceeding though!

For the enclosed business:- are you a map-reader? Because this thing is new, and very bad in places, and I want corrections where possible. Old Beard would be the man:- but he is missing!

Will you run over your routes in it, knock out what you see is wrong, and put it in right if you can: also where there is room, and you know other villages, can you fit them in? Corrections should be in red.

I'm not sending you hills:- only a proof of the black and blue: and despite my example of speed in reply to letters I'll ask for it
back fairly soon. Remember me to Mrs. Watt, and Mr. Lorimer.

Yours sincerely

T.E. Lawrence

P.S. The D.H.P. Rly is right... and the Orontes course should be right also: they are proper surveys. The coast is Admiralty chart, for which not much can be said probably. Gebel Riha and Gebel Barisha are from American Expedition's maps.

TEL

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150829_watt.htm
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'Vauquois', 29th August 1915, (1926).

The hill of the Butte de Vauquois in the Argonne occupied a strategic position as an observation point. The Germans captured the hill in 1914 and heavily fortified it. After a series of counter-attacks the French established themselves on the southern slopes in 1915, with the Germans holding the northern flank of the hill. For the remaining three years of the war both sides turned the Butte de Vauquois into a warren of tunnels and caves as they sought to plant mines beneath each other's positions. The largest of these, detonated by the Germans in May 1916, used 60, 000 kg of explosive and left a crater 80 metres across and 20 metres deep, killing 108 French soldiers. Bizarrely, the two sides met at one point in 1917 and mutually agreed to only detonate mines between the hours of 4 and 7 pm, a pact which lasted for two months. By the time the Germans withdrew from the hill in 1918, 8000 men had been killed and the village that stood on its top before the war had been completely obliterated.

Image supplied by Heritage Images, http://www.mediastorehouse.com/pictures_1225639/vauquois-29th-august-1915-1926.html
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Hindenburg becomes German Chief of Staff, 29th August, 1916

Paul von Hindenburg was born in Posen in 1847. After being educated at the cadet schools at Wahlstatt and Berlin he fought at the Battle of Koniggratz (1866) and in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Promoted to the rank of general in 1903, Hindenburg retired from the army in 1911.

On the outbreak of the First World War Hindenburg was recalled to the German Army and after being sent to the Eastern Front won decisive victories over the Russians at Tannenberg (1914) and the Masaurian Lakes (1915). Seen as the saviour of East Prussia, he was promoted to field marshal and on the 29th August 1916 became Chief of Staff of the German Army.

With the support of senior military officers and right-wing industrialists, Hindenburg and his quartermaster general, Erich von Ludendorff, formed what became known as the Third Supreme Command. This military-industrial dictatorship held power until 29th September 1918, when with defeat inevitable, the government of Germany was returned to the Reichstag.

Hindenburg retired from the German Army in October, 1918, but continued to take an active interest in politics. In 1925 Hindenburg replaced Friedrich Ebert as President of Germany. Re-elected in 1932 he did not oppose the rise of Adolf Hitler and in January 1933, appointed him Chancellor. Paul von Hindenburg was so popular with the German people that Hitler was unable to overthrow constitutional government until his death in 1934.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWhindenburg.htm

By the start of August, Haig had accepted that the prospect of achieving a breakthrough was now unlikely; the Germans had "recovered to a great extent from the disorganisation" of July. For the next six weeks, the British would engage in a series of small-scale actions in preparation for the next major push. On 29 August the German Chief of the General Staff, Erich Falkenhayn, was replaced by General Paul von Hindenburg, with General Erich Ludendorff as his deputy, but in effect the operational commander. The immediate effect of this change was the introduction of a new defensive doctrine. On 23 September the Germans began constructing the Siegfried Stellung, called the Hindenburg Line by the British.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Somme#Attrition:_August_and_September
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Aug 2010 17:18, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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The Loss of the USS Memphis on 29 August 1916 - Was a Tsunami Responsible? Analysis of a Naval Disaster
George Pararas-Carayannis

INTRODUCTION - On August 29, 1916, while anchored off Santo Domingo (Ciudad Trujillo) harbor in the Dominican Republic, the armored cruiser U.S.S. Memphis was struck broadside by numerous storm waves and, finally, by an enormous wave which drove the ship into the rocks on the shore. The damage to its hull and engines was irreparable. A subsequent Court of Inquiry and the court-martial of the captain, attributed the loss of the ship to a tsunami. The following analysis documents that the loss of the ship was not due to a tsunami as the official Navy records indicate and that it could have been prevented with proper planning and vigilance. Human errors and lack of knowledge of a passing hurricane were primarily responsible for the loss of the Memphis.

The USS Memphis - The USS Memphis was a large 14,500-ton displacement armored cruiser that had been launched on 3 December 1904 and originally named "Tennessee". Her armament included four ten-inch guns in twin turrets, sixteen six-inch guns, and twenty-two three-inch guns. The ship had two steam powered engines and was capable of reaching a speed of 23 knots.

The USS Memphis' Mission - In 1916, an unstable government and political unrest at San Domingo (now the Dominican Republic) required the dispatch of U.S. Marines to protect U.S. interests on this Caribbean nation on the island of Hispaniola. The USS Memphis was ordered to sail to the harbor of Santo Domingo, the capital, to support the U.S. Marines stationed there. Captain Edward J. Beach, was the ship's commander. Also, the Memphis was the flagship of Rear Admiral Charles F. Pond, the ranking U.S. Navy Commander in the region.or peace-keeping patrol off the rebellion-torn Dominican Republic arrived at Santo Domingo harbor in early August 1929.

Lees verder op http://www.drgeorgepc.com/LossUSSMemphis.html , vooral voor de Chronology of Events in the afternoon of 29 August 1916 leading to the Loss of USS Memphis
Zie ook http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/ev-1910s/ev-1916/memphis.htm
Zie ook http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/OnlineLibrary/photos/events/ev-1910s/ev-1916/memph-4.htm
Zie ook http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/llcrosier.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Aug 2010 17:27, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August 29, 1916: New War Power for the President

In the summer of 1916, Woodrow Wilson and Charles Evans Hughes were locked in close contest to see if Wilson would receive a second term, Congress allowed that the president -- whomever it would be -- would have a new extraordinary power during time of war.

On August 29, 1916, Congress passed "An Act Making Appropriations for the Support of the Army for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917," and it contained the following language: "The President, in time of war, is empowered, through the Secretary of War, to take possession and assume control of any system or systems of transportation, or any part thereof, and to utilize the same, to the exclusion as far as may be necessary of other than war traffic thereon, for the transfer or transportation of troops, war material and equipment, and for other such purposes connected with the emergency as may be needful if desirable."

The best-remembered example of a president using this power was in 1950, when President Truman seized the railroads to avert a strike-related shutdown a few weeks into the Korean War (see August 25). But President Wilson made use of the act much earlier, in December of 1917.

According to Getting There: The Epic Struggle Between Road and Rail in the American Century, (2000) Stephen B. Goddard wrote: "Railroad leaders held the key to effective mobilization [in World War I]. Feeling the public’s angry glare upon them, they created a war board, to gather their independent lines into one massive network. But asking bitter rivals to cooperate in servicing each other’s customers predictably produced only bickering and backbiting. And the smothering restrictions upon them by the Interstate Commerce Commission compromised their efficiency. By December, Wilson knew that the time for jawboning and conciliation had passed. The President seized control of the nation’s railways but left their ownership untouched.

"To relieve the overwhelmed railroads, the military had little choice but to order trucks bound for the European front to drive from Midwestern plants across narrow, frozen dirt roads to the Atlantic Coast, during a winter that turned out to be one of the most severe on record. Thirty thousand trucks bumped along as crews worked around the clock to clear heavy snowdrifts. Throughout 1918, America’s shackled and antiquated railroads and its pitifully inadequate roads did their best to mobilize and supply an overseas force of two million men."

http://deadpresidentsdaily.blogspot.com/2007/08/august-29-1916-new-war-power-for.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mucky Farm 1916

Then it began to rain. The moonscape became a quagmire. Passchendael in the summer of 1917 has made an impact in history as the battle of mud, but many commentators have stated that the Somme was worse.

At 23:00 hours on 29 August a night attack was launched across the mud resulting in units getting lost in the shell holes and battered trench systems. The attack was a complete failure. Almost 500 more casualties were suffered by the two battalions that had made the attack.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_mouquet.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dora B. Montefiore, 1918: "A Poet of Nameless Horrors"
Source: The Call, 29 August 1918, p. 3

“Counter-attack,” and Other poems, by Siegfried Sassoon. (William Heinemann, 25. 6d. net.)

Absolute sincerity is the keynote to this collection of poems inspired by the present war. No writer can, any more than can any painter, give a picture of a battle because they are each of them able only to reproduce their impressions or recollections of that corner of the fight in which they were engaged; but modern trench warfare—with its dreary, dragged-out monotony of attacks and counter-attacks, sniping, gas-clouds, drum-fire, and existence in dug-outs and funk-holes—lends itself to bald and crudely sincere writing in a way that no other warfare has ever done. The soul of Siegfried Sassoon was wrenched awry by the passion of pity he felt for the men who had to face, day by day, under his command the nameless horrors to which politicians and statesrnen have for the last four years been exposing them.

“Mutinous I cried
To those who sent them out into the night.
The darkness tells how vainly I have striven
To free them from the pit where they must dwell
In outcast gloom convulsed and jagged and riven
By grappling guns. Love drove me to rebel.
Love drives me back to grope with them through hell;
And in their tortured eyes I stand forgiven.”


We all know the history of Sassoon’s very noble rebellion, and we pulse with the thought that it has not been in vain. Militarism, which is the modern expression of capitalism, is still in the saddle and riding recklessly to its appointed doom; but its trampling heels shall not for ever crush the peoples of the earth, and the poet voices, among whom flashes the tongue of scorn and irony of Sassoon, shall count among the forces that will destroy for ever the old ideal of life being a competitive struggle on the physical plane, and shall ring in the newer ideal of its emerging on that plane as a co-operative brotherhood, with the struggle removed to the spiritual plane of a struggle for higher and nobler life.

Sassoon in his vision of the future hears:

“The Yellow-Pressmen grunt and squeal;
And with my trusty bombers turned and went
To clear these junkers out of Parliament.”


His haunting “Survivors,” brought vividly back to my mind the months I worked in 1915-16 in the war-zone of the French Army just behind the Arras trenches. In, a hospital “depot” accommodating 600 men were collected the sick (not the wounded), who week by week were drafted out of the mud-logged trenches west of Arras, and were returned in drafts, week by week, to stand up once again against the accumulated long-drawn tortures which trench fighting in winter entails. There in this dreary barrack yard crawled about for a few weeks’ rest the men and boys with trench-feet, skin-diseases, shell shock, and syphilis; then came round the weekly necessity of making up the numbers of the returning draft; the bugle sounded the fatal summons, and out into the daylight straggled unwillingly, in patched-up uniforms and cleaned accoutrements, the half-healed men who had been chosen as once more "fit" for trench service.

“No doubt they’ll soon get well: the shock and strain
Have caused their stammering; disconnected talk.
Of course they’re longing to go out again:—
These boys with old, scarred faces, learning to walk,
They’ll soon forget their haunted nights; their cowed
Subjection to the ghosts of friends who died, -
Their dreams that drip with murder; and they’ll be proud
Of glorious war that shattered all their pride…
Men who went out to battle, grim and glad;
Children, with eyes that hate you, broken, and mad.”


This was written October, 1917. Are the peoples of the world still going to allow in October, 1918, “their dreams to drip with murder”? Let the answer come swiftly; and let “the trusty bombers” act.

D.B. MONTEFIORE

http://www.marxists.org/archive/montefiore/1918/08/29.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flanders, July to August 1917

"Field Marshal Haig reviewed the 2nd and 5th Divisions on parade on August 29 and commented to Major General Brudenell White, the AIF's chief staff officer, that they could not have marched better had they endured years of peacetime training. White, who had been largely responsible for winning the Australians their long rest, already knew this."

"On the very day, August 29, 1917, that Haig inspected the AIF 2nd and 5th Divisions…General Plumer and the corps commanders knew that the task of capturing the key position on Passchendaele Ridge would be given to I Anzac Corps. It had also been decided that II Anzac Corps would enter the battle first to relieve and then support I Anzac."

http://percysmith.blogspot.com/2007/04/chapter-27-flanders-july-to-august-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CANADA’S FORCES

29 August 1917 - Conscription becomes law in Canada.

By 1914 Canada was populated by 7.5 million people and had a militia of some 57,000 members. But within three weeks of the outbreak of the First World War more than 45,000 people had volunteered for military service. The first 30,000 Canadian troops bound for the war set sail from Gaspé, Québec for England on 3 and 4 October, 1914, aboard 33 ships.

http://www.legion.ca/About/military_e.cfm#dates
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Stanley Stewart

Private Stanley Stewart of 2nd Bn. Royal Scots Fusiliers who had been in France from November 1914, and had already been invalided home wounded and with shell shock. Went absent on 25 July 1917 and was executed aged 21 on 29 August 1917 at Kemmel despite claiming he had been in a lunatic asylum for 4 years before the war.

http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/gardiner2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Amiens, 8 August-3 September 1918

(...) On 26 August the Germans held a new line running along the Somme south from Péronne, then across open country to Noyon on the Oise. On 29 August the New Zealanders capture Bapaume, in the centre of this line. The Australians made the next breakthrough, fighting their way across the Somme on the night of 30-31 August and capturing Péronne. Finally, on 2 September the Canadian Corps, fighting with the First Army, broke through the Drocourt-Quéant switch, south east of Arras. These breakthroughs forced the Germans to abandon the line of the Somme and retreat all the way to the Hindenburg Line. (...)

Rickard, J (5 September 2007), Battle of Amiens, 8 August-3 September 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_amiens.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A panorama...

...showing Biaches, Mont St Quentin, and the high ground north of Peronne, photographed from near La Maisonette, 29th August 1918. On this date the Australian line, established that morning, ran through Biaches and along the near side of the canal. A great deal of enemy movement could be observed.

Foto... http://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/1918/battles/amiens.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 17:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herbecourt, 29 August 1918

Description: A mobile battery of anti aircraft guns behind the Australian lines. In the centre foreground two unidentified soldiers are holding a shell and preparing to pass it up to the gunners.
Place made: France: Picardie, Somme Herbecourt.
Comment: These are 13 pounder 9 cwt guns on Mk 3 mounting.
Date: 29 August 1918

Foto... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:13pdr9cwtAABatteryHerbecourt29August1918.jpeg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Soldiers Fight As Volunteers With The British Army at Archangel, Northern Russia in 1919

On 29 August 1919, the last British offensive along the railway occurred at Emtsa. The assault on Emsta was a planned attack, in which a White Russian unit was to make a frontal attack on the positions of the 155th Regiment of the Red Army. Attached were the Australians, on their right, and prior to the assault they moved under the cover of darkness to within 70 yards (64 m) of the Bolshevik positions. During the ensuing fighting an Australian, Sergeant "Samuel George Pearse" cut his way through the barbed wire entanglements under heavy enemy fire, clearing a way for others to enter. With the fire from a number of blockhouses causing casualties among the assaulting troops, Pearse then charged the blockhouses single-handedly with his Lewis gun, killing the occupants with bombs before being killed by machine-gun fire himself soon after. For his actions he was later awarded the second Victoria Cross of the campaign. He already was awarded the Military Medal.

http://ahoy.tk-jk.net/macslog/AustralianSoldiersFightAs.html

Samuel George Pearse

Samuel George Pearse VC, MM, (16 July 1897 – 29 August 1919) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Samuel George Pearse was born on 16 July 1897 at Penarth, Glamorganshire, Wales and educated at Penarth Grammar School. His family moved to Mildura, Victoria (Australia) in 1911 where he joined the local Legion of Frontiersmen's Unit.

Pearse served at the Battle of Gallipoli briefly and then in France. He was 22 years old, and a sergeant in the 45th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers, British Army during the North Russia Campaign under the command of Lionel Sadleir-Jackson when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 29 August 1919, north of Emtsa, North Russia, Sergeant Pearse cut his way through enemy barbed wire under very heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and cleared a way for the troops to enter an enemy battery position. He then charged a blockhouse which was harassing the advance and causing casualties, and killed the occupants with bombs. A minute later he was killed, but it was due to him that the position was carried with so few casualties.

He was buried in Souset Cemetery, Archangel, North Russia. His Victoria Cross, Military Medal and service medals are privately held.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_George_Pearse
Zie ook http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duitse opmars door België tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog

(...) De Duitse generaal Von Beseler verovert Mechelen op 27 september 1914 en daarmee is de Duitse aanval op Antwerpen geopend. De volgende dag beschieten de Duitsers de forten rond Antwerpen met 420-mm en 305-mm granaten. Op 29 augustus 1914 bereiken de Duitsers de eerste bruggen maar worden onder vuur genomen vanuit het Fort van Walem. Een Duitse granaat komt in het munitiemagazijn terecht en het fort is niet meer. Ook Fort Sint-Katelijne-Waver wordt na 30 uur beschietingen ijlings verlaten. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duitse_opmars_door_Belgi%C3%AB_tijdens_de_Eerste_Wereldoorlog
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 19:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sándor Ferenczi to Sigmund Freud, August 29, 1914

Budapest, August 29, 19141

Dear Professor,

Since the possibility of my being called up is still imminent, I am postponing the planned trip for the time being.—Worried, but otherwise well.

Yours,

Ferenczi

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.026.0016a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 19:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zonnebeke, Tyne Cot Cemetery

Tyne Cot is een verzamelbegraafplaats: de stoffelijke overschotten van duizenden die er nu rusten werden hier na de oorlog van geïsoleerde graven en kleine begraafplaatsen overgebracht. Het was echter ook een begraafplaats op het slagveld. De grafstenen direct achter het grote kruis die in minder georganiseerde rijen staan, zijn de oorspronkelijke begraafplaatsen. In perceel 1, rij C, graf 10 ligt een Anzac, sergeant Alexander Fraser van het 9de Bataljon (Queensland), op 2 november 1917 in de strijd gedood. Fraser, nummer 227, tekende zijn ‘bevestigingsdocument van personen die zich aangemeld hebben voor dienst in het buitenland’ op 29 augustus 1914 bij de AIF. Dat was drie weken na het uitbreken van de oorlog, wat Fraser tussen degenen plaatst die voor aanmelding toestroomden en dachten dat de oorlog tegen de kerst voorbij zou zijn en dat ze er snel bij moesten zijn om een kans te maken om naar het buitenland gestuurd te worden. Charles Bean beschreef deze enthousiasten:

De eerste stroom die zich aanmeldde bracht een soort mannen naar de 1ste Australische Divisie die niet helemaal hetzelfde was als diegenen die later aan een oproep gevolg gaven … al het romantische, wereldvreemde, avontuurlijke wrakhout dat tussen de Australische bevolking rondliep concentreerde zich binnen die eerste weken in de aanmeldingskantoren van de AIF.Charles Bean, The Story of Anzac, Vol I, Sydney, 1938, blz. 43

Zag Fraser, een 34-jarige verzekeringsagent, zich als een ‘romanticus’, een ‘wereldvreemde’ en een ‘avonturier’ toen hij op 25 april 1915 bij zonsopgang met het 9de Bataljon tussen de eerste Australiërs aan de kust van Gallipoli landde?

Hij vond de dood in de koude, natte modder van de Ieper Salient toen eind oktober en begin november 1917 de Australiërs de frontlinie bezetten ter ondersteuning van de Canadese aanvallen op Passendale. Het waren dan ook de Canadezen die deze Anzac in Tyne Cot begroeven.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/nl-be/tyne-cot/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Hie guet Brandenburg alle Weg" - De Brandenburgse inscripties van de groeve Cinq Piliers

(...) Aan de vooravond van de Eerste Wereldoorlog was in bepaalde militaire kringen de uitroep "Allewege" ingeburgerd geraakt als begroeting. Op de Ritterakademie Brandenburg en onder het officierskorps van het 1.Garde Regiment zu Fuß was het de dagelijkse manier van groeten. Een strijder vertelt een herinnering aan een bloedige gevechtsdag op 29 augustus 1914 bij Guise :
"Wij gewonde officieren werden in een schoollokaal in le Sourd gebracht, en in het halfdonker klonk telkens weer "Allewege" wanneer een medestrijder werd binnengedragen. Dat was voor mij onvergetelijk !" (...)

http://www.grensland1418.nl/Hieguet4.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische vluchtelingen in Angers

De eerste Belgische vluchtelingen kwamen toe in Angers op 20 augustus 1914. Het waren drie mannen uit de provincie Luxemburg. Zij werden ondergebracht in het Cantonnement Petit Séminaire de Montgazon (5). Dit was de eerste opvangplaats in Angers voor vluchtelingen. De opvang was vooral het werk van het Syndicat d'Initiative de l'Anjou, een vereniging die reeds in 1906 werd opgericht en ontzettend veel voor de vluchtelingen heeft gedaan. Het zorgde voor opvang en huisvesting, voedsel, werk en ontspanning voor de talrijke vluchtelingen. In het lokale dagblad Le Petit Courier (6) kan men verder lezen dat op zaterdag 29 augustus 1914 opnieuw Belgen toekomen en dat voor hen in de stad een inzameling wordt gehouden, vooral kleding en dekens worden gevraagd.

Voetnoten
(5) Stadsarchief Angers, Fonds 4 H 74.
(6) Dit lokaal dagblad van Angers bevat bijna dagelijks nieuws over de oorlog in het algemeen en in het bijzonder over de vluchtelingen in Angers en het departement Maine et Loire. De volledige collectie kan in het stadsarchief geraadpleegd worden.


http://www.wo1.be/ned/geschiedenis/gastbijdragen/DaanHoflack.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lauwens en Lauwers in krijgsdienst & tijdens oorlog

Lauwers Aloïs, soldaat milicien 2e klas, 1 Artillerie / Bij "Lance Grenades", werd geboren op 16 december 1898 te Klerken als zoon van Justin Lauwers en Sylvie Bourgeois. "Liever dood dan Duits" vermeldde zijn doodsprentje... hij sneuvelde op 18 september 1918 te Woumen, en werd begraven in het naburige Merkem (graf 2931). Zijn vader was overleden op 29 augustus 1914 op 45-jarige leeftijd, naar verluid bij het horen luiden van de oorlogsklokken, bij het uitbreken van de oorlog.

http://www.laurentii.be/Lauwensmilitair.htm Mooie site trouwens.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leuven

De grote oorlogsbrand van 29 augustus 1914 legde het stadscentrum grotendeels in as en net zoals de universiteitsbibliotheek in de Naamsestraat was de nieuwbouw van het Tafelronde weerloos tegen de vlammen. Tijdens de heropbouw na de Eerste Wereldoorlog moesten belangrijke stedenbouwkundige knopen worden doorgehakt. Op de Grote Markt had men blijkbaar nostalgie naar het middeleeuwse Tafelrond, want het gebouw werd opnieuw opgericht, dit keer in de zogenaamde neo-gotiek. Burgemeester Tobback, nooit om een bon-mot verlegen, sprak ooit van „nep-gotiek”. Het Tafelrond ziet er dan wel uit als een broertje van het stadhuis, een geoefend oog merkt dat het nog geen 100 jaar oud is. De romaanse ramen en de gotische torentjes en nissen vloeken immers met elkaar.

http://www.leuvencentraal.org/artikel/van-leegstand-naar-welstand
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russische matrozen uit Kronstadt en Vyborg arriveren op 29 augustus 1917 in Sint Petersburg voor de strijd met het leger van generaal Kornilov

http://beeldbank.nationaalarchief.nl/nl/afbeeldingen/indeling/detail/start/1/trefwoord/Geografisch_trefwoord/Leningrad
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Aug 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VERDRAG TUSSCHEN HET KONINKRIJK DER NEDERLANDEN EN HET DUITSCHE RIJK BETREFFENDE DE OPHOOGING VAN DEN OUDEN RIJNMOND BIJ LOBITH, GETEEKEND TE BERLIJN DEN 29 AUGUSTUS 1918 MET ADDITIONEEL PROTOCOL GETEEKEND TE BERLIJN DEN 5 JULI 1921.

http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/20/20/00038992.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Aug 2010 12:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Victor Vandenbergen (100), een van de laatste getuigen van De Brand van Leuven
,,Leuven was een ruïne''
vrijdag 16 april 2004

LEUVEN - ,,We waren op de vlucht naar Winksele en zagen de vlammen boven Leuven uitstijgen. De hele stad stond in brand.'' Het zijn beelden die Victor Vandenbergen (100) nooit zal vergeten. Hij is één van de laatste Leuvenaars die zich de Brand van Leuven in 1914 herinnert. De stad herdenkt volgende maand de grootste ramp in haar geschiedenis, nu negentig jaar geleden.

Victor Vandenbergen was tien jaar toen het Duitse leger op 20 augustus 1914 Leuven binnenmarcheerde en enkele dagen later huis na huis in brand stak. Nu is hij honderd jaar, en woont in het rusthuis van de Zusters van Liefde aan het Sint-Jacobsplein. De kranige senior herinnert zich elk detail van de Brand van Leuven. ,,Ik stond met mijn grootmoeder in de deur van ons huis aan de Lei, toen we paardengetrappel hoorden weerklinken. De eerste Duitsers die ik zag, zaten hoog op hun paard, de lans in aanslag. We waren bang, uiteraard. We hadden de verhalen van kindermoorden en plunderingen gehoord. Maar de Duitsers gedroegen zich correct. Toen toch.''

Schietpartij

Op 25 augustus ontstond er een schietpartij aan het station. ,,Er werd beweerd dat Leuvenaars hadden geschoten op de Duitse soldaten. Een neef van mij wist echter dat de Duitsers onderling hadden gevochten. Hoe dan ook kwamen er represailles. De dag dat de Brand van Leuven begon, was ik met mijn familie op zolder. We zagen hoe de vlammen uit het dak van de Sint- Pieterskerk sloegen. We wilden in Leuven blijven, maar een buurman vertelde dat de Duitsers de stad langs vier hoeken in de as wilden leggen. De dag erna zijn we vertrokken. Een witte vlag en witte banden rond de arm moesten ons beschermen. Alleen het hoogstnoodzakelijke hadden we op zak.''

Biljartballen

,,Mijn bompa had enkele biljartballen meegenomen. Die waren in ivoor, en uiterst waardevol. Aan de Aarschotsesteenweg hielden de Duitsers ons tegen. Mijn vader werd meegenomen, de rest mocht verder. In Winksele-Delle kregen we onderdak. We zagen van daar hoe de hele stad in brand stond.''

Victor bleef met zijn familie een week in Winksele, en keerde dan terug naar Leuven. ,,Aan de Vaartstraat zagen we hoe de Duitsers een woning aan het leeghalen waren. We waren bang, ja. Bang om wat er met ons huis zou gebeurd zijn. Maar het stond er nog. Onze buurt was gespaard gebleven. Elders was de schade enorm. De Brusselsestraat, de Diestsestraat, de Oude Markt. Het was één puinhoop. Ik herinner me de mooie boeken van de universiteitsbibliotheek aan de Naamsestraat nog voor de oorlog. Daar bleef slechts een ruïne van over.''

De grootvader van Victor had zijn biljartballen in Winksele achtergelaten. Toen hij die later wilde ophalen, bleek het huis waar ze onderdak hadden gekregen platgebrand. ,,Maar na de oorlog werd hij vergoed voor dat verlies'', herinnert Victor zich. De vader van Victor werd gedeporteerd naar Keulen, maar kon een al week later terugkeren naar Brussel. Daar dook hij nog een week onder en kwam dan terug naar Leuven.

,,Tijdens de oorlog hadden we geen grote problemen met de Duitsers. Ze moesten wel koper en matrassen hebben, en gingen die zoeken bij de burgers.''

Verstopt op zolder

,,We hadden al onze goede matrassen verstopt op zolder, en de slechte matrassen hadden we op de bedden gelegd. Maar ze waren slimmer dan dat, en ze vonden alle matrassen. Ze waren wel eerlijk. We kregen een bonnetje, en na de oorlog werden we vergoed. Eerlijk, maar niet heerlijk.''

http://www.nieuwsblad.be/article/detail.aspx?articleid=G805BKIB
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=15885&highlight=&sid=a4a87ebb3edeb9e66639d982d1e62a92 voor foto's
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BerichtGeplaatst: 30 Aug 2014 5:33    Onderwerp: Wat gebeurde er op 29 augustus 1914? Reageer met quote

Wat gebeurde er op 29 augustus 1914?

Ondanks alle nieuws over moorden en beschietingen blijft het oorlogsenthousiasme. Welke feiten halen nog het nieuws?

zie: http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140819_01223742
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