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29 April

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2006 7:27    Onderwerp: 29 April Reageer met quote

April 29

1916 British forces surrender at Kut, Mesopotamia

In the single largest surrender of troops in British history to that time, some 13,000 soldiers under the command of Sir Charles Townshend give in on April 29, 1916, after withstanding nearly five months under siege by Turkish and German forces at the town of Kut-al-Amara, on the Tigris River in the Basra province of Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops had enjoyed early success in their invasion of Mesopotamia. Forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, reached and occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut al-Amara, by late September 1915. From there, they attempted to move up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers toward Baghdad, but were rebuffed by Turkish troops at Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak) in late November. Despite outnumbering the Turks two-to-one, Townshend’s troops, made up partially of soldiers dispatched from India, were forced to retreat to Kut, where on December 5 Turkish and German troops began to lay siege to the city.

Problems with illness plagued Townshend’s forces, as morale sank precipitously along with dwindling supplies and a lack of relief due to the heavy winter rains, which had swollen the Tigris River and made it difficult to maneuver troops along its banks. The British attempted four times over the course of the winter to confront and surround their Turkish opponents only to suffer 23,000 casualties, almost twice the strength of the entire remaining Kut regiment, without success. Kut finally fell on April 29, 1916, and Townshend and his 13,000 men were taken prisoner.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2006 16:51    Onderwerp: Ook op 29 april, 1917 bij Reims Reageer met quote

Op 29 april 1917 kreeg de man wiens historie ik uitpluis een granaat op zijn pet op Mont Cornillet bij Reims. Voor details: Hoofdstuk: overige fronten, topic: trenchmap Mt Cornillet
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2006 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Blood sacrifice, the left and the 1916 insurrection in Ireland
[2006-04-29][anarkismo]
At 11.30 in the morning of April 24 1916 Bugler William Oman, a
member of a syndicalist workers militia the Irish Citizen Army (ICA),
sounded the 'fall-in' outside union headquarters. This was the start
of an insurrection in Dublin which was to see around 1,500 armed men
and women seize key buildings, and to hold these positions against
British Army soldiers for almost a week. In the course of putting
down the insurrection, 1351 people were killed or severely wounded
and 179 buildings were destroyed. The 1916 rising in Ireland in which
20% were members of a syndicalist militia became the founding myth of
the modern Irish state.

The Battle of Belleau Wood now remembered by a cemetery
[2006-04-27][googlesightseeing]
1918, the height of the WW1 and German forces have pushed far into
France, coming close to the French capital. The Battle of Belleau
Wood occurred near the Marne River. The battle was fought between a
mainly US Allied force and German units. The battle is remembered
because of its extremely bloody nature and its close proximity to
Paris. The Allies attempted to take the woods but were repeatedly
forced back by artillery and machine gun fire. After re-taking the
woods a total of six times the US Marines managed to force the German
forces out, often reduced to using only their bayonets in close
quarters combat.

Diary of a WW1 Digger
[2006-04-27][abc]
On Saturday the 8th of August 1915, Edward Gregg Cochrane left
Australia to fight in the First World War. A journalist with the Bega
Standard, he sent home regular reports and kept a detailed diary of
his days at war until his death by shell fire near the Butte of
Walencourt in France on the 25th of Feb 1917. The diary, which
contains a fascinating account of life in the trenches, was sent home
on his death and has since disappeared but fortunately copies were
made by his family. The full version can be viewed at the Bega Valley
Pioneer Museum. Here are some extracts:

The first New Zealand Expeditionary Force casualty of WW1
[2006-04-27][stuff]
Ludolph West, who died on August 25, 1914, is to be formally
recognised as the first New Zealand Expeditionary Force casualty of
World War I, in spite of never leaving the country. Ludolph Edwin
Wynn West - known at Palmerston North Boys' High School as Wynn -
signed on for service and camped at Awapuni with the main body of the
regional field artillery regiment. War had been declared on August 4.
New Zealand and other Empire nations immediately offered troops.
Within a week of entering camp, Gnr West, 19, died of pneumonia.

Forgotten WWI photographer set for revival
[2006-04-26][abc]
When Australia's WWI historian, Charles Bean, employed photographers
Frank Hurley and Hubert Wilkins to document on the Western Front, he
did the nation a great service. These two men created one of the
great photographic war archives. There's just one problem, though.
Looking at the vast majority of photos taken during 1917 and 1918, no-
one is sure who took which photos. Now, that didn't hurt Frank
Hurley - he became famous anyway - but Hubert Wilkins has been almost
forgotten. Now a new set of photos taken by Wilkins has been found in
the US. They are images that both captivate and horrify, most of them
taken at great risk to the photographer.

All too quiet on the Western Front - The only all-volunteer army
[2006-04-25][smh]
Gallipoli may have a dearly held place in the national psyche, but
this honour really belongs to the Western Front. For never have so
many Australians fought so hard in the one campaign to achieve such
great results. The 8709 brave young Australians who were killed at
Gallipoli, out of the 50,000 who fought there for 8 months before
retreat, cannot be forgotten. The numbers from the Western Front,
however, are even more staggering - 42,270 Australians were killed,
out of the 250,000 who fought there for 2 years before they won.
Australians won Victoria Crosses and military medals in battle after
battle. It was the only all-volunteer army to serve the entire war.

Ancestors honour Tasmanian soldiers killed during Great War
[2006-04-24][themercury]
Thirty Tasmanian soldiers killed during World War I have been
honoured with their own plaques on Hobart's Soldiers Memorial Avenue,
unveiled at a pre-Anzac Day dedication ceremony. Transport magnate
and Tasbash chairman Bob Thorpe was among the descendants to unveil
plaques on the Domain -- nearly 90 years after his uncle and
namesake, Corporal Robert Stanley Thorpe, died fighting for his
country. He is one of about 28 Australians buried at the nearby
Contay British Cemetery.

40 men, 1 woman imprisoned during WWI
[2006-04-24][billingsgazette]
During the nine months between the enactment of Montana's anti-
sedition law in February of 1918 and the end of World War I, nearly
150 sedition cases were brought in 32 Montana counties. A few cases
were prosecuted even after the war's end. About half of those cases
resulted in convictions. Of the 78 convictions, 40 men and one woman
went to prison. Although several applied for pardons after the end of
World War I, only one man, Josef Hocevar, received an unconditional
pardon upon his release.

Military madness of diggers lost in legend
[2006-04-24][smh]
Buried alive four times - once at Gallipoli and three times in
France - by 1916 "Private A" could not stop the tremor of his head or
limbs. Madness and the Military: Australia's Experience of the Great
War, by Michael Tyquin is the first comprehensive study on mental
illness in WWI. It shatters the stereotype of the tough Anzac, an
icon that Australians look up to - but which never existed. Major
Tyquin says of the soldiers who were "mentally shattered" by the war -
some of whom recovered, though many did not - "I think we've erased
them from our public memory. We like to celebrate Anzac, and there's
no place in that myth for anyone that's less than perfect."


Bron: First World War in the News
http://firstworldwar.cloudworth.com/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: Artillery duels north of Ypres; Canadians withdrawn from the Ypres salient.

Germans bombard Reims and Dunkirk.

Eastern Front

Continued German advance in Galicia; also in the Baltic Provinces; Libau-Dvinsk railway reached.

Russians repulse Austrian attacks in the Uzsok Pass.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks retreat from neighbourhood of the Suez Canal.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Submarine E14 sinks a Turkish transport in the Sea of Marmora.

Political, etc.

Mr. Lloyd George announces the Government scheme with regard to alcoholic drinks.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Western Front

German gas attacks at Hulluch and Wulverghem fail.

Southern Front

Italians take Adamello crest (Trentino).

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Kut surrenders to Turks: General Townshend, 3,000 British and 6,000 Indian troops taken prisoner; 143 days' siege.

Political, etc.

Dublin Post Office, etc., burnt by rebels.
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1917
Western Front

British occupy German trenches south of Oppy (east of Vimy Ridge).

General Petain appointed Chief of French General Staff.

Political, etc.

British and French Missions visit Washington's tomb.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Heavy bombardment between Meteren and Voormezeele followed by violent infantry attacks by 13 Divisions; 3 British divisions repulse every attack; latter continuous; enemy losses very heavy.

French at Scherpenberg (north-west of Kemmel) and Belgians north of Ypres are unsuccessfully attacked.

French regain Locre.

End of the Battle of the Lys.

Eastern Front

Viborg taken by White Guards.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British capture Tuz Khurmati (Tigris).

Naval and Overseas Operations

East Africa: British columns from coast and Lake Nyssa have forced Germans to River Lurio; other British and Portuguese columns approaching this river from the South.

Political, etc.

France: Bonnet Rouge treason trial opens.

Germany: Formation of State Grain Bureau in Ukraine announced.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Hampshire Regiment - Battalions of the Regular Army

1/4th Battalion
August 1914 : in Winchester. Part of Hampshire Brigade in Wessex Division.
9 October 1914 : sailed for India, landing Karachi 11 November 1914. Attached to 4th (Rawalpindi) Brigade in 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division in January 1915.
18 March 1915 : landed at Basra with 33rd Indian Brigade and remained in Mesopotamia and Persia for the rest of the war. Battalion HQ and one Company were captured at Kut-el-Amara on 29 April 1916. The remainder formed a Composite Bn with the 1/5th Bn, the Buffs, and - attached to 35th Indian Brigade - transferred to 14th Indian Division. November 1916, transferred to 36th Indian Brigade.
2 January 1918: entered Persia with Lt Col Matthews' Column. C Company occupied Krasnodovsk on 26 August and pushed on to Merv; D Company occupied Resht and Enzeli. A small detachment under Lt Fisher occupied Baku between 4 August and 15 September 1918. In November Battalion HQ was at Zinjan. In June 1919 two Companies were attached to Lt Col Matthews' Motor Mobile Column and fought at Resht in August 1919.

2/4th Battalion
Formed at Salisbury Plain in September 1914 as a home service ("second line") unit. Became part of 2/1st Hampshire Brigade in 2nd Wessex Division.
13 December 1914 : sailed for India.
On 29 April 1917 left for Egypt, landing at Suez.
15 May 1917 : attached to 233rd Brigade in 75th Division.
May 1918 : left the Division and moved to France, arriving Marseilles 1 June 1918.
5 June 1918 : attached to 186th Brigade in 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division.

2/5th Battalion
Formed at Salisbury Plain in September 1914 as a home service ("second line") unit. Became part of 2/1st Hampshire Brigade in 2nd Wessex Division. Moved to Lyndhurst.
13 December 1914 : sailed for India.
29 April 1917 : left for Egypt, arriving Ismailia on 5 April 1917. Attached to 232nd Brigade in 75th Division.
August 1918 : disbanded in Palestine.

http://www.1914-1918.net/hants.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

29 April 1914, Commons Sitting

KHAKI SHORTS.


HC Deb 29 April 1914 vol 61 c1683 1683

Sir JOHN JARDINE asked the Secretary of State for War whether, in a Territorial battalion, if the commanding officer approves, the battalion scouts can, as is done in many Regular battalions, wear khaki shorts instead of regulation trousers?

The UNDER-SECRETARY of STATE for WAR (Mr. Tennant) Khaki shorts do not form part of the regulation uniform of and are not officially recognised for the Regular Army, and it is not thought desirable to recognise them in the case of Territorial units.

Sir J. JARDINE Could this not be done when the commanding officer is willing?

Mr. TENNANT It is not considered desirable that they should be worn on regimental duties.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/29/khaki-shorts
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Zierikzee

MOBILISATIE 1914-1918

(...) De invasie van de Belgische vluchtelingen bracht voor de dokter en zijn hospitaalsoldaten extra zorgen mee. Een gedeelte van de Concertzaal werd ingericht om de zieke vluchtelingen onder te brengen. Ook bij de ernstige gevolgen van de diverse mijnexplosies op het eiland en het bombardement op Zierikzee in de nacht van 29 op 30 april 1917 verleende de dokter en zijn hospiks belangrijke hulp. (...)

In de nacht van 29 op 30 april 1917 vlogen Engelse vliegtuigen aan op de Belgische kust. In Zeebrugge lagen namelijk Duitse onderzeeboten. Eén van de vliegtuigen raakte verdwaald en zag het Zeeuwse Zierikzee voor Zeebrugge aan. Een onbedoeld bombardement was het gevolg. Zierikzee werd om half drie geraakt: drie doden, veel gewonden en een flinke ravage waren het gevolg. 'De ledematen vlogen meters ver weg', schreef de Middelburgsche Courant.
Daags na het bombardement regelde de gemeente noodopvang en voedsel voor de getroffenen. De pers pakte de ramp op en al gauw kwamen belangstellenden om de puinhopen te bekijken. Giften kwamen binnen uit het hele land en op 12 augustus werd een liefdadigheidsconcert gegeven voor de ouders van de overledenen. Een handige uitgever bracht ansichtkaarten van de vernielingen in omloop.

In de maanden daarop ontstond er een discussie over de schuld. Experts hadden bomscherven verzameld en ontdekten Engelse kenmerken. De regering deed haar beklag bij de Britse overheid, maar die ontkende elke betrokkenheid. Zij suggereerde dat Duitse vliegeniers met buitgemaakte vliegtuigen de aanval hadden uitgevoerd. Uiteindelijk erkende Engeland schuld en betaalde in mei 1918 honderdtwintigduizend gulden schadevergoeding uit.

http://www.zierikzee-monumentenstad.nl/kk_2900003.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

29 April 1915, Commons Sitting.

BELGIAN REFUGEES.


HC Deb 29 April 1915 vol 71 c818 818

Mr. HOGGE asked the President of the Local Government Board what progress is being made with further provision for Belgian refugees; and what is the total number to date in this country?

The PRESIDENT of the LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD (Mr. Herbert Samuel) The Registrar-General estimates that the number of Belgian Refugees (excluding soldiers) now in this country is about 180,000. Of these it may be roughly estimated that the number of employable men is about 29,000, of whom about 17,000 have already been placed in employment, and efforts are continually being made to find occupation for the others. Of 17,000 employable women about 3,000 are employed. Several thousands of refugees, not included in the figures of employment, have enlisted in the Belgian Army. The number of refugees awaiting hospitality has so far diminished as to allow of my being able to close the Alexandra Palace as a refuge and to arrange for the transfer of the buildings to the War Office. About 2,400 refugees remain in other refuges, and further offers of hospitality would be gladly received by the War Refugees' Committee at Aldwych.

Mr. HOGGE Can the right hon. Gentleman state whether there are other refugees who could be brought over here if hospitality were arranged for?

Mr. HERBERT SAMUEL No doubt, when traffic is resumed with Holland, it would be possible to bring over other refugees if hospitality were available; but of late the offers of hospitality have not been large.

Mr. MacCALLUM SCOTT Is it proposed to give employment to these, people in the manufacture of munitions of war?

Mr. HERBERT SAMUEL There are a large number employed in armament factories.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/apr/29/belgian-refugees
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Staffordshire Brigade in Wulvergem (april-juni 1915)

Niet alle verliezen waren het resultaat van Duitse granaten. Op 29 april werd Trench 10B, op dat moment bezet door de "A" Compagnie van de 1/5 South Staffords, geraakt door een "korte" bom afgevuurd door een batterij vanuit Kemmel. Soldaat Bill Martin (William Martin, gesneuveld op 29 april 1915, 19 jaar oud, begraven op Saint-Quentin Military Cemetery) lid van de Machine Gun Section en een vriend van Soldaat Sid Richards, werd gedood toen zijn schuilplaats boven op hem instortte.

Drie andere mannen in de loopgraaf, o.a. Kapitein Bernard McCraith van de 1/2 North Midland Field Compagnie, Royal Engineers, werden gewond door een shrapnel.

Sergeant Sydney Norton ontsnapte eveneens op het nippertje aan de Duitse artillerie:

"Ze bliezen mijn schuilplaats aan stukken. Ik was juist buiten toen de granaat zijn werk deed en ik liep terug om te zien of er iemand gewond was. Een sergeant stond alweer recht nadat hij bedolven was onder een paar zandzakjes. Toen trad onze artillerie in actie en blies ongeveer 75 meter van de Duitse loopgraven aan stukken. Mijn mannen kropen in een andere loopgraaf en gaven hen hun bekomst (IJzer Rantsoen). Ik keerde de volgende dag terug naar mijn schuilplaats. Al mijn bezittingen waren verdwenen. Ik kon nog een gebakje, een beetje cacao en een blikje uit je pakket redden, en Goddank mezelf. Ze schoten ongeveer 12 granaten over en dat was al de schade die ze aanrichtten…"

Kort voor de Staffordshire Brigade in Wulvergem aankwam waren ondermijningsoperaties opgestart. De recent gevormde 172 Tunnelling Compagnie van de Royal Engineers was actief nabij Kruisstraat Cabaret nabij het front van de North Staffords en ook in de sector van de South Staffords nabij Boyles Farm (gelegen langs de weg van Wulvergem naar Mesen). Er waren echter meer troepen nodig om de gravers bij te staan en de Staffordshire Territorials vormden een Brigade Mining Section. Het was niet moeilijk om kandidaten te vinden aangezien veel mannen van de Brigade mijnwerkers waren in vredestijd.

De Brigade Mining Section was enkel betrokken bij de defensieve ondermijningsoperaties, vooral het plaatsen van tegenmijnen en explosieven, bekend als camoflets onder de Duitse tunnels zodat deze kon instorten. Op 27 april werd een groep van de Mining Section in de tunnel nabij Kruisstraat Cabaret overvallen door dampen van koolmonoxide en er moest een reddingsoperatie opgezet worden.

De dagboekschrijver van de 172ste Tunnelling Compagnie noteerde:

"Overvielen de vijand vanuit galerij G1. Lading bedroeg 45 kg. 15.25 uur. Blijkbaar succesvol want we hoorden de vijand had werken toen onze mannen terugkeerden. Luitenant Daniels en Sergeant Harper gingen de galerij om 19 uur in en werden door gas overvallen. Een reddingsploeg van gravers en 1 officier gingen naar beneden en konden Luitenant Daniels en Sergeant Harper redden. Ze waren allemaal min of meer bevangen door het gas, Sergeant Harper stierf. De galerij werd dan geventileerd. Negen leden van de reddingsploeg werden voorgedragen voor een DCM (later kregen ze die ook). We vernielden negen meter van de vijandelijke borstwering."

http://www.wo1.be/ned/geschiedenis/gastbijdragen/staffordshire-NDL.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

By the Sea

Chaplin's 42nd Released April 29 1915. By the Sea was a quick film Charlie Chaplin made while waiting for a studio to work in Los Angeles. He just left Niles Essanay Studio after doing five films at that location. By the Sea was filmed all on location at Crystal Pier in April 1915. The story centers on Charlie and how he gets into trouble trying to grab the attention of the ladies on the beach. Edna Purviance plays one the wives Charlie shows interest in.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvFvNTKl-cA
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of Signaller Ellis Silas – diary extract : April 1915

Signaller Ellis Silas at Anzac, Gallipoli

29 April
After four days and four nights without a rest, at last I am relieved and go back to the rear for a few hours’ rest. All the way along there is always that stream of wounded coming from the Firing Line. Despite my recent fatigue, now that I have the leisure I cannot sleep – thank God it is quieter here, though in the gully we get the full benefit of the blast from the guns of our ships – however, they are doing the Turks some damage, otherwise we should have been swept into the sea ere this. I have just been told by Signaller Ashton of the Signallers that I have been mentioned in dispatches for a military decoration – hope to God I haven’t bungled things, though it’s a funny kind of a joke on a battlefield. Am told by Sergeant Paull of the Signallers that I have been mentioned in dispatches for a military decoration, at the same time saying that I have earned for the Signallers a good name – hardly know how I feel over the matter – I can scarcely express it in words; to have won through so successfully when my one great fear had been that I should fail lamentably fills me with a great peace and sense of satisfaction that at least I have not given up all in vain. It is curious on the battlefield how unconscious one is of having accomplished anything exceptional; for my part I do not feel that I have done anything more than my duty – where so many men are doing fine things I do not see what utter use it is giving medals, for I have seen many things that strike me as being infinitely finer than anything I have done or, I fear, would have the nerve to do, and yet nothing is said of them. I don’t regret my receiving this distinction, for at least it has shown the lads that Signaller Silas, the Joke of the Battalion, was able to do his bit with them, and also to show a somewhat sneering world that artists are not quite failures on the battlefield, though I would admit that we are not quite cut out for this sort of work. I don’t think I can stand much more of it, my nerves seem to be going; what little I did have.

Sundown. I go to Headquarters to see if there any further messages, as I’m returning to the firing line after a five hour’s spell. Colonel Pope to Captain Margolin – ‘If you’re not busy, get your trenches a bit deeper.’ On my way along I’m told to take cover, snipers have got much worse; one man, Ibbotson, pulled me into his dug-out, at the same time remarking ‘For God’s sake, take cover; two men have just been hit within the last two seconds within a yard or two of where you are standing.’ I saw the proof of this; their faces turned to the sky, the sand splashed with scarlet.

I wait in his dug-out two minutes, but feel I must get back to the Captain, he may be wanting me so I start forth again. All the way along the lads keep calling from their dug-outs ‘Get down, take cover, snipers are getting us in dozens!’ – however I continue my journey and reach Captain none the worse. It is true things are getting merry, but the snipers don’t seem to get the strength of me. I find that the signalers have been relieved, that I was not supposed to have returned until the following morning. ‘ Stretcher bearers on the left’ is the ceaseless cry.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/1landing/s_diary1915april.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

29 april 1916 - Burgemeester van Gilse deed zijn beklag over diverse incidenten: “De veldwachter van Baarle-Nassau deed een onderzoek bij vier bakkers in Baarle-Hertog. Er wordt Nederlandse gemeente- en provincietaks geëist van Belgische kleinhandelaars. Nederlandse gendarmes onderzoeken in Belgische huizen het gebruik van eetwaren die uit Nederland werden uitgevoerd. Het controlerecht werd verruimd van eetwaren tot eender welke goederen. Bijna dagelijks verschijnt de Nederlandse Marechaussee in Belgische cafés om er het verbruik van vloeibaar carbonzuur op te meten. De Belgische brouwerij (Brasserie St.-Antoine van Antoon Brosens) is al bijna zes maanden gesloten omdat er geen mout kan worden aangekocht. Beenhouwers van Baarle-Hertog kunnen geen vee uit Nederland slachten omdat ze in Baarle-Nassau geen slachtrecht hebben. In de gemengde commissie voor uitvoer van levensmiddelen hebben de gemeenteraadsleden totaal geen invloed. Alles hangt af van de goede wil van de militairen en douanes. Belgen die buiten de Baarlese draad wonen, kunnen zich slechts met etenswaren bevoorraden mits een goede militaire escorte.” Toch was er ook goed nieuws: “Sinds het bezoek van minister Loudon wordt er niet meer met dezelfde volharding gefouilleerd bij personen die arriveren in Baarle-centrum.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 29 April 1916.

Valkenswaard. Zondag a.s. na de Hoogmis zal de heer A. v. Rijen secretaris van arbeid eene gecombineerde bestuursvergadering houden van de R. K. Vakbonden alhier. Besprekingen zullen plaats hebben over de "Rerum Novarum" –herdenking en de oprichting eener R. K. Werkliedenvereeniging.
- Door de politie wordt ernstig het oog gehouden op het nog verbruiken van tarwebloem. Daar de bakkers niet meer mogen inschieten wordt ook gelet op het laten bakken bij particulieren.

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 29 April 1916.

Valkenswaard. Naar wij met genoegen vernemen is onze dorpsgenoot, de Heer Felix Hoekx, bevorderd tot 2e luitenant. Proficiat!

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1916.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Easter Rising

Tuesday to Saturday
Reinforcements were sent to Dublin from England, and disembarked at Kingstown on the morning of 26 April. Heavy fighting occurred at the rebel-held positions around the Grand Canal as these troops advanced towards Dublin. The Sherwood Foresters were repeatedly caught in a cross-fire trying to cross the canal at Mount Street. Seventeen Volunteers were able to severely disrupt the British advance, killing or wounding 240 men.[citation needed] The rebel position at the South Dublin Union (site of the present day St. James's Hospital), further west along the canal, also inflicted heavy losses on British troops trying to advance towards Dublin Castle. Cathal Brugha, a rebel officer, distinguished himself in this action and was badly wounded.

The headquarters garrison, after days of shelling, were forced to abandon their headquarters when fire caused by the shells spread to the GPO. They tunnelled through the walls of the neighbouring buildings in order to evacuate the Post Office without coming under fire and took up a new position in 16 Moore Street. On Saturday 29 April, from this new headquarters, after realizing that they could not break out of this position without further loss of civilian life, Pearse issued an order for all companies to surrender. Pearce surrendered unconditionally to Brigadier-General Lowe. The surrender document read:

"In order to prevent the further slaughter of Dublin citizens, and in the hope of saving the lives of our followers now surrounded and hopelessly outnumbered, the members of the Provisional Government present at headquarters have agreed to an unconditional surrender, and the commandants of the various districts in the City and County will order their commands to lay down arms."

The Rising outside Dublin

Connacht
In the west, Liam Mellows led 600-700 Volunteers in abortive attacks on several police stations, at Oranmore and Clarinbridge in County Galway. There was also a skirmish at Carnmore in which two RIC men were killed. However his men were poorly-armed, with only 25 rifles and 300 shotguns, many of them being equipped only with pikes. Towards the end of the week, Mellows' followers were increasingly poorly-fed and heard that large British reinforcements were being sent westwards. In addition, the British warship, HMS Gloucester arrived in Galway Bay and shelled the fields around Athenry where the rebels were based. On 29 April the Volunteers, judging the situation to be hopeless, dispersed from the town of Athenry. Many of these Volunteers were arrested in the period following the rising, while others, including Mellows had to go "on the run" to escape. By the time British reinforcements arrived in the west, the rising there had already disintegrated.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Rising
Zie ook http://www.theeasterrising.eu/050_PublicationsEnglish/Publivcations%20English.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Apr 2010 21:36, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gemeentebestuur Veghel,
brief d.d. 27 april 1917 aan de minister van Oorlog met antwoord d.d. 29 april 1917.

Op 22-25 september 1916, tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog, werden er door een doortrekkende spoldaten veel schade aangericht in Veghel. Het Ministerie van oorlog keerde een schadevergoeding uit. Ook personen uit Zijtaart worden genoemd in deze lijst:

Toen het leger langs het kanaal trok werd er een weiland van Antoon van de Nieuwenhuizen in de Valstraat beschadigd, doordat er doorheen gereden werd.

De soldaten deden zich te goed aan de appel- en perenbomen van Johannes van de Schoot. Naar schatting verloor die 100 kilo appels en 10 kilo peren.

Ook bij de weduwe van Johan van de Ven werden er peren gestolen, en ook werd daar een zinken emmer met appels die al geplukt waren meegenomen.

Toen het leger over de Biezendijk trok, werden aangelegen percelen beschadigd. Bij Frans van Asseldonk werd een eiland aan zijn huis beschadigd doordat er met kanonnen doorheen gereden werd.

Bij Marinus Pennings gingen op die manier ¼ hectare bieten, rapen en haver verloren.

De hele lijst vermeld meer dan 60 namen van personen die een schadevergoeding kregen. Behalve veel schade aan landerijen en diefstal van fruit door de soldaten, wordt ook nog andere schade vermeld. Een greep uit de lijst:

Er werden bomen kapot gereden op de Eerdse Dijk.

Op de Schijndelse dijk werd prikkeldraad doorgeknipt en een stuk met 2 à 3 jonge bomen eruit gegooid. Ook op veel andere plaatsen werd draad doorgeknipt en vreepalen afgebroken. Het vee werd hier en daar enkele dagen op stal gezet, en de melkproductie leed daar onder.

Paarden van het leger beschadigden een dorsmachine.

In Eerde werd een houtmijt uit elkaar gegooid.

Een kar werd beschadigd door aanrijding, een paardenkuip vernield.

Op het Beukelaar werd bij Van de Zanden de deur vernield en de soldaten stolen er 5 pond spek uit de schouw en namen ook een emmer mee.

Op het Havenplein werden paardendekens gestolen en werd een ruit van een rijtuig ingedrukt.

De soldaten schoten een kanon af, waardoor er vijf ruiten sneuvelden in de Sluisstraat. Op het Marktplein sneuvelden door het afschieten van een kanon ook 5 ruiten.

Bij Van de Sluijs aan de Leest werden groenten in de tuin vernield en 2 leggende kippen meegenomen. Paarden trapten er eikenplanken stuk.

Bij Van Dam in Eerde braken de paarden los en werden er ruiten en flessen vernield.

Bij Van Rijbroek aan het Beukelaar werden wagens en paarden gestald, waardoor het weiland vernield werd.

Geschiedenis van Zijtaart, http://www.oudzijtaart.nl/Kroniek/K1916.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BATTALION WAR DIARY FOR 22nd (SERVICE) BATTALION ROYAL FUSILIERS
Operations in the Battle of Arras, and near Oppy Wood

28 April 1917
During the day the Battalion remained in reserve, the 5th and 6th Infantry Brigades having attacked the German positions at 4.25am The four Companies were amalgamated, B and C Companies under Major GREGG M.C., A and D Companies under Captain T H EVANS M.C. They were equipped with battle stores. In the afternoon 3 officers and 150 other ranks of the 1st Bn KRRC were attached to the Battalion (the diary notes this figure as 150, but later, and more correctly 50 men).
The progress of the events of this and the following day are in the Narrative of Operations Attached. (see below for narrative by Lt Col Barnett Barker D.S.O.)
On the night of the 28/29th the Battalion moved to battle positions, Bn. HQs being in the support trench at about A17C9?.
The following officers went into action. Lt Col R BARNETT BARKER DSO commanding, Major W J PHYTHIAN ADAMS MC, 2nd in command, Capt CR STONE MC, adjutant, 2/Lt E C HUDSON, signalling officer, Right front company, Major R C GREGG MC, Capt D N de WET, 2/Lts F M PERRATON, F STEVENSON, J STEEL and S F JEFFCOAT. Left front Company Capt T H EVANS MC, 2/Lts H PARKS, M E WARDLEY, F W PALMER VC and R SAWORD. MO Capt C N COAD (?) RAMC. Capt J E T KELLY was in charge of a 1st Bn KRRC carrying party, and 2/Lts H A HOLMES and J W CARR were in charge of stragglers posts (?) under APM 2nd Division.
The weather was extremely fine but the visibility on the morning of the 29th was not good.

22nd (Service) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers.
Narrative of attack on German Line south of OPPY WOOD.

(by Lt Col R Barnett Barker, Officer Comanding)

ORDERS – PRELIMINARIES TO ATTACK

There was a Brigade conference on this impending attack at Brigade Headquarters on April 28th about 3.30pm. I did not reach my rear Bn H.Qs after the conference till 7.30pm.

I took down verbal orders pending the written Operational Orders. These were to the effect (a) that my Bn. had to pass the starting point – MAISON DE LA COTE – at about 9pm., (b) I had to take over the sector occupied by the ESSEX REGT and (c) ZERO would be at 3 am.

As My Company H.Q.s in the rear were somewhat scattered it took some time to collect my Officers. I had sufficient time, however, to make them thoroughly acquainted with all details of the attack. I attach (No1) a copy of the Bn. Operational Orders – time did not allow any detailed orders.

Fortunately I had kept my men in battle order for the last 10 days, viz: each man carrying 3 bombs, sandbags and filled water bottle, but owing to some misunderstanding with Brigade Transport about rations, I was unable to obtain the next days rations. The men, therefore, left with only emergency rations and water in bottles.

The men had just done 3 days in the front line and had only reached their rear positions at 4.30 am that morning. They were therefore tired.

They passed the starting point almost at the time ordered and reached their battle positions at 2 am.

A schedule as to where I might find dumps and their contents was given to me by Brigade. Only one dump was within reach. On arrival at my Battle H.Qs and NCO was sent to examine the contents of this dump. It was found mostly blown up and contained no water and a few boxes of bombs and 5 boxes of S.A.A (small arms ammunition).

50 men of the 1/KRRC who had been carrying the night and day before for the 6th Brigade were given to me to act as carriers. I left these men behind my rear Bn. H.Q.s to bring up rations – they apparently lost their way and did not appear on the scene again until 3pm the next day.

50 men of the 60th (?) who had also been carrying for the 6th Brigade were attached to me to form a defensive flank on my right as no touch had been made with the 63rd Division for 4 days and their exact position was not known.

SITUATION ON ARRIVAL AT BATTLE HEADQUARTERS

I received about 10.15pm a message stating that ZERO hour would be at 4am and not 3 am. I at once dispatched runners to my Company Commanders. This message reached them as they were forming up in battle position.

On arrival at my battle H.Qs. at 3am Lieut-Col MARTIN, ESSEX REGT, informed me (a) that there were no bombs, tools, SAA etc in any of the trenches (b) that the dump at RAILWAY TRUCK had been heavily called on the day previous, and (c) that the GERMAN WIRE ON THE FRONT OF THE SECTOR I HAD TO ATTACK HAD BEEN BADLY CUT AND IN FACT WAS NOT CUT AT ALL ON THE PORTION FACING MY RIGHT COMPANY. On the receipt of this information I at once informed Brigade H.Qs. and my 2 Company Commanders (see R.B.B 22, 23, 24, (1) (2) (3). I made suggestions to the Coy. Commanders as to how to meet the difficulty and to confer together if time allowed.

THE ATTACK

1. As my Battalion was only of the strength of 2 Companies, they were formed up in waves, covering (the) whole front, with 50 men of the 1/KRRC on (the) right to form a defensive flank. A company of 23rd R. Fus. (B Company) was given (to) me as a reserve to share with 1st R. BERKS. This was placed at our battle H.Qs.

2. The waves were formed up in perfect order and went forward directly the barrage opened, led by the subaltern officers. They were at once hung up by the wire in the dark - By the time gaps had been formed, the barrage had lifted off the German trenches. They were thus left exposed to rifle and machine gun fire, and also bombs while looking for gaps and endeavouring to cut the wire. I will now describe the movements of the right Coy. throughout the fight and then describe the movements of the left Coy. (D Coy.).

3. B Coy. managed with difficulty to get through the first row of German wire. By the time they reached the second row the barrage had lifted – the second row was found (to be) impenetrable. S/Lt J STEELE had the whole of his platoon shot down and he and one man managed to get into a shell hole in the wire and remained there all day. Major R H GREGG and all other officers except 2/Lt JEFFCOAT became casualties together with most of the men.

2/Lt JEFFCOAT and Acting Sergeant Major HOGAN managed to find a gap on the extreme right. They, with a platoon jumped into the German line and captured it with a few prisoners. 2/Lt JEFFCOAT bombed down to the right to try and get in touch with the 63rd Division. A/C. S.M. HOGAN bombed up to the left to try and get in touch with my D Coy. The fighting was very desperate and 2/Lt JEFFCOAT informed me that no quarter was asked or given and many Germans were killed. He succeeded in bombing down to within a point 100 yards of the railway (vis: 400 yards outside Divisional area). There, he obtained touch with the BEDFORD REGT. A/C S.M. HOGAN meanwhile worked up about 100 yards to the left. There he established a block.

Word was brought to him that 2/Lt JEFFCOAT was in trouble, dealing with a heavy counter attack , so he went down to assist him. On his return to the left, he found it had also been heavily counter attacked and driven in. All the bombs having been exhausted, the survivors, about 15 in number had retired to the O.B.L. He at once went after them and organised them for an immediate counter attack. He also wrote me a message describing the situation. 2/Lt JEFFCOAT, finding his rear (left) unprotected, placed a stop, and sent a message to me, giving me the situation.

4. LEFT COMPANY (D)
The right platoon of this company found the wire uncut and so were all shot, 2/Lt PALMER V.C. being the only survivor – He found a shell hole in the wire in which he lay all day. Platoons 14 and 15 appear to have suffered a similar fate and 2/Lt PARKS found himself against impenetrable wire with only 3 Lewis Gunners. He therefore returned to O.B.L. and took up a position there. No. 13 platoon side slipped to the left, meeting with heavy opposition – on (the) right they formed a block – on (the) left they joined up with (the) R.BERKS. I left this platoon under Lieut-Col HARRIS, DSO R.BERKS and they shared the fortunes of the Royal Berks.

5. The 50 men of the 1/KRRC dug a defensive flank of posts on (the) right flank and garrisoned it. Parties of them got intermingled with the front line fighters and were of the greatest assistance.

6. I AM OF (THE) OPPINION that the men who had established themselves in the German Line could have maintained their position there till I could reinforce them, if proper dumps had been formed and all administrative arrangements been made in perfect order previous to the attack – they only carried three bombs each and the ordinary supply for bombers. The fighting was of a desperate character and the bombs quickly gave out. The Lewis Gunners crawled out of the trenches and used their guns as sprays and were shot accordingly.

7. Owing to all Officers becoming casualties, I could get no information from the front line at 6am. I sent up my Intelligence Officer – 2/Lt HUDSON – to report on (the) situation. He sent back word at once, and also that bombs must be sent up – he himself became a casualty, - the message reached me at 7am. I at once sent up half (of) A Coy. 23rd. R.FUS. under Capt TAYLOR with orders to garrison O.B.L. and take the situation in hand. – I sent with him all the bombs I could find. On arrival at O.B.L. he was in time to prevent A/C.S.M. HOGAN (from) wasting men’s lives by making a fruitless attack across “No Mans Land. He reported to me at once on the situation as far as he could ascertain it – I sent him S.10 (4). Feeling anxious about the O.B.L. I sent up Capt TAYLOR, 1 platoon of 23rd. R. FUS and a Lewis Gun.

8. At 9.15am Col.HARRIS informed me that the 1st R BERKS and my platoon were driven back to O.B.L.

9. AT 9.30 (?) am I RECEIVED A MESSAGE FROM 2nd Lieut. JEFFCOAT STATING THAT
(a) HE WAS IN TOUCH WITH BEDFORDS
(b) THAT I COULD DRIBBLE MEN UP TO HIM VIA THE RAILWAY and
(c) THAT IF I SENT HIM REINFORCEMENTS AND PLENTY OF BOMBS, HE COULD ATTACK AGAIN AND PROBABLY CAPTURE THE LINE.

10. I SENT HIM R.B.B.27 (5) I ALSO SENT CAPT TAYLOR HOLDING THE O.B.L., R.B.B.28 (6)

11. I ALSO SENT FOR Capt. BOWYER, 23rd ROYAL FUSILIERS AND GAVE HIM VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS (7)

12. At 10am Capt. BOWYER and about 100 men of the 23rd. R. FUS. Well supplied with bombs which had in meanwhile been sent me by the 99th I.R., started up the railway – they reached the German Line with practically no casualties. Capt. BOWYER at once started operations and he bombed up (the) trench in (the) following order, 23rd R.FUS, 63rd Division consisting of 7th Bn R. FUS, BEDFORDS, H.A.C.. The operation was entirely successful and he established himself firmly at B.12.d.6.7 (?), vis about 900 yards south of OPPY WOOD. He did not proceed past this point, although convinced that he could do so, as he thought the BERKS might be bombing down to meet him. Also fearing strong counter attack he wished to keep a large supply of bombs. In the meanwhile, I sent up to him every bomb I could lay my hands on, and also several boxes to Capt TAYLOR in the O.B.L. to get across “No Man’s Land” to him. The supply now arriving from 99th I.B. was ample. Also water and SAA strated to arrive, both of which were badly needed.

13. AT ABOUT 10.25am the O.C. BEDFORDS arrived at my Bn. H.Qs. and gave me the situation on the left. This coincided exactly with 2/Lt JEFFCOAT’s report. HE AGREED TO WORK EVERYTHING IN CONJUNCTION WITH ME AND WE WORKED MOST HARMONIOUSLY TOGETHER.

14. At 10.25am Lt-Col HARRIS informed me that a report (unreliable) had reached him that the Germans were attacking in force against the O.B.L. and might drive a gap between 1st R BERKS and my left. I therefore kept back 6 Lewis Guns of 23rd ROYAL FUSILIERS and 1 platoon and also phoned 99th I.B. to ask for reinforcements. This report was afterwards found to be false. Capt TAYLOR, 23rd R. FUS in O.B.L., during the morning sent his patrols across “No Man’s Land” and kept in touch with Capt. BOWYER’s attack. The information he sent me was of the greatest value and his patrols must have acted with great gallantry, as the O.B.L. and “No Man’s Land” were swept with machine gun and rifle fire from OPPY WOOD.

15. AT 3.15pm THE 99th I.B. INFORMED ME THAT OPPY WOOD AND VILLAGE WERE REPORTED TO BE IN THE PROCESS OF EVACUATION BY (THE) ENEMY. I AT ONCE SENT OUT TO CAPTS. BOWYE AND TAYLOR MY R.B.B.30 and 31.
16. I asked O.C. BEDFORDS to come to my H.Qs. (as previously agreed) to confer. We agreed that he should push out patrols to practise trenches (B13 C and D) and keep in touch with my right and in the event of being able to advance that he should capture (the) practise trenches. We also sent for (the) Brigade M.G. Officer and instructed him to train his guns on (the) practise ground and sweep (the) approaches south of the village.

17. I then telephoned to Brigade what my future arrangements would be, which were entirely dependent on patrol reports. They were (a) that Capts. BOWYER and TAYLOR would push on with their remnants of troops and occupy any good positions south and east of (the) village, (b0 that I would push up the EAST YORKS behind and in support of them and (c) when touch was once more obtained with the enemy, I would relieve them with the EAST YORKS and drw them back into reserve.

18. At 5.30(?)pm I received a patrol report from Capt. BOWYER to the effect (a) THAT ENEMY WERE HOLDING A TRENCH JUST WEST OF THE SUNKEN ROAD, (b) THAT THERE WERE SEVERAL HOSTILE POSTS PROTECTED BY WIRE – HE ADDED THAT THE TRENCH SEEMED TO BE A COMMUNICATION TRENCH RUNNING IN A HALF CIRCLE STARTING FROM OPPY LINE AND JOINING UP AT SUNKEN ROAD. (c) THE OPPY WOOD PATROL REPORTED “ENEMY STILL IN OCCUPATION, ABOUT 200 OF THEM BEING SEEN PROCEEDING FROM SUNKEN ROAD TO WOOD”

19. It was reported to me during the day that our second objective did not exist as it had been completely obliterated by our artillery.

20. I AM OF OPINION
(a) that our failure to take the first objective in the first place was simply owing to the wire not being cut and the difficulty in finding the few gaps in the dark.
(b) that in spite of (the) above, men of the 22nd R FUS. Who got into (their) first objective, would have cleared it and maintained themselves there, if bombs had been available. The fight was simply a bombing fight as it was in trenches – rifle fire and bayonets were useless.
(c) the supply of bombs and SAA when once they began to arrive from 99th I.B. was ample, and that had more time been allowed us to properly organise dumps and carrying parties, the attack could not have failed.
(d) the enemy were guardsmen and fought magnificently. The losses on both sides were therefore about equal.
(e) Their counter attackers appeared to be splendidly trained and organised and had unlimited bombs,
(f) our barrage of 6 mins did not allow sufficient time for men to advance over 150 yards and get through two belts of wire. The barrage had lifted before our men reached the second belt. 21. I wish to place on record the splendid gallantry of 2/Lt JEFFCOAT (mortally wounded. It was entirely owing to the excellent report he sent (to) me on the situation that I was able to push up the 23rd R FUS and so capture practically the whole of the objective given me.

The O.C. BEDFORD REGT gave me most excellent advise and assistance and our co-operation together was everything that could be desired.

I cannot speak too highly of the most valuable services of Capt. BOWYER and Capt. TAYLOR, 23rd R.FUS. The success of our counter attack and the gaining of or objectives was greatly due to their excellent leadership and gallantry. The information they gave me, placed me in a position to give them the assistance they required. It would be impossible to say enough about all the Officers and me of the 23rd R. FUS. Who came under my command. They were ready, eager and prepared to move at a moment’s notice, quickly understood their orders and carried them out to perfection.

http://ww1research.wetpaint.com/page/22nd+Bn+Royal+Fusiliers+April+1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Lys, 9-29 April 1918

On 25 April the Germans achieved their last major successes of the battle, capturing Mount Kemmel. A final attack on 29 April captured another high point, the Scherpenberg, but the general progress of the attack on 29 April convinced Ludendorff to call off the offensive.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lys.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE "FOOT GUARDS" REGIMENTEN AAN HET FRONT 1914-1918

DE "GUARDS" DIVISION IN DUITSLAND.

Op 18 november 1918 krijgt de "Guards" Division het bevel om op te trekken naar de Rijn. Op 11 december trekken de eerste eenheden van deze Divisie Duitsland binnen. Op 14 december wordt de 2nd Guards Brigade per train naar Keulen gestuurd. Dezelfde dag zijn zij ter plaatse en onmiddellijk wordt het Hoofdkwartier van de "Guards" Division aldaar gevestigd. (klaar op 18 december 1918). Op 19 december komen de resterende brigades (1st, 3rd en 4th) van de "Guards" Division te Keulen aan.

Zij blijven er in de regio tot 20 februari 1919. Dan begint de repatriëring van de "Guards" Division naar Groot-Brittannië. Op 29 april 1919 zijn de laatste manschappen van deze divisie uit het Duitse straatbeeld verdwenen.

http://www.wfa-belgie.be/artikels/guards.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World Aviation in 1918

29 April - Captain Edward Vernon Rickenbacker, who would later become America's top ace of the First World War, with 26 victories, claims his first victory, an Albatros Scout.

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1918.htm

Eddie Rickenbacker

Edward Vernon Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 27, 1973) was an American fighter ace in World War I and Medal of Honor recipient. He was also a race car driver and automotive designer, a government consultant in military matters and a pioneer in air transportation, particularly as the longtime head of Eastern Air Lines.

Originally he flew the Nieuport 28, at first without armament. On April 29, 1918, Rickenbacker shot down his first plane and claimed his fifth to become an ace on May 28. Rickenbacker was awarded the French Croix de Guerre that month for his five victories.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Rickenbacker
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919 United States anarchist bombings

The 1919 United States anarchist bombings were a series of bombings and attempted bombings carried out by anarchist followers of Luigi Galleani from April through June 1919. These bombings fed the public fear of revolution known as the Red Scare of 1919-20.

In late April 1919, approximately 30 booby trap bombs were mailed to a cross-section of prominent politicians, including the Attorney General of the United States, as well as justice officials and financiers, including John D. Rockefeller. Among all the prominent names, one bomb was addressed to a FBI field agent assigned to find several Galleanist fugitives, including a Galleanist ringleader, Carlo Valdinoci.

The mail bombs were wrapped in bright green paper and stamped "Gimbel Brother's - Novelty Samples." Inside the paper was a cardboard box containing a six-inch by three-inch block of hollowed wood about one inch in thickness, packed with a stick of dynamite. A small vial of sulfuric acid was fastened to the wood block, along with three fulminate-of-mercury blasting caps. Opening one end of the box (one end was marked "open") released a coil spring that caused the acid to drip from its vial onto the blasting caps; the acid ate through the caps, igniting them and detonating the dynamite.

The Galleanists intended their bombs to be delivered on May Day, the international day of communist, anarchist, and socialist revolutionary solidarity. Seattle Mayor Ole Hanson, who had recently attained national prominence for opposing a general strike in Seattle, received one of the mailed package bombs, which was opened by a William Langer, a member of his office staff. Langer opened the wrong end of the box, and the bottle of acid dropped onto a table. Langer took the bomb to the local police, who notified the Post Office and other police agencies. On April 29, Georgia senator Thomas W. Hardwick, who had co-sponsored the Anarchist Exclusion Act, received a similarly disguised bomb, which blew off the hands of a housekeeper[1] when she attempted to open the package. The senator's wife was also injured in the blast, which severely burned her face and neck. A piece of shrapnel from the bomb cut Mrs. Hardwick's lip and loosened several of her teeth. Only a few of the packages were delivered: because the plotters had neglected to add sufficient postage.

One of the packages was discovered, and its distinctive markings enabled the interception of most of the others. On April 30, a post office employee in New York City, having heard news reports describing the bombs' packaging, discovered sixteen of the bombs, while a further twelve bombs were eventually recovered before reaching their intended targets.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919_United_States_anarchist_bombings
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

April 4, 1919 -- Left Heywood for the camp.

April 13, 1919 -- Quite a few of the lads left on the Olympic.

April 19, 1919 -- Sailing orders close at 4 p.m. canceled.

April 29, 1919 -- Left Bramshoot 3:15 a.m. on the 29th of April. Sailed on the SS Baltic in the afternoon.

http://vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/bottomley/april1919
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 29 April 1919.

Valkenswaard. Op de Zondag gehouden vergadering der R. K. Werkliedenvereeniging werden tot bestuursleden gekozen de heeren W. de Natris, F. Jacobs, P. Koolen, W. Senders en W. Dubach, terwijl W. de Natris als voorzitter werd gekozen, die de leden dank bracht voor het in hem gestelde vertrouwen en beloofde zijn beste krachten te besteden voor het welzijn der vereeniging. Nadat nog eenige besprekingen van huishoudelijke aard waren gevoerd werd de vergadering met den gewonen groet gesloten.

Wat is 'den gewonen groet'? Confused http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bavarian Soviet Republic

On 6 April, the "Bavarian Soviet Republic" was proclaimed. Initially, it was ruled by USPD members such as Ernst Toller and Gustav Landauer, and anarchists like Erich Mühsam. However, Ernst Toller, a playwrighter, was not very good at dealing with politics, and his government did little to restore order in the city.
His government members were also not always well-chosen. For instance, the Foreign Affairs Deputy (who had been admitted several times to psychiatric hospitals), declared war on Switzerland, over Switzerland's refusal to lend 60 locomotives to the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Another incident saw him send cables to both the Pope and Lenin, asking as to the whereabouts of the key to the lavatory. Burleigh, Michael (2000). The Third Reich: A New History. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-48757-4. pp40. As such, the regime collapsed within six days, being replaced by the communists, with Eugen Levine, sometimes characterized as a "potential German Lenin" as their leader.

Levine began to enact communist reforms, that included expropriating luxurious apartments and giving them to the homeless and placing factories under the ownership and control of their workers. Levine also had plans to abolish paper money and reform the education system. However, he never had time to implement them.

Levine refused to collaborate with the regular army of the city, and also organized his own army, the Red Army (Rote Armee) under Rudolf Egelhofer, similar to the Red Army of Soviet Russia. In order to support the revolutionary government, thousands of unemployed workers volunteered; soon the ranks of the Rote Armee reached 20,000. The Red Guards began arresting suspected counterrevolutionaries and on 29 April 1919, eight men, including the well-connected Prince von Thurn und Taxis, were accused as right-wing spies and executed.

Soon after, on 3 May 1919, the Freikorps (having a force of 30,000 men) together with the "White Guards of Capitalism" (having a force of 9,000) entered the Bavarian Soviet Republic and defeated the Communists, after bitter street fights in which over 1,000 volunteer supporters of the government were killed. About 800 men and women were arrested and executed by the victorious Freikorps. Eugen Levine was among those executed. Levine was condemned to death for the execution of Prince von Thurn und Taxis and seven others.

http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/Munich%201919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

29 April 1919, Written Answers (Commons)

BATTLEFIELDS (PERMANENT MEMORIALS).


HC Deb 29 April 1919 vol 115 c31W 31W

Mr. RAMSDEN asked the Secretary of State for War if he is now in a position to state what arrangements have been made for the preservation as permanent memorials of those battlefields with which British military prowess has been specially identified?

Mr. CHURCHILL I am not yet in a position to make a statement, but I hope to be able to do so at an early date.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/apr/29/battlefields-permanent-memorials
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2010 15:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dick's Diary - The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

April 29, 1916 - Nothing doing today apart except the ordinary routine of stables etc. It will get pretty monotonous if the Turks don't give us some more excitement soon. I had a topping bathe at midday. A fairly stiff breeze been following all day.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/1916/04/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 146, April 29, 1914


THE SPREAD OF CUBISM.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/25010/25010-h/25010-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1916 rising: The surrender

The five members of the Provisional Government who retreated from the GPO on Friday evening held a meeting
in Hanlon’s fish shop at 16 Moore Street on Saturday morning to consider their options. Those present were
Pearse, Connolly, Clarke, MacDiarmada and Plunkett. They decided to surrender so as to prevent further loss
of life. At 12.45 p.m. Nurse Elizabeth O’Farrell, a member of Cumann na mBan, was sent with a Red Cross
flag to inform General Lowe that Pearse wished to negotiate surrender terms. Eventually, Pearse surrendered
unconditionally. The surrender order did not reach some of the outposts until the following day, Sunday 30
April.


H. Q. [Headquarters] Moore Street
Believing that the glorious
stand which has been made
by the soldiers of Irish freedom
during the past five
days in Dublin has been sufficient
to gain recognition of
Irelandʼs national claim at an
international peace conference, and
desirous of preventing further
slaughter of the civilian population,
and to save the lives of as
many as possible of our followers,
the Members of the Provisional Government
here present have agreed
by a majority to open negotiations
with the British commander.
P. H. Pearse,
Comandant General,
Commanding in Chief,
Army of the Irish Republic.
29 April 1914.

http://www.nli.ie/1916/pdf/8.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Operatie Manna (29 april 1945)

Dit is een door de Royal Air Force uitgevoerde operatie om het door honger getroffen West-Nederland van voedsel te voorzien. Bommenwerpers droppen op diverse plaatsen boven Nederland grote hoeveelheden meel, ei- en melkpoeder, groente en vlees in blik en legerrantsoenen.

Zweedse wittebrood - Het beroemde Zweedse wittebrood wordt niet op deze wijze verspreid, zoals vaak ten onrechte wordt beweerd. Dit brood is in Nederland gebakken van meel dat per schip naar Nederland is gebracht.

Operatie Chowhound - Vanaf 1 mei doet ook de Amerikaanse luchtmacht een duit in het zakje, onder de naam operatie Chowhound.

Tonnen voedsel - In totaal wordt vanuit de lucht 11.000 ton voedsel gedropt. Er wordt ook veel voedsel aangevoerd per schip en vanaf 2 mei ook over de weg (operatie Faust). Dagelijks brengen vrachtautokonvooien 1200 ton levensmiddelen naar het westen van het land.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gemeente Rotterdam, 29 april 1915, 5% obligatie, f 1000,00



5% obligatie 1915 in coupures van f 100,00 -f 500,00 en f 1000,00. De obligatie is ondertekend door Burgemeester A.R. (Alfred Rudolph ) Zimmerman.

http://www.oudefondsen.nl/lagere-overheden/rotterdam-29-april-1915-5-obligatie-f-100000/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The fight at Gurin, The Cameroon Campaign 29 April 1915
by Harry Fecitt



In April 1915 Captain Derek Wetherall Pawle, 2nd Battalion The Border Regiment, was aged 27 and serving on secondment with the 2nd Battalion of The Nigeria Regiment, West African Frontier Force. At that time British, French and Belgian allied forces had invaded the Cameroons, Germany’s largest West African colony. The Germans put up a spirited resistance with their local troops and a number of European officers and NCOs.



Most of the fighting was concentrated in the jungle country between Douala, the main port on the coast, and Yaounde, a German administrative centre further inland. However the Germans maintained garrisons in the drier and more open northern Cameroons, and the British and French forces in the vicinity tried to contain these German garrisons. But as most Allied troops were required further south for the advance on Yaounde there were never enough troops to spare for the north, and the Germans could usually exercise freedom of movement.

The Nigerian border town of Gurin contained a small circular fort with loopholed walls and a good field of fire. The fort’s garrison was 42 Nigerian soldiers and policemen commanded by Derek Pawle. About 50 miles across the border to the northeast was the large German garrison town of Garua, commanded by Captain von Crailsheim. In late April 1915 von Crailsheim took 250 riflemen and machinegunners to deliver ammunition to a smaller German post at Chamba, about 35 miles south of Gurin. At Chamba a party of troops under Captain Schipper joined up with von Crailsheim and an attack on Gurin was mounted.

At daybreak on 29 April the German attackers, who numbered around 300 riflemen with five machine guns, surrounded Gurin fort and opened fire. The German machine guns were particularly useful at firing through the loopholes, causing several head wounds to the defenders. Concentrated machine gun fire also cut away sections of the top of the fort wall. An early British casualty was the fort commander, Captain Derek Pawle who was killed in action, and command then devolved on the only other officer present, Lieutenant J.F.J. Fitzpatrick of the Intelligence Staff. Fitzpatrick commanded well and the defenders continued manning their posts and returning fire steadily. By noon von Crailsheim had taken around 30 casualties and had failed to make the fort surrender, so he broke off the action and withdrew.

Whilst Captain Schipper moved south to Banyo with the German troops who were seriously wounded, von Crailsheim returned to Garua despite strenuous British attempts to intercept his force. Von Crailsheim may have failed to take Gurin fort but he had successfully mounted a daring raid into Nigeria that the British had not expected. In Gurin the Nigerians claimed victory for a successful defence, but at a price. Thirteen men had been hit by enemy fire. Casualty details have not been recorded but one of the British wounded was Colour Sergeant J.H. Fraser.

Captain Derek Wetherall Pawle, 2nd Bn The Border Regiment attached to 2nd Bn The Nigeria Regiment, lies in the lonely Yola Station Cemetery in northern Nigeria. He had commanded his men bravely and he died doing his duty in a minor engagement in a minor campaign that few people knew the details of.

http://peterbaxterafrica.com/index.php/2011/02/25/the-fight-at-gurin-the-cameroon-campaign-29-april-1915/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 10:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915 - Zeppelin Damage, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England April 1915



Caused by a Zeppelin dropping its bombs before heading home, overnight on 29th-30th April 1915. My grandfather was billeted nearby and sent this card home to his mother about two weeks later. From my personal collection.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/recoveringscot/2541560174/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The President of the Provisional Government, Patrick Pearse, surrendering to General Lowe on Saturday afternoon, 29th April 1916.



Also in the photograph is General Lowe’s son John (in the white breeches) who escorted Pearse to Kilmainham Gaol and hidden by Pearse is nurse Elizabeth O’Farrell who accompanied Pearse to meet General Lowe at the top of Moore Street.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/gallery/gallery06.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rotary in Cuba

The first Rotary club to be organized outside an English-speaking country was established in Havana, Cuba, 29 April 1916, with 22 charter members. The club was admitted to Rotary on 1 June 1916.

http://www.rotary.org/en/mediaandnews/news/pages/080401_news_rotarycuba.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 29, 1916 - London Times



http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/great_britain/pages/battleships/hms_russell_message_board.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 2683 William Albert Wenham to his mother, 29th April 1917





Transcript:

"My address is
Name: Lc Cpl. Wenham
Christian Name: William
Comp: British
5th Batt Lincs Regt
Camp of prisoners of war
No: 2683
Cottbus No I
Germany

Mrs Wenham
45 Barcroft St
New Cleethorpes
Grimsby
Lincs.
England,

29.4.17
Dear Mother and All. Just a line hoping this will find you much better, also everyone else in good health, as it leaves me champion just at present. Well Dear Mother you must make haste and get well again. The weather is a lot better now I am pleased to say. I hope Tom & Charlie are alright yet, you must remember me to them when you write. Give my love to Maria & Tom. A kiss for the children xxx I must now conclude with Best Love to all from Billy xxxxx"


http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/8736?REC=9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"Their Monument is in Our Hearts"
By René Viviani, President of the French Commission to the United States

An address before the Tomb of Washington, at Mount Vernon, April 29, 1917

We could not remain longer in Washington without accomplishing this pious pilgrimage. In this spot lies all that is mortal of a great hero. Close by this spot is the modest abode where Washington rested after the tremendous labor of achieving for a nation its emancipation.

In this spot meet the admiration of the whole world and the veneration of the American people. In this spot rise before us the glorious memories left by the soldiers of France led by Rochambeau and Lafayette; a descendant of the latter, my friend, M. de Chambrun, accompanies us.

And I esteem it a supreme honor, as well as a satisfaction for my conscience, to be entitled to render this homage to our ancestors in the presence of my colleague and friend, Mr. Balfour, who so nobly represents his great nation. By thus coming to lay here the respectful tribute of every English mind he shows, in this historic moment of communion which France has willed, what nations that live for liberty can do.

When we contemplate in the distant past the luminous presence of Washington, in nearer times the majestic figure of Abraham Lincoln; when we respectfully salute President Wilson, the worthy heir of these great memories, we at once glance measure the vast career of the American people.

It is because the American people proclaimed and won for the nation the right to govern itself, it is because it proclaimed and won the equality of all men, that the free American people at the hour marked by fate has been enabled with commanding force to carry its action beyond the seas; it is because it was resolved to extend its action still further that Congress was enabled to obtain within the space of a few days the vote of conscription and to proclaim the necessity for a national army in the full splendor of civil peace.

In the name of France, I salute the young army which will share in our common glory.

Fighting for Washington's ideals

While paying this supreme tribute to the memory of Washington, I do not diminish the effect of my words when I turn my thought to the memory of so many unnamed heroes. I ask you before this tomb to bow in earnest meditation and all the fervor of piety before all the soldiers of the allied nations who for nearly three years have been fighting under different flags for some ideal.

I beg you to address the homage of your hearts and souls to all the heroes, born to live in happiness, in the tranquil pursuit of their labors, in the enjoyment of all human affections, who went into battle with virile cheerfulness and gave themselves up, not to death alone, but to the eternal silence that closes over those whose sacrifice remains unnamed, in the full knowledge that, save for those who loved them, their names would disappear with their bodies.

Their monument is in our hearts. Not the living alone greet us here; the ranks of the dead themselves rise to surround the soldiers of liberty.

At this solemn hour in the history of the world, while saluting from this sacred mound the final victory of justice, I send to the Republic of the United States the greetings of the French Republic.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/National_Geographic_Magazine/Volume_31/April_1917/Their_Monument_is_in_Our_Hearts
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Evan Jones to his brother, 29th April 1917



His last letter home. (...) Trooper 1526 Evan Richard Jones, Household Battalion, was killed in action 3rd May 1917 aged 29. The son of Thomas and Elizabeth Jones, of "Gwyndy" 1, Hawarden Rd., Colwyn Bay, he is commemorated on the Arras Memorial.

Lees de gehele brief op http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9436?REC=7
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Salmson 2A2



The Salmson 2 was a French biplane reconnaissance aircraft made by Salmson. It was developed to a 1916 requirement. Along with the Breguet 14, it was the main reconnaissance aircraft in use with the French army in 1918. At the end of the First World War, one-third of French reconnaissance aircraft were Salmson 2s.

The aircraft was of conventional construction, powered by the company's own 9Z water-cooled radial engine of 230 bhp. Some minor control problems were quickly resolved in early testing, but the main defect of the Salmson 2, shared with the contemporary Airco [de Haviland] DH.4, was that the pilot and gunner were seated rather far apart, making communication difficult. Production was ordered after trials on 29 April 1917, and deliveries were underway by October of that year.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/landoni/4886783523/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Durch deutsches Artilleriefeuer angerichtete Zerstörungen in Amiens.
Aufnahme vom 29. April 1918




http://www.stahlgewitter.com/18_04_29.htm
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Villers-Bretonneux, France, 29 April 1918.



The remains of a barricade in a street at Villers-Bretonneux, after the recapture of the town by the Australians four days before.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/04/25/2227208.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

For over a century, chemicals have been used as weapons to kill and injure en masse. This cruel and universally condemned form of warfare has taken millions of lives. Victims that survive such attacks suffer painful lifelong disabilities and disfigurement.

We remember the victims of chemical warfare to honour their memory and to ensure that the torture they endured will not be forgotten.

An effective global ban on these weapons will serve as the most fitting memorial to these victims. The scourge of chemical weapons will be lifted when all States join and implement the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Today, 188 States have joined the Chemical Weapons Convention to form the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and forever renounce chemical weapons.

The Chemical Weapons Convention became international law on 29 April 1997.

The Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare is observed on 29 April each year – the date in 1997 on which the Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force.

http://www.opcw.org/index.php?id=960
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2011 11:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Demobilsation Certificate of Serg. Charles W. Carr, 29th April 1919



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4927?CISOBOX=1&REC=6
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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