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8 Februari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2006 6:59    Onderwerp: 8 Februari Reageer met quote

February 8

1918 U.S. Army resumes publication of Stars and Stripes


On this day in 1918, the United States Army resumes publication of the military newsletter Stars and Stripes.

Begun as a newsletter for Union soldiers during the American Civil War, Stars and Stripes was published weekly during World War I from February 8, 1918, until June 13, 1919. The newspaper was distributed to American soldiers dispersed across the Western Front to keep them unified and informed about the overall war effort and America’s part in it, as well as supply them with news from the home front.

The front page of the newspaper’s first World War I issue featured “A Message from Our Chief,” a short valedictory from General John J. Pershing, commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF): “The paper, written by the men in the service, should speak the thoughts of the new American army and the American people from whom the army has been drawn. It is your paper. Good luck to it.”

The World War I-era Stars and Stripes was largely the creation of Second Lieutenant Guy T. Viskniskki, an AEF press officer and former censor at the American Field Test Headquarters in Neufchateau, France. Featuring news articles, sports news, poetry, letters to the editor and cartoons, among other content, the eight-page weekly publication was printed on presses that had been borrowed from Paris newspapers. Viskniskki’s staff was made up mostly of enlisted men and featured prominent journalists like Harold Ross, future co-founder of The New Yorker magazine, Alexander Woollcott, a former drama critic for The New York Times, and Grantland Rice, who went onto become known as the “dean of American sports writers.” At its peak during the war, Stars and Stripes reached a circulation of 526,000.

Stars and Stripes resumed publication during World War II, during which circulation reached 1,000,000. Serving as a daily “hometown” newspaper for service members, government civilians and their families stationed around the world, it has been in continuous publication in Europe since 1942 and in the Pacific since 1945. In these two regions, Stars and Stripes reaches 80,000 and 60,000 readers respectively. It also publishes a Middle East edition as well as an electronic edition on the Internet.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2006 7:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 8. Februar

1914


1915
Der Kaiser bei den Truppen in Nordpolen
Der österreichisch-ungarische Vormarsch in der Bukowina
Die türkische Vorhut am Suezkanal

1916
Lebhafte Kampftätigkeit südlich der Somme
Vergeblicher russischer Vorstoß bei Tarnopol
Türkischer Gegenangriff an der Kaukasusfront

1917
Vergebliche englische Angriffe an der Ancre
Starkes Feuer im Somme-Gebiet
19000 Tonnen von einem U-Boot versenkt
Erfolg deutscher Stoßtrupps bei Woronczyn
K. u. K. Großadmiral Anton Hans gestorben
Versenkung des Passagierdampfers "California
Die argentinische Antwort auf die deutsche U-Boot-Note
Schwedens Antwort an Wilson

1918
Erfolgreiche Erkundungsvorstöße an der Maas

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2008 9:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 februari 1918

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Erfolgreiche Erkundungsvorstöße an der Maas

Großes Hauptquartier, 8. Februar.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Fast an der ganzen Front war die Gefechtstätigkeit gering.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer bei Bezonvaux und südwestlich von Ornes brachte unsere Infanterie von Erkundungen eine Anzahl Gefangener ein. Tagsüber blieb die Artillerie in diesen Abschnitten tätig.
Von den anderen Kriegsschauplätzen nichts Neues.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff.
http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_02_08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2008 9:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 februari 1918

1918 - Die erste reguläre Ausgabe der amerikanischen Soldatenzeitung "Stars and Stripes" erscheint.

http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=3205736
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 14:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Yvonne @ 08 Feb 2008 9:38 schreef:
8 februari 1918

1918 - Die erste reguläre Ausgabe der amerikanischen Soldatenzeitung "Stars and Stripes" erscheint.

http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=3205736


http://forum.archieven.org/index.php?topic=12930.0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 14:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jack Barton's War Diary > February 1918

Jack Barton served in the 1st AIF, 5th Division, 14th Brigade and the 54th Battalion. This is his diary titled "A Year with the Platoon"

Friday, 8th February, 1918
Officers strength in C Company is now four, Captain Crombie has for his second in command Lieutenant Evans occupying Company Headquarters. The four posts of the line each holding one platoon are commanded by Lieutenant Agnew and myself. Distance between posts is 60 to 80 yards. Each post supplies its own listening post which in this case were small covers to right and to left fronts.

Each of these little covers is manned by two men who would be relieved about every hour during the night. A wire with a weight on the end led from main post to small cover, for the purpose of signalling by a pull on the wire. These pulls are to warn of any prowling huns

http://barton101.com/wardiary/1918-02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 14:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Commons Sitting of 8 February 1917

DEBATE OX THE ADDRESS.— [SECOND DAY.]


HC Deb 08 February 1917 vol 90 c109 109

§ Order read for resuming adjourned Debate on Question [7th February],

§ "That an humble Address be presented to His Majesty, as followeth:—

§ Most Gracious Sovereign,

§ We, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in Parliament assembled, beg leave to offer our humble thanks to Your Majesty for the Gracious Speech which Your Majesty has addressed to both Houses of Parliament."—[Mr. M'Curdy.]

§ Question again proposed. Debate resumed.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/feb/08/debate-ox-the-address-second-day

Zie dus ook bij gisteren... http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=3555
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 14:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Mounted Division

Narrative
The Australian Mounted Division was formed in Egypt as the Imperial Mounted Division in February 1917 from the 3rd Light Horse Brigade of the Anzac Mounted Division, the 4th Light Horse Brigade, reconstituted after having been broken up the year before, and two British mounted brigades.

(...)
Commanders
Major General W. Hodgson 8 February 1917 to past November 1918

Voor het hele verhaal: http://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/~rmallett/Australian_Mounted_Division.html
De gansche site: First AIF Order of Battle 1914-1918, http://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/~rmallett/main.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1916

8 February 1916
Amiral Charner, French, Amiral Charner class Armoured Cruiser
Torpedoed by German submarine U21 off Beirut leaving only one survivor.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk16.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 18:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V.I. Lenin - Speech Delivered at an International Meeting in Berne, February 8, 1916

Comrades! The European war has been raging for more than eighteen months. And as each month, as each day of the war goes by, it becomes clearer and clearer to the masses of the workers that the Zimmerwald = Manifesto[2] expressed the truth when it declared that phrases about “defence of the fatherland” and the like are nothing but capitalist deception. It is becoming more evident every day that this is a war between capitalists, between big robbers, who are quarrelling over the loot, each striving to obtain the largest share, the largest number of countries to plunder, and the largest number of nations to suppress and enslave.

It may sound incredible, especially to Swiss comrades, but it is nevertheless true that in Russia, also, not only bloody tsarism, not only the capitalists, but also a section of the so-called or ex-Socialists say that Russia is fighting a “war of defence,” that Russia is only fighting against German invasion. The whole world knows, however, that for decades tsarism has been oppressing more than a hundred million people belonging to other nationalities in Russia; that for decades Russia has been pursuing a predatory policy towards China, Persia, Armenia and Galicia. Neither Russia, nor Germany, nor any other Great Power has the right to claim that it is waging a “war of defence”; all the Great Powers are waging an imperialist, capitalist war, a predatory war, a war for the oppression of small and foreign nations, a war for the sake of the profits of the capitalists, who are coining golden profits amounting to billions out of the appalling sufferings of the masses, out of the blood of the proletariat.
Four years ago, in November 1912, when it had become clear that war was approaching, the representatives of the Socialist Parties of the whole world gathered at the International Socialist Congress in Basle. Even at that time there was no room for doubt that the impending war would be a war between the Great Powers, between the great beasts of prey; that responsibility for the war would rest upon the governments and the capitalist classes of all the Great Powers. The Basle Manifesto, which was adopted unanimously by the Socialist Parties of the whole world, openly stated this truth. The Basle Manifesto does not say a word about a “war of defence,” or “defence of the fatherland.” It castigates the governments and the bourgeoisie of all the Great Powers without exception. It said openly that war would be the greatest of crimes, that the workers would consider it a crime to shoot at each other, that the horrors of war and the indignation these would rouse among the workers would inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution.

When the war actually broke out it was realised that its character had been correctly defined at Basle. But the Socialist and labour organisations were not unanimous in carrying out the Basle decisions; they split. We see now that in all countries of the world the Socialist and labour organisations are split into two big camps. The smaller section, the leaders, functionaries and officials, have betrayed Socialism and have deserted to the side of the governments. Another section, to which the mass of class conscious workers belong, continues to gather its forces, to fight against the war and for the proletarian revolution.

The views of this latter section also found expression in the Zimmerwald Manifesto.

In Russia, from the very beginning of the war, the workers’ deputies in the Duma waged a determined revolutionary struggle against the war and the tsarist monarchy. Five workers’ deputies—Petrovsky, Badayev, Muranov, Shagov and Samoilov—distributed revolutionary manifestoes against the war and energetically carried on revolutionary agitation. Tsarism ordered the arrest of those five deputies, put them on trial, and sentenced them to lifelong exile in Siberia. For months the leaders of the working class of Russia have been pining in Siberia; but their cause has not gone under; their work is being continued by the class-conscious workers all over Russia.

Comrades! You have heard the speeches of representatives of various countries, who have told you about the workers’ revolutionary struggle against the war. I merely want to quote one other example from that great and rich country, the United States of America. The capitalists of that country are now making enormous profits out of the European war. And they, too, are agitating for war. They say that America must also prepare to take part in the war, hundreds of millions of dollars must be squeezed out of the people for new armaments, for armaments without end. And in America, too, a section of the Socialists echoes this false, criminal call. Let me read to you what Comrade Eugene Debs, the most popular leader of the American Socialists, the Presidential candidate of the American Socialist Party, writes.

In the September 11, 1915, American weekly, The Appeal to Reason,[3] September 11, 1915, he says: “I am not a capitalist soldier; I am a proletarian revolutionist. I do not belong to the regular army of rite plutocracy, but to the irregular army of the people. I refuse to obey any command to fight for the ruling class.... I am opposed to every war but one; I am for that war with heart and soul, and that is the world-wide war of the social revolution. In that war I am prepared to fight in any way the ruling class may make it necessary....”

This is what Eugene Debs, the American Bebel, the beloved leader of the American workers, writes to them.

This again shows you, comrades, that in all countries of the world real preparations are being made to rally the forces of the working class. The horrors of war and the sufferings of the people are incredible. But we must not, and we have no reason whatever, to view the future with despair.

The millions of victims who will fall in the war, and as a consequence of the war, will not fall in vain. The millions who are starving, the millions who are sacrificing their lives in the trenches, are not only suffering, they are also gathering strength, are pondering over the real cause of the war, are becoming more determined and are acquiring a clearer revolutionary understanding. Rising discontent of the masses, growing ferment, strikes, demonstrations, protests against the war—all this is taking place in all countries of the world. And this is the guarantee that the European War will be followed by the proletarian revolution against capitalism.

Notes
[1] This speech was delivered at an international rally during the enlarged meeting of the I.S.C. [executive of the Zimmerwald group] in Berne.
[2] [PLACEHOLDER.]
[3] [PLACEHOLDER.]


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1916/feb/08.htm
You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Minutes of a Meeting of the War Cabinet held at 10, Downing Street, on Thursday, February 8, 1917, at 11*30 A.M.

1. THE War Cabinet had under consideration the application of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to reply to the request of the United States Government for the provision of a safe-conduct to the German Ambassador and his Staff, and their request for search arrangements to be made at Halifax instead of at Kirkwall.

It was agreed that:—
In view of the great desire of the United States Government to get rid of Count Bernstorff, the safe-conduct should be given.

Machtig leesvoer... http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-1-wc-57-57.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lafayette Escadrille

The Escadrille had a reputation for daring, recklessness, and a party atmosphere. Two lion cubs, named "Whiskey" and "Soda", were made squadron mascots.

Lufbery got into trouble for hitting an officer who was unwise enough to lay hands on him during an argument. He was rescued from jail by his squadron mates. He was a man after the heart of French ace Charles Nungesser who came calling on the escadrille during one of his convalescences. He borrowed a Spad and shot down another German plane even though he was officially grounded.

On 8 February 1918, the squadron was transferred to the US Army Air Service as the 103rd Pursuit Squadron. For a brief period it retained its French planes and mechanics. Most of its veteran members were set to work training newly-arrived American pilots.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lafayette_Escadrille
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 21:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8-02-1918 Official statement

World War I: the ICRC's appeal against the use of poisonous gases

Full text of the appeal to the belligerents, issued by the International Committee on 8 February 1918.

One of the most distressing characteristics of the war at present causing so much misery to the human race is the daily violation of the most solemn undertakings, of what are known as the laws of war, of the agreements made in the hope of diminishing war's cruelty. Far from alleviating the evils which war brings in its train, it may be said that scientific progress in aeronautics, ballistics and chemistry have merely aggravated the suffering and, above all, extended it to the whole population, so that war from now on will be nothing but a ruthless work of destruction.

Today we wish to raise our voices against a barbarous innovation which science is in the course of perfecting, that is, making it more murderous and more refined in its cruelty. We are speaking of asphyxiant and poisonous gases, the use of which, it seems, is growing to a scale hitherto unsuspected.

The Regulations adopted at The Hague respecting the laws and customs of war on land contain the following: "It is especially forbidden to employ poison or poisoned weapons", and to employ arms, projectiles, or material calculated to cause unnecessary suffering". Asphyxiant or poisonous gases are without any doubt one of the poisons forbidden under the Convention. Medical personnel who have recovered troops affected by these gases from the battlefield, not to mention the nurses who have treated them in the hospitals, are all unanimous in testifying to the terrible suffering caused by these gases, which is more harrowing to see than that resulting from the worst of wounds".

The fact that such procedures have become common practice in war is in itself intolerable. But we insist that anyone who attempts to render this method of combat still more cruel will carry a steadily increasing weight of responsibility for having driven warfare in a direction contrary to the humane ideas which seemed to be gaining ground, the living proof of which appeared to be the Red Cross. For this is not an act that an army can spurn as being repugnant, since its own existence is at stake. A combatant confronted by an enemy using these gases is forced, despite himself, to do the same; and, if he does not want to be in an inferior position which might be fatal to him, he will try to outdo his enemy, to concentrate all his efforts on ensuring that the poisons are ever more harmful and more widespread in their effects. Each side will compete with the other in the race to invent the deadliest and the cruellest methods.

We are now being told of new volatile poisons, which can be manufactured all the more easily in abundance since the raw material from which they are produced is readily accessible. We are shown projectiles loaded with these poisonous gases scattering death in atrocious form, not only among the combatants but also behind the lines, among the non-combatants population, over a wide area in which every living creature would be annihilated. We protest with all the strength of our being against this method of warfare, which we can only describe as criminal. And, if, as is probable, the adversary is obliged to resort to counter-attacks or reprisals to force his enemy to relinquish this abhorrent practice, we can foresee a struggle the ferocity of which will exceed the greatest barbarity the world has known.

For this reason, we of the Red Cross, we whose flag is the emblem of that feeling of humanity which seemed of late to be emerging even in battle, call upon the Sovereigns, the Governments and the generals, first of all, and then upon the nations now ranged against one another. We appeal to this same feeling of humanity, which we do not believe is extinguished even after three years of war.

Do you wish your victory to be only the complete destruction of those fighting against you? Do you wish your triumph to turn to shame because it is no longer due to the valour and steadfast courage of your children? Do you wish to salute, on his return, not a brave man who has unhesitatingly risked his life for his country, but a man who, at no danger to himself, has succeeded in eliminating his enemies with the help of poisons, thereby inflicting abominable suffering on his victims?

We are unable to believe that decent people in every country are not repelled by this prospect, and for this reason we unhesitatingly demand a ban on this appalling method of waging war. This requires an immediate agreement which the various armies must undertake to observe faithfully. If the International Red Cross succeeds in bringing about this agreement, if it could be signed under the Red Cross flag, it would be a return to the principles which prompted the Conventions of Geneva and The Hague, and such a document, able to save thousands of lives, would do great honour not only to the armies but also to the nations which sign it.

IN THE NAME OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS:

Edouard NAVILLE, Acting President
Adolphe D'ESPINE, Vice-President
Dr. F. FERRIERE, " "
Alfred GAUTIER " "
Adolphe MOYNIER, Treasurer
Horace MICHELI
Edmond BOISSIER
Frédéric BARBEY
William E. RAPPARD
Paul DES GOUTTES, Secretary General

http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JNQH
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2010 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NEGRO COCAINE "FIENDS" NEW SOUTHERN MENACE

New York Times, Sunday February 8, 1914

Murder and Insanity Increasing Among Lower Class Because They Have Taken to "Sniffing" Since Being Deprived of Whisky by Prohibition

Edward Huntington Williams, M.D.


For some years there have been rumors about the increase in drug taking in the South-vague, but always insistent rumors that the addiction to such drugs as morphine and cocaine was becoming a veritable curse to the colored race in certain regions. Some of these reports read like the wildest flights of a sensational fiction writer. Stories of cocaine orgies and "sniffing parties" followed by wholesale murders seem like lurid journalism of the yellowest variety.

But in point of fact there was nothing "yellow" about many of these reports. Nine men killed in Mississippi on one occasion by crazed cocaine takers, five in North Carolina, three in Tennessee-these are the facts that need no imaginative coloring. And since this gruesome evidence is supported by the printed records of the insane hospitals, courts, jails, and penitentiaries, there is no escaping the conviction drug taking has become a race menace in certain regions south of the line.

Lees verder op http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/History/Negro_cocaine_fiends.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 19:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tayyareci Fethi Bey

Tayyareci Fethi Bey (Ayazpaşa, Istanbul – 3 maart 1914) was de eerste Ottomaanse "ace" uit de geschiedenis. In 1907 had hij zijn opleiding als marinier afgerond en in 1911 ging hij naar Bristol in Engeland om te leren vliegen. Toen hij terug kwam van zijn opleiding beschikte Fatih als luitenant over een vliegbrevet. In zijn vaderland vertoonde Fatih zich op talrijke luchtshows. Op 8 februari 1914 begon Fatih een reis, samen met zijn co-piloot Eerste-Luitenant Haberleri Sadık Bey, in een Franse Bleriot XIb eendekker. De reis ging vanaf Alexandrië naar Istanbul over Konya, Ulukışla, Adana, Humus en Damascus. Net voor ze hun doel bereikten sneuvelden beide piloten op 3 maart 1914. Beide lichamen werden bijgezet in een marmeren graf in Şam. Op 8 maart sneuvelde Tayyareci Nuri Bey en ook hij werd bijgezet in dat graf. Alle drie Aces hebben de naam Bey. Of het om familie gaat is nog onduidelijk.

Uit eigen huis! http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Ottomaanse_luchtmacht
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 19:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het octrooiverhaal van 8 februari

Wanneer? - Op 8 februari 1936 vroeg een Belgische chocolademaker, la Société Jacques, octrooi aan op de reep chocola. Stond deze Jacques model voor Roald Dahl’s verfilmde bestseller Sjakie en de chocoladefabriek? Nee - de oorspronkelijke Engelse titel luidde ‘Charlie and the chocolate factory’ en Sjakie/Charlie was een fictief figuur. Ook Willy Wonka, de fabrikant uit het boek en de film, is een verzonnen figuur - maar ‘The Willy Wonka Candy Company’ is wel als merk vastgelegd door Nestlé toen de eerste film (met Gene Wilder als Willy Wonka) in 1971 uitkwam. Was de Belgische Jacques dan de eerste die chocola op de markt bracht? Ook niet. Toch had hij een belangrijke primeur.

Wat? - De ‘geboortedag’ van chocola is moeilijk te bepalen, maar al in de 16e eeuw werd het product genuttigd - toen alleen nog in de vorm van drank. In de 17e eeuw was chocolade een luxeproduct dat vooral gebruikt werd door de adel. De eerste chocoladekoekjes werden gemaakt door Spanjaarden, die suiker aan de cacaopasta toevoegden. Ze slaagden erin de bereidingswijze van chocolade bijna een eeuw lang geheim te houden. De eerste chocoladefabriek verrees in 1728 in Engeland. Later volgden Duitsland, Frankrijk (1760) en Zwitserland (1819). Een belangrijke ontdekking kwam echter uit Nederland!

Wie? - In 1813 begon Blooker met de productie van cacao en chocolade in Nederland. Hun slogan 'Half elf Blookertijd' doet denken aan een nu bekende reclame voor een instant-soep! In 1828 deed Casparus van Houten sr., oprichter van de chocoladefabriek Van Houten, een belangrijke uitvinding. Hij vond de hydraulische cacaobonenpers uit, die op eenvoudige manier een groot deel (70 tot 80 procent) van het vet uit de geroosterde cacaobonen kon persen. Deze vinding maakte de productie van poedercacao mogelijk. Op 4 april 1828 kreeg hij een tienjarig octrooi (NL 305) op de techniek, die wereldwijd navolging kreeg. Eind 18e eeuw begon chocolade in prijs te dalen, zodat ook gewone mensen het konden betalen. De eerste eetbare chocolade zou in 1847 zijn gemaakt door de Britse Quaker Joseph Fry.

Octrooi? - Hoe zit het nu met de Belgische chocolademaker? In 1890 start Antoine Jacques met zijn compagnon Hardy in Verviers een fabriek van kruidkoek. Vanaf 1894 gaan ze ook chocola produceren. Twee jaar later gaan de compagnons uit elkaar; Antoine Jacques gaat verder onder de naam ‘Chocolaterie A. Jacques’. Het bedrijf kent een aantal tegenslagen: een brand in 1899 en een overstroming in 1908 richten veel schade aan, terwijl de fabriek tijdens de oorlog van 1914 tot 1918 stilligt. In 1929 sterft Antoine Jacques. Het bedrijf heeft inmiddels een aantal merknamen geregistreerd, waaronder ‘Jacques le Superchocolat’ (1935). Op 6 februari 1936 wordt octrooi aangevraagd op de reep chocola in zes af te breken stukken. Met de introductie van deze vorm neemt de populariteit van de lekkernij een ongekende vlucht.

http://www.octrooicentrum.nl/index.php/Octrooi-van-de-dag/het-octrooiverhaal-van-8-februari-2011.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

February 8, 1915: Birth of a Nation opens



On February 8, 1915, D.W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation, a landmark film in the history of cinema, premieres at Clune's Auditorium in Los Angeles. The silent film was America's first feature-length motion picture and a box-office smash, and during its unprecedented three hours Griffith popularized countless filmmaking techniques that remain central to the art today. However, because of its explicit racism, Birth of a Nation is also regarded as one of the most offensive films ever made. Actually titled The Clansman for its first month of release, the film provides a highly subjective history of the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan. Studied today as a masterpiece of political propaganda, Birth of a Nation caused riots in several cities and was banned in others but was seen by millions.

David Wark Griffith was born in La Grange, Kentucky, in 1875, the son of an ex-Confederate colonel. His father died when he was seven, and he later dropped out of high school to help support his family. After holding various jobs, he began a successful career as a theater actor. He wrote several plays and, on the advice of a colleague, sent some scenarios for one-reel films to the Edison Film Company and the Biograph Company. In 1908, he was hired as an actor and writer for the Biograph studio and soon was promoted to a position as director.

Between 1908 and 1913, Griffith made more than 400 short films for Biograph. With the assistance of his talented cinematographer, G W. "Billy" Bitzer, he invented or refined such important cinematic techniques as the close-up, the scenic long shot, the moving-camera shot, and the fade-in and fade-out. His contributions to the art of editing during this period include the flashback and parallel editing, in which two or more separate scenes are intermixed to give the impression that the separate actions are happening simultaneously. He also raised the standard on movie acting, initiating scene rehearsals before shooting and assembling a stock company of film professionals. Many of these actors, including Lillian and Dorothy Gish, Mary Pickford, Mae Marsh, and Lionel Barrymore, went on to become some of Hollywood's first movie stars.

Taking his cue from the longer spectacle films produced in Italy, in 1913 Griffith produced Judith of Bethulia, a biblical adaptation that, at four reels, was close to an hour long. It was his last Biograph film. Two years later, he released his epic 10-reel masterpiece, Birth of a Nation, for Mutual Films.

Birth of a Nation, based on Thomas Dixon's novel The Clansman, tells the turbulent story of American history in the 1860s, as it followed the fictional lives of two families from the North and the South. Throughout its three hours, African Americans are portrayed as brutish, lazy, morally degenerate, and dangerous. In the film's climax, the Ku Klux Klan rises up to save the South from the Reconstruction Era-prominence of African Americans in Southern public life.

Riots and protests broke out at screenings of Birth of a Nation in a number of Northern cities, and the recently formed National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) embarked on a major campaign to have the film banned. It eventually was censored in several cities, and Griffith agreed to change or cut out some of the film's especially offensive scenes.

Nevertheless, millions of people happily paid to witness the spectacle of Birth of a Nation, which featured a cast of more 10,000 people and a dramatic story line far more sophisticated than anything released to that date. For all the gross historical inaccuracies, certain scenes, such as meetings of Congress, Civil War battles, and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, were meticulously recreated, lending the film an air of legitimacy that made it so effective as propaganda.

The Ku Klux Klan, suppressed by the federal government in the 1870s, was refounded in Georgia in December 1915 by William J. Simmons. In addition to being anti-black, the new Klan was anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic, and anti-immigrant, and by the early 1920s it had spread throughout the North as well as the South. At the peak of its strength in 1924, membership in the KKK is estimated to have been as high as three million. There is no doubt that Birth of a Nation played no small part in winning wide public acceptance for an organization that was originally founded as an anti-black and anti-federal terrorist group.

Of Griffith's later films, Intolerance (1916) is the most important. Hailed by many as the finest achievement of the silent-film era, it pursues four story lines simultaneously, which cumulatively act to prove humanity's propensity for persecution. Some regard it as an effort at atonement by Griffith for Birth of a Nation, while others believe he meant it as an answer to those who persecuted him for his political views. Intolerance was a commercial failure but had a significant influence on the development of film art.

Griffith went on to make 27 more films. In 1919, he founded United Artists with Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Charlie Chaplin.

Before D. W. Griffith's time, motion pictures were short, uninspiring, and poorly produced, acted, and edited. Under his guidance, filmmaking became an art form. Despite the harm his Birth of a Nation inflicted on African Americans, he will forever be regarded as the father of cinema.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/birth-of-a-nation-opens
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 19:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 February 1915 → Commons Sitting

BELGIUM (CONFISCATION OF BRITISH GOODS).


HC Deb 08 February 1915 vol 69 cc217-8 217

Colonel WHITE asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs if, according to a proclamatoin of General von Bissing, Military Governor of Belgium, the goods of British and other residents now absent from Belgium are, after 1st March, 1915, to be confiscated; and, if so, whether he will warn the German Government that in that event the same course will be taken with regard to the property owned by German subjects in this country?

Mr. PRIMROSE According to my information, the German Government's action is not exactly what the hon. and gallant Member supposes. A recent decree issued by General von Bissing imposes a tenfold tax on Belgians "who voluntarily left their domiciles at the outbreak of the War and have absented themselves from Belgium for more than two months if they do not return before 1st March," and this tax must be paid before 15th April, "after the expiration of which date recovery of the amount may be enforced." Although, the wording of this decree is restricted, I understand that it will, in practice, apply to all Belgians who shall by 1st March have been absent from Belgium for two months, and it is very possible that it may also, in spite of its wording, be applied also to foreign subjects domiciled in Belgium; but this is uncertain. Besides this, deposits in Belgian banks to the credit of the Belgian, British, French, Russian, Japanese, Serbian, and Montenegrin Governments, and of the Russian and Japanes State Banks were seized at the end of September. The question of retaliation therefore does not arise in the form contemplated in the question. In general, however, His Majesty's Government will take all such facts into consideration 218 in determining the advisability of retaliatory measures. I have already inquired of the Belgian Government whether they have any information to show that the decree is applicable to British subjects.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/feb/08/belgium-confiscation-of-british-goods
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMAS Australia (1912-1924)

In 1909 the Admiralty proposed the creation of a Pacific fleet consisting of three fleet units to be operated by Imperial forces in the Pacific region. Each fleet unit would be built around a battle-cruiser. One of these fleet units would comprise the Royal Australian Navy. With Australian Government agreement to this concept, work was commenced on the battle-cruiser HMAS Australia. On completion she sailed for Australia and, on 4 October 1913, led the cruisers and destroyers of the fleet unit into Sydney Harbour to public acclaim.

With the outbreak of the First World War, Australia became the flagship of the force that captured the German colonies in the southern Pacific. She led a force which captured Rabaul on 13 September 1914 before proceeding to Samoa.

With no German forces left in the South Pacific, Australia was deployed to the United Kingdom. En route she sank the German auxiliary Eleanore Woermann. On 8 February 1915 she became flagship of the 2nd Battle-cruiser Squadron of the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet.

http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_12572.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Military Aviation and World War One

Although Australian Military aviation can be traced to flights made by a Royal Engineer Balloon Section at the Sydney Agricultural Ground on 7-8 January 1901, it wasn’t till late 1910 that a plan for an Australian Aviation Corps was submitted to the Military Board. Final approval to establish the Australian Flying Corps was promulgated in Military Order No.570 on 22 October 1912, with orders placed for two B.E.2a, two Deperdussin and a Bristol Boxkite to equip the new air arm.

Two pilots, Henry Petre and Eric Harison, and four mechanics – R.H Chester, G.A Fonteneau, C.V. Heath and A.E. Shorland were appointed to create a flying school. 734 acres of grazing land was purchased at Point Cook, Victoria at a cost of over £6,000 ($12,000), and the creation of the Central Flying School was announced on 7 March 1913. The first flying training course commenced on 17 August 1914. The four candidates on the course were Lieutenant R. Williams, Captain T.W. White, Lieutenant G.P. Merz and Lieutenant D.P. Manwell.

On 8 February 1915 the Government of India sought the assistance of the Australian Government to supply trained airmen, aircraft and transport for service in Mesopotamia (Iraq). The Australian Government replied that men and transport would be provided, but aircraft they could not. The unit (known as the Mesopotamian Half-Flight) was under the command of Petre and comprised White, Merz and Lieutenant W.H. Treloar and 41 other ranks. The Mesopotanian campaign culminated in the tragic siege of Kut and the subsequent ignominious surrender of the garrison included nine mechanics of the First Half-Flight.

http://www.airforce.gov.au/history/ww1.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Tenth Army

1915 February 8 The new German Tenth Army hits the Russian right. The Russians are driven back into the Augustow Forest, barely escaping encirclement. 90,000 Russian prisoners are taken by the end of the month.

http://www.humanitas-international.org/holocaust/1915tbse.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MEDIATIJDLIJN AMSTERDAMSE TRAM 1916

8 februari 1916 - Diverse kranten melden dat de plannen voor een elektrische tram door de Zaanstreek vaste vorm beginnen aan te nemen. Er is een uitvoerend comité van vijf leden gevormd onder voorzitterschap van wethouder Duijs van Zaandam, waarin ook de burgemeester van Beverwijk en een wethouder van Purmerend zitting hebben. Aan de adjunct-directeur van de Gemeentetram, Ir. T.E. van Putten, is gevraagd een plan voor een elektrische tramlijn door de Zaanstreek te ontwerpen. Deze heeft zich inmiddels, met toestemming van burgemeester en wethouders van Amsterdam, van deze taak gekweten, en zijn uitvoerige rapport, compleet met tekeningen, aan de commissie te hand gesteld. Als het allemaal doorgaat, zullen 14 gemeenten aan het tramnet worden aangesloten. Het eindpunt in Amsterdam is gepland op de Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal, tussen Spui en Raadhuisstraat, ter hoogte van het kantoor van “De Telegraaf”.
De verlenging van lijn 4 voorbij de Watertoren, tot Trompenburg en de gasfabriek, die zondag 6 februari jl. heeft plaatsgevonden, betekent een groot voordeel voor degenen die graag langs de Amstel wandelen, en voor de werklieden van deze fabrieken.
De verbreding van het Oostelijk Viaduct bij het Centraal Station maakt het nodig om het tramverkeer daarlangs morgen 9 februari het grootste deel van de dag stop te zetten. De lijnen 2, 4 en 9 zullen rondrijden via Stationsplein Westzijde, en tussen het Stationsplein en de Gemeenteveren zal dienst met bijzondere wagens onderhouden worden.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

1917, 8 februari - Het mailschip ss. 'Kawi' van de Rotterdamsche Lloyd, op weg van Batavia naar Amsterdam, loopt Emmahaven (Sumatra) binnen en keert vervolgens weer naar Batavia terug. Mede in verband met de door de Duitse regering op 1 februari 1917 afgekondigde onbeperkte duikbootoorlog worden de afvaarten naar Rotterdam voorlopig gestaakt. Zo is van een reguliere verbinding tussen Nederland en Nederlands-Indië geen sprake meer.

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=2&d=8
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 08 FEBRUARY 1917

The following NZ officers, who are in the British Army, have been awarded the Military Cross:

BEAMISH, Lieut Frederick N H, Warwickshire Regt, Napier. Commanded two companies and re-organised them, consolidated and held the position under intense fire. He has previously done very fine work.

HENDERSON, Lieut George Dunnett, Royal West Kent Regt, Canterbury, took out a party and re-organised the men of his battalion under intense fire and consolidated the ground taken.

JARDINE, Captain Edmund B, RAMC, Gisborne, tended the wounded continuously for three days and nights under heavy fire, displaying great courage and determination. He has done fine work throughout the campaign.

The Military Cross has been awarded to the following members of the NZEF:

AVEY, Lieut E A, Rifle Brigade, superintended the laying of a wire under heavy fire, maintaining communication and sending back valuable information continuously for two days.

BONGARD, Lieut J R, Rifle Brigade, led a small party against an enemy battery, killing a gun team and damaging a gun. He set a splendid example throughout the operation.

GALLOWAY, Lieut Malcolm S, Wellington Regt, organised a party and captured an enemy trench which was holding up the advance. Later, he consolidated his position and held it until reinforcements arrived.

HALLY, Lieut Colin, Auckland Regt, organised and led a successful raid on the enemy’s trenches displaying great courage and determination throughout.

HARGEST, Lieut James, Otago Regt, organised and led a bombing party, thereby driving the enemy back and securing his left flank, later organising the defence of the position with great skill at a critical time.

JOHNSON, Captain William Howard, Field Artillery, assumed command of and handled his battery with great courage and determination, keeping his guns in action under heavy fire. He had previously assisted in extinguishing a fire at great personal risk.

MAWSON, Lieut Joseph B, Machine-gun Co., [handled] his machine-guns throughout the operations with great courage and determination, later taking part in a charge which routed the enemy.

PRIOR, Captain Norman H, went over the parapet and dressed a wounded man under intense fire, later working continuously among the wounded under fire, displaying great courage and determination.

RICHARDS, Rev Robert, Chaplain’s Dept, tended the wounded continuously for two days under very heavy fire, displaying great courage and determination.

KNOX, Sgt Major Robert J, Otago Reg, showed great courage and initiative during the consolidation of the position. Later he led a charge with great gallantry. He has previously done fine work.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn08feb1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bomwerpers en mortieren van het Nederlandse leger 1914-1940 de bomwerper van 2,5 CM
door drs. J.R. Verbeek

De Opperbevelhebber voor Land- en Zeemacht diende op 8 februari 1917 het voorstel in voor de aanmaak van 200 bomwerpers, met een projectielvoorraad van 20.000 bommen.

Lees verder op http://www.collectie.legermuseum.nl/sites/strategion/contents/i004562/arma28%20bomwerpers%20en%20mortieren.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE STARS A&D STRIPES: FRANCE, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1918

http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/pdf/ou1.pdf

Zie ook http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sgpsasquery.html (gevonden via http://forum.archieven.org/index.php?topic=12930.0 )
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Feb 2011 20:24, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enemy Alien Registration Affidavit of Hans Joachim von Fischer-Treuenfeld, 02/08/1918



http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/4100763629/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chicago Tribune, 8 February 1918: "Full Suffrage Here Seen as Blow to Foe"

Before and during World War I, American women struggled to win the right to vote. Women's contribution to the war helped win public opinion in favor of women's suffrage. In addition, the "war for democracy" highlighted the disenfranchisement of half of the American population. This article describes a speech on this subject, made at a meeting of the National Women's Party in Chicago. It appeared in the Chicago Tribune on 8 February 1918.

http://www.eiu.edu/past_tracker/soc_women_gender.php
Originele artikel: http://www.eiu.edu/past_tracker/pdfs/Tribune_FullSuffrageHereSeenAsBlowToFoe.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RELOCATION OF THE WORLD WAR 1 GERMAN SUBMARINE UB38

Under a contract with the UK’s Trinity House and in a joint venture agreement, Titan Salvage and Scaldis Salvage and Marine Contractors, both members of the ISU, have recently completed the unusual operation of relocating a World War 1 German Submarine in the Dover Strait.

The submarine lay in the South West Lane of the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme close to the Varne Bank. Sunk in 1918 it had never been considered a danger to navigation, but recently ships with much deeper draft, particularly oil tankers, were causing concern. The minimum clearance over the wreck was 23.5 metres and this had to be increased to 26.5 metres.

There were three delicate issues involved with the operation. The first was consideration for the ordnance that remained on board, six torpedoes and deck gun ammunition. The salvage plan ensured that the submarine remained horizontal during the lifting operations with minimum disturbance to the ordnance. The second issue was the mortal remains of the 27 crew. Although the submarine is not an official war grave, close liaison between the German Government, Trinity House and the salvors ensured that correct protocols were observed.

The third and final issue was the status of the hull of the submarine. Having been at its position for 90 years special precaution had to be considered and taken in order to spread the load whilst lifting to avoid breaking up of the submarine.

The submarine was lifted a few metres off the seabed using the self-propelled multipurpose sheerleg ‘Norma’ on the 14th July 2008 and placed in its new location about two miles away in 40 metres of water.

The UB38 had an interesting career. Launched and commissioned in 1916 in Hamburg it undertook 21 patrols sinking 46 allied ships totalling nearly 47,000 tons. It was caught on the surface in the Dover Strait on 8th February 1918 by British destroyers and dived to escape. It ran into a minefield and a mine exploded between the conning tower and stern sinking the submarine with all hands.

http://www.scaldis-smc.com/salvage.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Louis Renault



Although his active participation in efforts to solve the problems of international law brought him honor and respect from around the world, Louis Renault (May 21, 1843-February 8, 1918) was, in his own words1, «a professor at heart». Born at Autun in the Saône-et-Loire district of France, he received his love of learning as a heritage from his Burgundian father, a bookseller by vocation and bibliophile by avocation. Intellectually gifted, Renault was first in his class at the Collège d'Autun, taking prizes in philosophy, mathematics, and literature before going on to the University of Dijon for his bachelor's degree in literature. For seven years, from 1861 to 1868, he studied law in Paris, receiving three degrees, the highest of them the doctoral and all of them with extraordinary honors.

In 1868 he began the career in the academic world which he never deserted. Twenty-five years old in 1868, he returned to Dijon as lecturer in Roman and then in commercial law. He joined the Faculty of Law of the University of Paris as an acting professor of criminal law in 1873, but he found his true field the next year when the opportunity arose to fill a temporary vacancy in international law. Although at first loath to change his primary field of interest, he continued in the new milieu and so distinguished himself in the next seven years by his teaching and by his publication of some fifty notes and articles and a book, Introduction à l'étude du droit international, that he was offered the chair of international law in 1881.

Renault's scholarly output during his lifetime was extensive, making him the outstanding French authority on international law. He delivered countless lectures, wrote dozens of reports, published upwards of 200 notes and articles, most of them in law reviews and political science journals, and produced several books, of which the most important, in collaboration with his colleague, Charles Lyon-Caen, is the nine-volume Traité de droit commercial (1889-1899). Devoted to teaching as well as to research, he lectured for some years, concurrently with his appointment at the University of Paris, at the School of Political Sciences and at two of the military schools; he directed 252 doctoral theses2; he taught many students who later held important diplomatic posts in France and abroad.

Prior to 1890, Renault had participated in the solving of practical problems of international law, notably those of proprietary rights in literature and art and of the regulations governing submarine cables, but in the following years, having been appointed a legal consultant to the Foreign Office by Minister Alexandre Ribot, he became the «one authority in international law upon whom the Republic relied»3. For the next twenty years he was a French representative at innumerable international conferences held in Europe, figuring prominently in conferences on international private law, international transport, military aviation, naval affairs, circulation of obscene literature, abolition of white slavery, commercial paper used in international transactions, revision of the Red Cross Convention of 1864. In recognition of this and other services, Renault was accorded the titular rank of Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary in 1903.

When the Hague Tribunal was opened to conduct cases of international arbitration, Renault was named one of its panel of twenty-eight arbiters. Voluntarily selected more times than any other member of the panel in the first fourteen years of the tribunal's existence, Renault was involved in six of the court's thirteen cases: the Japanese House Tax case between Japan on the one hand and Germany, France, and Great Britain on the other (1905); the Casablanca case between Germany and France (1909); the Savarkar case between France and Great Britain (1911); the Canevaro case between Italy and Peru (1912); the Carthage case between France and Italy (1913); and the Manouba case between France and Italy (1913).

At the first Hague Peace Conference of 1899, Renault was the reporter for the Second Commission, which was concerned with various questions governing naval warfare, and the principal drafter of the Final Act - the «summary» - of the Conference. A dominant figure at the second Hague Peace Conference in 1907, he was the reporter for the Conventions relating to the opening of hostilities, to the application of the Geneva Convention to naval warfare, to the creation of an international prize court, and to the defining of the rights and duties of neutral nations in naval war, as well as being on the drafting committee for the Final Act, which he presented.

The recipient of many honors for his accomplishments as teacher, scholar, judge, and diplomat, Renault was named to the Legion of Honor and to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in France, awarded decorations by nineteen foreign nations and honorary doctorates by several universities, and chosen to be president of the Academy of International Law created at The Hague in 1914.

Renault never retired. After teaching his last class on February 6, 1918, he went to his villa in Barbizon for a brief holiday, was taken ill, and died on the morning of February 8.

1. From a statement to his class in 1906; quoted by Paul Fauchille, Louis Renault, p. 2.
2. According to the list compiled by Fauchille, op.cit., pp. 235-243.
3. Scott, «In Memoriam: Louis Renault», American Journal of International Law, 12 (1918) 607.
From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1901-1925, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972
This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.


"Louis Renault - Biography". Nobelprize.org.8 Feb 2011, http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1907/renault.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam

Op 8 februari 1919 werd de Openbare Leeszaal aan de Keizersgracht 444 geopend. Naast de Algemene Leeszaal was er een couranten- en tijdschriftenzaal, een cataloguskamer en inlichtingenbureau, een technische afdeling, een handels-economische bibliotheek, een wisselbibliotheek, een jeugdbibliotheek, een muziekbibliotheek en een blindenbibliotheek.

http://www.boekendingen.nl/wp-nieuws/?p=2751
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

O. L. HELFRICH

Bij Koninklijk besluit van 8 Februari 1919 werd Oscar Louis
Helfrich benoemd tot gouverneur van Curacao. Een geheel onbekend
man in de West. Het Koninklijk besluit gaf geen andere
aanduiding van den persoon dan als gepensionneerd Oost-
Indisch hoofdambtenaar, laatstelijk resident van Benkoelen.
Spoedig bleek, dat de heer Helfrich een zeer eervollen staat van
dienst kon overleggen, en om karakter en bekwaamheid geroemd
werd door hen, die hem in Nederlandsch-Indischen staatsdienst
hadden zien werken. De verwachting, die deze roep van hem
deed uitgaan, heeft hij ginds niet beschaamd, ondanks den korten
tijd van zijn bestuur, waarin hij zijn deel ook van moeilijkheden gehad
heeft, en waaraan verschil van meening met den minister
van Koloniën ontijdig een einde maakte.

http://www.kitlv-journals.nl/index.php/nwig/article/viewFile/4682/5449
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Seattle General Strike of 1919

Eight a.m. on Saturday, February 8, 1919, had been set by Seattle Mayor Ole Hanson as a “new” deadline for martial law to be declared in Seattle if the general strike in effect that week had not been called off by its leaders. The time and date would come and would go. And workers were not back on the job.

When asked, Maj. Gen. Morrison stated that if it were necessary, he alone would declare martial law, and it would be no bluff. The mayor, however, would keep his fantasy going in the national press, branding himself the savior of Seattle: “I issued a proclamation that all life and property would be protected; that all business should go on as usual. And this morning our municipal street cars, light, power plants, water, etc., were running at full blast. There was an attempted revolution. It never got off first base.” Even those who had ardently supported an end date for the strike were now angry at the mayor’s sudden and irrational behavior and felt strong for having violated “two” calls for the strike’s end.

But the strike’s own success was beginning to take its toll. Anna Louise Strong would later write, “As soon as any worker was made a leader he wanted to end that strike… workers in the ranks felt the thrill of massed power which they trusted their leaders to carry to victory. But as soon as one of these workers was put on a responsible committee, he also wished to stop ‘before there is riot and blood.’ The strike could produce no leaders willing to keep it going. All of us were red in the ranks and yellow as leaders.”

http://radsearem.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/february-11-1919-the-seattle-general-strike-day-six/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

August Borms

(...) Bij de terugtocht van de Duitse troepen in november 1918 bracht hij zijn familie in veiligheid en keerde met zijn vrouw terug naar Brussel. Hij leefde er een tijd ondergedoken, maar werd op 8 februari 1919 door de opsporingsdiensten verrast bij het verzenden van propagandaschrif*ten. Hij werd gearresteerd onder beschuldiging dat hij de Belgische wetten had overtreden door de uitroeping van de zelfstandigheid van Vlaanderen. (...)

http://www.stomfront.org/forum/t238784/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE BARD VAN VLAANDEREN: René De Clercq (14.11.1877 - 12.6.1932)

(...) Vanuit zijn woonplaats Bussum bleef hij zich via het dagblad De Vlaamsche Stem tot zijn landgenoten richten. Hoewel hij in die periode minder hard brulde en het in de dichtbundel De zware kroon (1915) zelfs openlijk opnam voor de koning werd hij op 5 oktober 1915 als leerkracht ontslagen vanwege zijn pro-Vlaamse houding. Van woede blies hij met de dichtbundel De noodhoorn (1916) vurige strijdliederen over het Vlaamse land. In ‘Aan die van Havere, toen zij vergaten dat ook Vlaanderen in België lag’ schreef hij:

Wij houden van trukken noch tirelantijnen,
Heeren van Havere, weet het goed!
Wij zijn Germanen, geen Latijnen,
Opnene harten, zuiver bloed!
Heb ik geen recht, ik heb geen land;
Heb ik geen brood, ik heb geen schand;
Vlaanderen, Vlaanderen, met hand en tand
Sta ik recht voor u,
Vecht voor u!


De flaminganten waren dolenthousiast en riepen om meer. De Clercq aarzelde even, maar volgde uiteindelijk toch zijn hart en koos voor het activisme. Hij keerde terug naar België, werd hoofdredacteur van het activistische dagblad Gazet van Brussel, aanvaardde het ondervoorzitterschap van de Raad van Vlaanderen en maakte met veel geestdrift propaganda voor de Vlaamse strijd. Maar het spotlicht waarin hij voortdurend stond, bleek hem zo te verblinden dat hij na enige tijd zelfs de vijand niet meer herkende. Aan de zijde van August Borms – in 1946 gefusilleerd vanwege collaboratie tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog – trok hij op tournee door Duitsland, hield er redevoeringen in verschillende grote steden en in krijgsgevangenkampen, en schoof zingend en drinkend met de bezetters aan tafel, die hem met open armen ontvingen.

Meteen na de Eerste Wereldoorlog keerde een zwaar ontgoochelde René De Clercq terug naar Nederland. ‘Ik heb het plan gevonden om hier in Nederland flink, deftig en alleen met kunst, ons bestaan te verdienen,’ schreef hij op 8 februari 1919 naar Ria Vervoort, een Antwerpse pianiste op wie hij hevig verliefd was.

http://www.stefanbrijs.be/index.php?page=fragment_de_vergeethoek
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evening Post, Volume XCVII, Issue 32, 8 February 1919





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19190208.2.150.2
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2014 12:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Swimming lessons, 8 February 1917

Het lijkt een geheim wapen... maar nee...

http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/state-archives/digital-gallery/our-sporting-heritage/school-days/images-1/NRS15051-1-31%20swimming%20photo%203.jpg/view
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Feb 2014 12:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frans Rotteveel Mansveld: Met het hoofd boven water

Nederland was in de Eerste Wereldoorlog neutraal. Toen Duitsland in 1917 de zogenoemde onbeperkte duikbotenoorlog aankondigde, werd het echter heet onder de voeten van het neutrale Nederland. Frans Rotteveel Mansveld vergelijkt in zijn paper het diplomatieke optreden van de Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken John Loundon, Minister-President Cort van der Linden en de vooraanstaande Nederlandse handelsmagnaat Anton Kröller met de binnenlandse reactie op de onbeperkte duikbotenoorlog. In deze vergelijking komt naar voren dat ‘neutraal zijn’ in een wereldoorlog niet altijd de makkelijkste positie is.

Online te lezen, of te downloaden als PDF: http://www.jhsg.nl/portfolio-item/80rotteveelmansveld/

(en ja... de zoekterm 8 februari [1917] komt voor in de tekst... helmpompom )
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Feb 2014 8:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8/02/1914

Protest against Zionists

German-Jewish organizations protest "insidious German National Chauvinism" of German Zionists
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