Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

28 April

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45625

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2006 6:34    Onderwerp: 28 April Reageer met quote

April 28

1915 International Congress of Women opens at The Hague

The International Congress of Women convenes on this day in 1915 at The Hague, Netherlands, with more than 1,200 delegates from 12 countries—including Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, Belgium and the United States—all dedicated to the cause of peace and a resolution of the great international conflict that was World War I.

Often referred to as the Women’s Peace Congress, the meeting was the result of an invitation by a Dutch women’s suffrage organization, led by Aletta Jacobs, to women’s rights activists around the world, on the basis of the belief that a peaceful international assemblage of women would “have its moral effect upon the belligerent countries,” as Jacobs put it during her opening address to the conference on April 28, 1915.

“With mourning hearts we stand united here,” Jacobs told the assembled delegates. “We grieve for many brave young men who have lost their lives on the battlefield before attaining their full manhood; we mourn with the poor mothers bereft of their sons; with the thousands of young widows and fatherless children, and we feel that we can no longer endure in this twentieth century of civilization that government should tolerate brute force as the only solution of international disputes.” Over the course of the next three days, the congress worked out what they considered an alternative, non-violent form of conflict resolution, calling for a process of “continuous mediation” to be implemented, without armistice, until peace could be restored among the warring nations. This policy was set forward explicitly in a set of resolutions on May 1. The congress also marked the foundation of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), an organization that still exists today.

The American delegation to the congress in April 1915 included two future recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize: Jane Addams, the co-founder of Hull House, a social settlement that served as a welfare agency for needy families in Chicago, and Emily G. Balch, a sociologist who taught at Wellesley College. Another American delegate, Alice Hamilton, was a pathology professor and medical investigator who became the first female faculty member of Harvard University in 1919.

Other prominent international women who gathered at the Hague included Lida Gustava Heymann, one of 28 delegates from Germany; Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Emily Hobhouse and Chrystal Macmillan from Great Britain; and Rosika Schwimmer from Hungary. Notably absent from the International Women’s Congress were the French, whose government refused to allow delegates to attend the conference, although, as Balch later pointed out, “the French women have been the earliest to actually form their national organization in support of the program worked out at the congress.” Of the other belligerent nations, Russia, Serbia and Japan also failed to send any delegates to the conference. The British government, for its part, prevented most of its planned 180-member delegation from traveling to Holland by suspending regular commercial ferry service between the British port of Folkestone and the Dutch port of Flushing.
www.historychannel.com
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Mario



Geregistreerd op: 20-2-2005
Berichten: 4423
Woonplaats: Rotterdam

BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Apr 2006 6:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918

Na vier jaar gevangenisschap sterft de moordenaar van Franz Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip, aan tuberculose.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 22:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 April 1914, Commons Sitting

Triple Entente.


HC Deb 28 April 1914 vol 61 c1499 1499

Mr. KING asked the Secretary for Foreign Affairs whether he is aware that demands have been recently put forward for a further military understanding between the Powers of the Triple Entente with a view to concerted action on the Continent in case of certain eventualities; and whether the policy of this country still remains one of freedom from all obligations to engage in military operations on the Continent?

The SECRETARY of STATE for FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Sir Edward Grey) The answer to the first part of the question is in the negative, and as regards the latter part the position now remains the same as stated by the Prime Minister in answer to a question in this House on 24th March, 1913.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/28/triple-entente
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Undaunted (1914)

HMS Undaunted was an Arethusa-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy launched on 28 April 1914 at Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company's shipyard at Govan.

Undaunted participated in numerous naval operations during the First World War. On commissioning she was assigned as the leader of the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla of the Harwich Force, guarding the eastern approaches to the English Channel. On 28 August 1914 Undaunted took part in the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and on 17 October 1914 she was involved in an action off the Dutch island of Texel with German Torpedo boats resulting in the sinking of four German ships. On the 25 December 1914 she took part in the Cuxhaven Raid, and on 24 January 1915 she took part in the Battle of Dogger Bank.

In April 1915 Undaunted was damaged in collision with the destroyer HMS Landrail, and on 24 March 1916 she was again damaged in a collision, this time with the cruiser HMS Cleopatra. In 1917 she was appointed as leader of the 10th Destroyer Flotilla of the Harwich Force, and in November 1918 was reassigned to the 4th Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet.

She survived to see the end of the First World War, and was sold for scrapping on 9 April 1923 to Cashmore, of Newport.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Undaunted_(1914)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 22:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Campaign

The early battles - On the afternoon of 27 April Kemal launched a concerted attack to drive the Anzacs back to the beach. With the support of naval gunfire, the Turks were held off throughout the night.

On 28 April, the British, now supported by the French on the right of the line, intended to capture Krithia in what became known as the First Battle of Krithia. The plan of attack was overly complex and poorly communicated to the commanders in the field. The troops of the 29th Division were still exhausted and unnerved by the battle for the beaches and for Seddülbahir village, captured after heavy fighting on 26 April. The attack ground to a halt around 6 pm with a gain of some ground but the objective of Krithia village was not reached.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign

First Battle of Krithia

The First Battle of Krithia was the first Allied advance of the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. Starting at Helles on April 28, three days after the initial landings, the attack broke down due to poor leadership and planning, lack of communications and exhaustion and demoralisation of the troops.

Prelude - On the morning of April 25, 1915 the British 29th Division under the command of Major General Aylmer Hunter-Weston landed on five beaches around Cape Helles at the southern tip of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey. The main landings at 'V' and 'W' Beaches were hotly contested and the British suffered heavy casualties. A supporting landing made at 'Y' Beach on the Aegean coast to the north was made without opposition but the troops were without instructions so made no attempt to either advance or dig in. At that time, the first-day objectives of the village of Krithia and the nearby hill of Achi Baba were virtually undefended. When Turkish reinforcements arrived the British were forced to evacuate the 'Y' Beach landing and so a major opportunity of early success was lost.

After heavy fighting the British were able to secure the main landings. The French Corps expéditionnaire d'Orient division which had made a diversionary landing at Kum Kale on the Asian shore of the Dardanelles on April 25 had now moved across the straits to Helles to hold the right of the Allied line. By the afternoon of April 27 the Allies were able to make an advance of about two miles up the peninsula towards Krithia in readiness for an assault on the following day.

The ferocity of the Turkish defence of the landings led the British to grossly overestimate the opposition they faced. Believing at the time that the Turks were indifferent fighters, they assumed they were faced by two divisions whereas in reality they outnumbered the Turks 3 to 1 and were confronted by two weak regiments who resisted doggedly while waiting for reinforcements.

Battle - The battle commenced around 8 a.m. on April 28 with a naval bombardment. The plan of advance was for the French to hold position on the right while the British line would pivot, capturing Krithia and assailing Achi Baba from the south and west.

The overly complex plan was poorly communicated to the brigade and battalion commanders of the 29th Division who would make the attack. Hunter-Weston remained far from the front and so was not able to exert any control as the attack developed.

The initial advances were easy but as pockets of Turkish resistance were encountered, some stretches of the line were held up while others kept moving, thereby becoming outflanked. The further up the peninsula the troops advanced, the more difficult the terrain became as they encountered the four great ravines that ran from the heights around Achi Baba towards the cape.

On the extreme left the British ran into Gully Ravine which was as wild and confusing as the ground at Anzac Cove. Two battalions of the 87th Brigade (1st Border Regiment and 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) entered the ravine but were halted by a machine gun post near 'Y' Beach. No further advance would be made up the ravine until the 1st and 6th Gurkha Rifles would capture the post on the night of May 12-13. This involved them going up a 300 ft vertical slope which had defeated both the Royal Marine Light Infantry and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. The site became knowning as 'Gurkha Bluff'.

The exhausted, demoralised and virtually leaderless British troops could go no further in the face of stiffening Turkish resistance. In places Turkish counter-attacks would drive the British back to their starting positions. By 6 p.m. on April 28 the attack was called off.

Aftermath - 13,500 Allied troops would participate in the battle, suffering 3,000 casualties. The scale and duration of the battle was minor compared to later fighting but the First Battle of Krithia was one of the most significant of the campaign as it proved that the original British assumption of a swift victory over an indifferent enemy was grossly mistaken. Thereafter Helles would become the scene of numerous attrition battles and success would be measured by an advance of a hundred yards or the capture of a trench.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Krithia

Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies, World War 1

Wednesday, 28 April 1915
GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN - First Battle of Krithia


Canopus, pre-Dreadnought battleship, both possibly wounded on 25th
DALE, Richard, Petty Officer (RFR A 2960), 133488 (Dev), DOW
TROAKE, Thomas, Seaman, RNR, C 2767, DOW

RND, Anson Battalion
BROOKES, Robert, Able Seaman, RNVR, KP 81

RND, Plymouth Battalion
OLLIER, George V, Lance Sergeant, RMLI, 11802 (Ply), DOW in hospital ship Guildford Castle

Swiftsure, pre-Dreadnought battleship
TODD, John H, Able Seaman (RFR B 3658), SS 1337 (Dev), possibly wounded on 25th, DOW

Wolverine, destroyer, shore gunfire
ENDEAN, William H, Chief Petty Officer, 179163 (Po)
JONES-PARRY, Jeffreys I, Sub Lieutenant, RNR
PRENTIS, Osmond J, Commander

http://www.naval-history.net/xDKCas1915-04Apr.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 27 Apr 2010 22:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Jennings Bryan: American Protest Over the Sinking of the Lusitania

Please call on the minister of foreign affairs and, after reading to him this communication, leave him with a copy.

In view of recent acts of the German authorities in violation of American rights on the high seas which culminated in the torpedoing and sinking of the British steamship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, by which over 100 American citizens lost their lives, it is clearly wise and desirable that the government of the United States and the Imperial German government should come to a clear and full understanding as to the grave situation which has resulted.

The sinking of the British passenger steamer Falaba by a German submarine on March 28, through which Leon C. Thrasher, an American citizen, was drowned; the attack on April 28 on the American vessel Cushing by a German aeroplane; the torpedoing on May 1 of the American vessel Gulflight by a German submarine, as a result of which two or more American citizens met their death; and, finally, the torpedoing and sinking of the steamship Lusitania constitute a series of events which the government of the United States has observed with growing concern, distress, and amazement.

Recalling the humane and enlightened attitude hitherto assumed by the Imperial German government in matters of international right, and particularly with regard to the freedom of the seas; having learned to recognize the German views and the German influence in the field of international obligation as always engaged upon the side of justice and humanity; and having understood the instructions of the Imperial German government to its naval commanders to be upon the same plane of humane action prescribed by the naval codes of other nations, the government of the United States was loath to believe -- it cannot now bring itself to believe -- that these acts, so absolutely contrary to the rules, the practices, and the spirit of modern warfare, could have the countenance or sanction of that great government. It feels it to be its duty, therefore, to address the Imperial German government concerning them with the utmost frankness and in the earnest hope that it is not mistaken in expecting action on the part of the Imperial German government which will correct the unfortunate impressions which have been created and vindicate once more the position of that government with regard to the sacred freedom of the seas.

The government of the United States has been apprised that the Imperial German government considered themselves to be obliged by the extraordinary circumstances of the present war and the measures adopted by their adversaries in seeking to cut Germany off from all commerce, to adopt methods of retaliation which go much beyond the ordinary methods of warfare at sea, in the proclamation of a war zone from which they have warned neutral ships to keep away. This government has already taken occasion to inform the Imperial German government that it cannot admit the adoption of such measures or such a warning of danger to operate as in any degree an abbreviation of the rights of American shipmasters or of American citizens bound on lawful errands as passengers on merchant ships of belligerent nationality; and that it must hold the Imperial German government to a strict accountability for any infringement of those rights, intentional or incidental.

It does not understand the Imperial German government to question those rights. It assumes, on the contrary, that the Imperial government accept, as of course, the rule that the lives of noncombatants, whether they be of neutral citizenship or citizens of one of the nations at war, cannot lawfully or rightfully be put in jeopardy by the capture or destruction of an unarmed merchantman, and recognize also, as all other nations do, the obligation to take the usual precaution of visit and search to ascertain whether a suspected merchantman is in fact of belligerent nationality or is in fact carrying contraband of war under a neutral flag.

The government of the United States, therefore, desires to call the attention of the Imperial German government, with the utmost earnestness, to the fact that the objection to their present method of attack against the trade of their enemies lies in the practical impossibility of employing submarines in the destruction of commerce without disregarding those rules of fairness, reason, justice, and humanity which all. modern opinion regards as imperative. It is practically impossible for the officers of a submarine to visit a merchantman at sea and examine her papers and cargo. It is practically impossible for them to make a prize of her; and, if they cannot put a prize crew on board of her, they cannot sink her without leaving her crew and all on board of her to the mercy of the sea in her small boats.

These facts it is understood the Imperial German government frankly admit. We are informed that in the instances of which we have spoken time enough for even that poor measure of safety was not given, and, in at least two of the cases cited, not so much as a warning was received. Manifestly, submarines cannot be used against merchantmen, as the last few weeks have shown, without an inevitable violation of many sacred principles of justice and humanity.

American citizens act within their indisputable rights in taking their ships and in traveling wherever their legitimate business calls them upon the high seas, and exercise those rights in what should be the welljustified confidence that their lives will not be endangered by acts done in clear violation of universally acknowledged international obligations, and certainly in the confidence that their own government will sustain them in the exercise of their rights.

There was recently published in the newspapers of the United States, I regret to inform the Imperial German government, a formal warning, purporting to come from the Imperial German Embassy at Washington, addressed to the people of the United States, and stating, in effect, that any citizen of the United States who exercised his right of free travel upon the seas would do so at his peril if his journey should take him within the zone of waters within which the Imperial German Navy was using submarines against the commerce of Great Britain and France, notwithstanding the respectful but very earnest protests of his government, the government of the United States. I do not refer to this for the purpose of calling the attention of the Imperial German government at this time to the surprising irregularity of a communication from the Imperial German Embassy at Washington addressed to the people of the United States through the newspapers, but only for the purpose of pointing out that no warning that an unlawful and inhumane act will be committed can possibly be accepted as an excuse or palliation for that act or as an abatement of the responsibility for its commission.

Long acquainted as this government has been with the character of the Imperial German government and with the high principles of equity by which they have in the past been actuated and guided, the government of the United States cannot believe that the commanders of the vessels which committed these acts of lawlessness did so except under a misapprehension of the orders issued by the Imperial German naval authorities. It takes it for granted that, at least within the practical possibilities of every such case, the commanders even of submarines were expected to do nothing that would involve the lives of noncombatants or the safety of neutral ships, even at the cost of failing of their object of capture or destruction. It confidently expects, therefore, that the Imperial German government will disavow the acts of which the government of the United States complains, that they will make reparation so far as reparation is possible for injuries which are without measure, and that they will take immediate steps to prevent the recurrence of anything so obviously subversive of the principles of warfare for which the Imperial German government have in the past so wisely and so firmly contended.

The government and the people of the United States look to the Imperial German government for just, prompt, and enlightened action in this vital matter with the greater confidence because the United States and Germany are bound together, not only by special ties of friendship but also by the explicit stipulations of the treaty of 1828 between the United States and the Kingdom of Prussia.

Expressions of regret and offers of reparation in the case of the destruction of neutral ships sunk by mistake, while they may satisfy international obligations, if no loss of life results, cannot justify or excuse a practice, the natural and necessary effect of which is to subject neutral nations and neutral persons to new and immeasurable risks.

The Imperial German government will not expect the government of the United States to omit any word or any act necessary to the performance of its sacred duty of maintaining the rights of the United States and its citizens and of safeguarding their free exercise and enjoyment.

PRFA, 1915, Supplement: The World War, pp. 393-396, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bryan2.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Staffordshire Brigade in Wulvergem (april-juni 1915)

De Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) werd toegekend aan 9 leden van de reddingsploeg. Iedereen kreeg dezelfde eervolle vermelding voor hun medaille:

"Voor opvallende moed en toewijding op 28 april 1915, nabij Kemmel, toen hij zijn beurt samen met een paar anderen opnam om een galerij in te gaan en kameraden die bevangen waren door gas te redden. De reddingsploeg bleef doorgaan totdat iedereen gered was."

Zes van de gedecoreerden waren lid van de Staffordshire Brigade Mining Section:

3889 Soldaat George Bennett, 1/5 North Staffords
1301 Soldaat Roland Hill, 1/6 North Staffords
2885 Soldaat L. Landon, 1/6 North Staffords
2682 Soldaat E. Langford, 1/6 South Staffords
1826 Soldaat Arthur Storer, 1/6 North Staffords
2883 Soldaat Albert Thomas Weston, 1/6 North Staffords

Het toekennen van de medailles, de eerste decoraties voor mannen van de Staffordshire Brigade, was een bron van trots voor de Territorials. Sergeant Norton meldde dit aan zijn vrouw:

"We hielden een concert en de Generaal presenteerde de DCM's aan de drie kerels uit Tamworth - Rowland Hill & Co. Het zijn zeer mooie medailles en iets om trots op te zijn. We dronken een glas op hun gezondheid. Ik denk dat je alles zal kunnen nalezen in de Herald."

De "Tamworth Herald" publiceerde inderdaad het nieuws over de decoraties. Ze publiceerden eveneens de brief, gericht aan de burgemeester, van Kapitein John Jenkinson, commandant van de "C" Compagnie van de 1/6 North Staffords:

"U bent ondertussen op de hoogte dat drie mannen uit Tamworth van de "C" Compagnie de Distinguished Service Medal (sic) gekregen hebben. De namen van de mannen zijn: 1301 Soldaat R. Hill, 1826 Soldaat A. Storer, 2283 Soldaat A.T. Weston. Deze mannen werden om de volgende reden vereremerkt. Bij aankomst waren ze ingekwartierd bij het 1/6 North Staffordshire Regiment. Korte tijd later werden ze samen met anderen gedetacheerd bij het Royal Engineers Mining Corps. Ze werden ingezet bij ondermijningsoperaties langs verschillende delen van de vuurlijn. Korte tijd geleden werd één van onze mijnen tot ontploffing gebracht. Toen de gravers na de ontploffing de gang ingingen, werden velen van hen bevangen door de dampen van het gas in de gang. Bij deze gelegenheid verloor Sergeant T. Harper van Tamworth het leven. De drie hierboven aangehaalde mannen waren uitzonderlijk moedig door zich in de gang te begeven en hun kameraden te redden waarbij ze hun eigen leven riskeerden."

Lees verder op http://www.wo1.be/ned/geschiedenis/gastbijdragen/staffordshire-NDL.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2010 23:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bommelerwaardse krant, 28 april 1916.

'Heeft de justitie voor enige weken in zuidelijk Noord-Brabant de hand gelegd op een gevaarlijke bende, toch blijven de inbraken in die streken aanhouden. In de vorige week warden ingebroken: (..) Op de roomboterfabriek te Zijtaar, waar ruim 100 pond boter verdween. (..) In geen dezer gevallen was van de(n) dader(s) eenig spoor te ontdekken.'

Geschiedenis van Zijtaart, http://www.oudzijtaart.nl/Kroniek/K1916.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ferruccio Lamborghini born - april 28

On April 28, 1916, Ferruccio Lamborghini, the founder of the company that bears his name and is known for stylish, high-performance cars, is born in Italy.

After World War II, Lamborghini founded a business making tractors from reconfigured surplus military machines, near Bologna, Italy. He later expanded into other ventures, including manufacturing air-conditioning and heating systems, and grew rich. Lamborghini’s success enabled him to purchase a variety of luxury sports cars, including a Ferrari, considered one of the top cars of the time. After experiencing mechanical difficulties with his Ferrari, Lamborghini decided to start his own rival sports car company, even hiring a former top Ferrari engineer. Automobili Lamborghini was officially established in 1963 in Sant’Agata Bolognese, Italy, and the same year debuted its first car, the Lamborghini 350 GTV, a two-seater coupe with a V12 engine.

The company’s logo featured a bull, a reference to Ferruccio Lamborghini’s zodiac sign, Taurus the bull. Various Lamborghini models had names related to bulls or bullfighting, including the Miura (named for Don Eduardo Miura, a breeder of fighting bulls), a mid-engine sports car that was released in mid-1960s and gained Lamborghini an international following among car enthusiasts and a reputation for prestige and cutting-edge design.

In the early 1970s, Lamborghini’s tractor business experienced problems and he eventually sold his interest in his sports car business and retired to his vineyard. Automobili Lamborghini changed hands several times and in the late 1990s was purchased by German automaker Volkswagen. The company continued to build high-performance cars, including the Murcielago (capable of 250 mph) and the Gallardo. Ferruccio Lamborghini died on February 20, 1993, at the age of 76.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/4/28?catId=17
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Arras (1917)

Battle of Arleux (28–29 April 1917)
Although the Canadian Corps had successfully taken Vimy Ridge, difficulties in securing the south-eastern flank had left the position vulnerable. To rectify this, British and Canadian troops launched an attack towards Arleux-en-Gohelle on 28 April. Arleux was captured by Canadian troops with relative ease, but the British troops advancing on Gavrelle met stiffer resistance from the Germans. The village was secured by early evening, but when a German counterattack forced a brief retreat, elements of the 63rd Division were brought up as reinforcements and the village was held. Subsequent attacks on 29 April however, failed to net any further advances. Despite achieving the limited objective of securing the Canadian position on Vimy Ridge, casualties were high, and the ultimate result was disappointing.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arleux#Battle_of_Arleux_.2828.E2.80.9329_April_1917.29
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Rising Day by Day

General Sir John Grenfel Maxwell (1859-1929) was born in Liverpool. He had some previous knowledge of Ireland as he had served at army headquarters in the period 1902-1904. He arrived in Dublin early on Friday 28 April [1916], by which time the army already had the situation under control.

Schitterende PDF! http://www.nli.ie/1916/pdf/6.2.pdf

John Maxwell (British Army officer)

General Sir John Grenfell Maxwell GCB, KCMG, CVO, DSO (1859 - 1929) was a British Army officer and colonial governor. (...)

He is best known for his role in the suppression and controversial handling of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland. After it broke out on 24 April 1916, Martial law was declared for the city and county of Dublin by the Lord Lieutenant Lord Wimborne, to allow court trial of persons breaching the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA), passed 8 August 1914 and to deal with such occurrences as the Rising.

Maxwell arrived in Ireland on Friday 28 April as "military governor" with "plenary powers" under Martial law. He set about dealing with the rebellion under his understanding of Martial law, namely the will of the commander, which means absence of law. During the week 2-9 May, Maxwell was in sole charge of trials and sentences by "field general court martial", which was trial without defence or jury and in camera. He had 3,400 people arrested, 183 civilians tried, 90 of whom were sentenced to death. Fifteen were shot between 3 and 12 May.

Lees meer op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Maxwell_(British_Army_officer)
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ROYAL MARINES AT THE GAVRELLE WINDMILL
28TH APRIL 1917- Triumph or tragedy?


It has been 80 years since the Battle of Arras, it has been stated that it was the most deadly offensive battle to be in as an infantryman(1), yet it is still an unknown battle. My interest has mainly been with the Royal Marine Battalions that fought on land with the RND and everyone has heard of the Ancre and Passchendaele, but not Gavrelle, yet it was at Gavrelle that the Royal Marines suffered their greatest losses ever in their history . I first heard of Gavrelle quite by accident, I was at the library looking for a book to read and I came across "Call to arms" by Joe Murray, I picked it up and read the dust cover which described what the book was about, I stopped at the line "wounded during the bitter fighting at Gavrelle". I thought I knew a bit of history, yet Gavrelle wasn't one of the names I had heard of before or associated with high casualties. I also read the Bruckshaw diaries at the time and he died in the fighting for the Gavrelle Mill (figure 1above), so I resolved to dig deeper and to produce an article for the Royal Marines Historical Society . What struck me most was that Arras in general isn't covered well and the fighting at Gavrelle barely mentioned at all. I did produce my article two years ago, but I have been digging more since and discovered several like minded people. In the past two years I have done more research that has led me to re-appraise my original ideas and conclusions.

ALweer zo'n mooie PDF... Lees en download ( Evil ) verder op http://www.royalnavaldivision.co.uk/THE%20ROYAL%20MARINES%20AT%20THE%20GAVRELLE%20WINDMILL.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 1917 War Diary - 10th RDF (10th Dublin fusiliers)

28 April - Balleul Gavrelle Sector carrying parties continued to the front line Still at the disposal of 188 Brigade. who attacked at 4.30am this morning

•Records show Killed in action 43456 Private Albert Bartrup, born Stepney, Middx.. Residence Canning Town, Middx. Formerly 6333, London Regt.
•Records show Killed in action 40323 Private John J. Carter. Born Dublin. Residence Dublin.Formerly 7710 Connaught Ranger
•Records show Killed in action 17393 Sergeant George Gallagher Born Dublin, Resided Dublin
•Records show Killed in action 40346 Private Thomas Keilthy. Born Wexford. Resided New Ross, Wexford. Formerly 8089, R. Ir. Regt.
•Records show Killed in action 26607 Private John Leath. Born Neenton, Shropshire. Resided Dublin. Enlisted Neenton
•Records show Killed in action 43345 Private Joseph James Nicholson. Born Wapping, Middx. resided London. Formerly 6322, London Regt.
•Records show Killed in action 40336 Private Frank Nixon. Born Eastwood, Yorks. Resided Rotherham. Formerly 14901, York & Lancs. Regt.
•Records show Killed in action 43440 Private Alexander Solomons. Born St. Mary's, London. Resided Bethnal Green, Middx.Formerly 5473, London Regt.
•Records show Died of wounds 23442 Private Edward Wilson. Born Dublin, resided Dublin

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/10-batt/10th-war-diary/1917-04-trans.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918)

Bosniër die door de moord op aartshertog Franz Ferdinand van Oostenrijk in een klap beroemd werd. De moord betekende het startschot van de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Princip werd in 1894 geboren in het kleine plaatsje Obljaj maar vertrok in 1912 naar Belgrado om te studeren. Hij sluit zich hier aan bij een geheime Bosnisch Servische socialistische beweging genaamd 'De Zwarte Hand', ook wel bekend onder de naam 'Jong Bosnië'. Deze beweging streefde de aansluiting van Bosnië en Herzegovina bij Servië na.

Als Gavrilo Princip in 1912 in Belgrado arriveert wil hij zich aansluiten bij het Servische leger dat op het punt staat Macedonië binnen te vallen. Hij wordt echter geweigerd. Volgens de verhalen zou een majoor hem hebben gezegd dat hij te klein en zwak was om dienst te doen in het leger.

Aanslag
Als in maart 1914 bekend wordt dat aartshertog Franz Ferdinand eind juni een bezoek gaat brengen aan Bosnië, beraamt Princip met enkele leden van de zwarte hand een aanslag. Van de leiding van 'De Zwarte Hand' krijgen ze enkele wapens zes bommen en cyanidecapsules waarmee ze zich, als ze gepakt worden, van het leven kunnen beroven.

De leiding van de bende zou de aanslag op het laatste moment hebben willen afblazen, maar dat bericht bereikte Princip en zijn drie vrienden niet op tijd. Ze staan opgesteld langs de route waar Franz Ferdinand voorbij komt en een van gooit een bom naar de auto. De bom stuitert op een dichtgevouwen linnen kap op de auto en rolt onder de auto die achter de auto van Franz Ferdinand rijdt. De bom gaat af en verwondt drie officieren. De bommengooier wordt door de politie ingerekend. De cyanidecapsule die hij innam bleek niet te werken. Ontmoedigt geven de overige vrienden van Princip het op. Princip zelf blijft in de stad hangen.

Route
Franz Ferdinand wil zijn programma aanvankelijk gewoon voortzetten, maar bedenkt zich dan en geeft aan dat hij de drie gewonde officieren in het ziekenhuis wil opzoeken. De route naar het ziekenhuis loopt voor een groot deel langs de route die Ferdinand op de heenweg had gereden. Halverwege de tocht geeft de chef van de veiligheidsdienst aan dat er een andere route moet worden genomen. De auto waarin de aartshertog zit staat daarom korte tijd stil, precies op de plek waar Princip stond te wachten.

De Bosniër bedenkt zich niet, springt op de auto en schiet twee keer. Hij doodt niet alleen Franz Ferdinand maar ook diens vrouw. Princip neemt nog wel de cyanidecapsule tot zich, maar omdat deze verouderd is werkt deze niet. Hij wordt overmeesterd en veroordeeld tot twintig jaar dwangarbeid. Gavrilo Princip sterft enkele jaren later, op 28 april 1918, in een gevangenis aan tuberculose.

Consequenties
Na de aanslag blijft het enkele weken stil. Wenen overlegt in die periode met Duitsland. Op 23 juli 1914 stelt Oostenrijk een ultimatum aan Servië. De Serviërs moeten de verantwoordelijkheid van de aanslag op zich nemen en Oostenrijkse politieagenten op haar grondgebied toestaan die de moordzaak tot op de bodem uitzoeken. Servië accepteert de eisen, maar staat geen politieagenten op haar territorium toe. Oostenrijk verbreekt hierop op 25 juli de diplomatieke betrekkingen met Servië. Een sneeuwbaleffect volgt en de Eerste Wereldoorlog wordt geboren. Princip bleek letterlijk en figuurlijk het startschot voor de Eerste Wereldoorlog te hebben gegeven.

http://historiek.net/index.php/Algemeen/Gavrilo-Princip-1894-1918.html
Filmpje: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGCUIEINzsA
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY: The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

April 28, 1918

Dear Folks:-

This is no day for writing letters. It is the prettiest Sunday we have had in a month and I sure am going to take advantage of it. So you won’t get much of a letter today.

Things are going just about the same here as they have for the last two weeks. So there isn’t anything to write about. We are so busy that we don’t have time to do anything to make news. We get up at the same time each morning, eat the same kind of breakfast at the same time, have lectures from 7:30 to 11:30, lunch at 12:15, more lectures, etc, from 1:30 to 5:30, dinner at 6:30, more lectures from 7:30 to 9 and then go to quarters to read the dailies before going to bed.

The only variation of the routine is on Saturday. Each Saturday afternoon we have a weekly quiz which only takes from 1 ½ to 2 hours to write and then we are off for the day.

Last night, Saturday, we naturally had no lecture so I spent the evening doing some odd mending, underwear etc, which had to be done. Hal, Bill and I also had a visitor – Wallace the Y.M.C.A. man about whom I think I have written. He is a mighty nice fellow and we enjoyed having him down. He seemed to enjoy it too, for he stayed till about 11 o’clock.

I was just talking to Wallace, this afternoon he is going down to the Flying field with us to look things over. He has never been in an Aviation camp.

On Sunday I usually get my notes on lectures of the past week straightened out and answer up all the letters I have received. Today they can all go to thunder. I don’t give a hang about anything. The cherry trees are in blossom and there’s lots of spring sunshine in the air and believe me, I’m going to have a good time regardless. To hell with the war today, we aren’t at the front, or anywhere near there, or it would be different.

Had a letter from Chick Fisher yesterday. Think I’ll answer that now, or sometime today.

Please don’t be disgusted if there is no news in this letter, there ain’t no such thing. I just stretched this out so you wouldn’t think I was neglecting you.

Lots of love,

Mortimer.

Mortimer M. Lawrence,
1st Lieut. A.S., S.O.R.C.,
Amexforce,
France.

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/april-28-1918
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 april 1920: Een kort bestaan op de Kaukasus

De naam van deze rubriek suggereert dat sommige historische gebeurtenissen sporen achterlaten, die ongeacht hun leeftijd in het huidige tijdsgewricht nog doorwerken. En zou dat dan niet in het bijzonder moeten gelden voor de Kaukasus, dat gebied op een kruispunt van invloedssferen, waar nu opnieuw de grootmachten de degens kruisen?

Het zou wel zo aardig zijn, zeker als we het hebben over de Azerbeidjaanse Democratische Republiek (1918-1920). Deze republiek werd geboren in de enorme stofwolk van in elkaar stortende rijken die zich over Europa en verre omgeving verspreidde.

Conform de geschiedenis van alle moderne staten uit dit gebied is de Azerbeidjaanse er een van overheersing, uitbuiting en ontwikkeling, en uiteindelijk – in 1991 – onafhankelijkheid. Begin 19de eeuw kliefden Perzië en Rusland het toenmalige Azerbeidzjan in twee delen en lijfden elk het dichtstbijzijnde part in. Tot de dag van vandaag behoort de zuidelijke helft van het land tot Iran en woont verreweg het grootste deel van de Azerbeidjanen daar.

Wat wij dus als ‘Azerbeidzjan’ kennen, betreft het kleinere ‘Russische deel’, dat nu zeven miljoen inwoners heeft en dat na 1917 kortstondig profiteerde van de chaos die heerste tijdens de Russische Revolutie.

Het leidde eerst tot het uitroepen, in februari 1918, van de Trans-Kaukasische Democratische Federale Republiek – met Armenië, Georgië en Azerbeidzjan. Aangezien het hier drie buren betrof die elkaar haatten, kon dit kunstmatige gedrocht niet lang standhouden.

Bijna direct na het uitroepen begonnen Armenen Azeri’s uit te moorden in Bakoe, volgens sommigen wel twaalfduizend, als wraakoefening voor de Ottomaanse genocide tegen de Armenen. De Azeri’s zouden later dat jaar trouwens hun gram halen, toen ze in oktober samen met de Ottomanen tussen de tien- en twintigduizend Armenen in de stad vermoordden.

Eind mei verkruimelde de federatie alweer, toen op de 26ste de Georgiërs hun onafhankelijkheid uitriepen. Armenië en Azerbeidzjan volgden twee dagen later. De bezielende geest van het Azerische democratische experiment was Mammad Amin Rasulzade, een nationalist die altijd gestreefd had naar de restauratie van zijn land, met inbegrip van zijn naam Azerbeidzjan (in tsaristisch Rusland werd de bevolking van dit gebied simpelweg aangeduid als ‘moslim’ of ‘Tataar’).

Rasulzade krijgt ook krediet voor de bijzondere trekken van de onafhankelijke staat, die 28 maanden bestond voor ze op 28 april 1920 werd opgeslokt in de latere Sovjet-Unie. Behalve het democratische en parlementaire karakter ervan, is vooral opvallend dat vrouwen het algemene stemrecht kregen. Daar hebben de Azeri’s de Nederlanders toch met zo’n vier jaar verslagen destijds.

Geen wonder dat deze korte maar heftige eruptie van egalitarisme bijna zeventig jaar later – toen het de beurt was aan het Sovjetrijk om te verkruimelen – een grote rol speelde in het collectieve geheugen van de Azeri’s. ‘De banier van de vrijheid kan, als zij eens gewapperd heeft, nooit gestreken worden.’ Deze uitspraak van Rasulzade bewees opnieuw zijn kracht, in en na de onafhankelijkheidsverklaring van 1991.

Maar deze sporen hebben niet gezegevierd in Azerbeidzjan. Zoals je nu op meer plekken ziet in de voormalige Sovjet-Unie, laten de sporen van dat zeventigjarige experiment en oudere regeervormen uit de regio zich niet zo makkelijk uitwissen als sommigen twintig jaar geleden hoopten. De echo van Azerbeidjans democratische experiment is na het begin van de jaren negentig snel gesmoord in het autoritaire bewind van Haidar Alijev, die inmiddels het stokje heeft doorgegeven aan zijn zoon Ilham.

http://www.vkgeschiedenis.nl/sporen/artikel/1373243
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

S.S. Upcerne - 28th April 1918

Owned by the Minterne Steamship Co., built 1906 by Ropner and Son. 2984 tons, 331' x 47' x 22.2'; 284 nominal horsepower; 9 knots; triple expansion engines. Torpedoed and sunk by German Submarine UC40 4miles SE. by S. of Coquet Island, Northumberland. Vessel was sailing from Narvik to Middlesbrough with a cargo of iron ore and timber. 16 crew lost, Captain survived.

All the following men are Mercantile Marine and are commemorated on the Tower Hill Memorial.

First Mate James Snell Cockram, aged 50. Son of the late William and Alice Cockram; husband of Elizabeth Cockram (nee Midgley), of 31, Granville St., Hull. Born at Hull.
Boatswain (Bosun) K. Ellingsen, aged 49. Born at Bergen, Norway.
Able Seaman E. Eriksen, aged 29. Born at Christiania, Norway.
Fireman and Trimmer J. Evans, aged 42. Born at Glasgow.
Second Mate George Gray, aged 35. Son of the late George and Annie Gray; husband of Beatrice Gray (nee Swan), of 22, Stanley St. West North Shields. Born at Newcastle.
Second Engineer O. Herapath, aged 33. Born at Llantrisant, Glam.
Able Seaman William Hilden, aged 38. Born in Finland.
Donkeyman Joseph Kinelato, aged 44. Husband of Martha Kinelato (nee Davis), of 86, South Palmerston St., South Shields. Born at Hong Kong. Late R.N. Reserve.
Fireman David Jones, aged 59. Son of the late Henry and Elizabeth Jones. Born at Cavan.
Carpenter C. Larsen, aged 43. Born in Denmark.
Pantry Boy Daniel Marks, aged 16. Son of Joseph and Rebecca Marks (nee Drokarsky), of 24, Lilac Terrace, Leeds. Born at Leeds.
Ordinary Seaman Oswald Stanley McCaffrey, aged 16. Son of Sarah Ann McCaffrey (nee Stewart), of 37, Waterlow Place, South Shields, and the late Francis McCaffrey. Born at North Shields.
Fireman and Trimmer James Henry McNab, aged 27. Son of Henry and Mary McNab (nee Flinn), of 22, Bird St., North Shields. Born at North Shields.
Chief Engineer John Smith, aged 56. Husband of Margaret Smith, of 62, Bishopsthorpe Rd., York. Born at Newcastle.
Fireman and Trimmer Charles Louis Stroobants, aged 44. Son of Charles Louis Stroobants, and the late Mrs. Stroobants; husband of Mary Stroobants (nee Anderson), of 4, Broad Quay, North Shields. Born at Brussels.
Able Seaman Joseph Edward Edmund Theriault, aged 32. Son of Celeste Theriault (nee Bondreaut), of House Harbour, Magdalen Islands, Gaspe, Province of Quebec, Canada, and the late Francois Theriault. Born at House Harbour.

http://www.fusilier.co.uk/boats_planes/upcerne.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 10:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tasker Bliss letter to Nellie Bliss - April 28, 1919
Source: Bliss, Personal Correspondence, Box 244, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

My last letter told you that before it reached you, you would know whether a smash-up would occur in the Peace Conference. You now know all about the withdrawal of the Italians. Mr. Orlando has gone back to Italy and is scheduled to address the Parliament in Rome. It is to be hoped that he will now try to calm the Italian mind and bring them to reason. Like the French, they have gone mad on militarism and conquest. But I fear that Mr. Orlando will find that having let the Devil loose it is going to be a hard matter to chain him up again.
The next thing to find out is Japan's attitude. Their head delegate, Chinda, says that if we do not recognize all her rights of conquest in China, she will refuse to sign the treaty and decline to enter the League of Nations. This makes some of us afraid that some concession will be made to Japan that will be irreconcilable with our attitude towards the Italian claims. My advice is let them both go, if they want to go. It is time to clear the air - to draw a line on one side of which will stand the robbers and on the other side the honest men.

Last week Mde Jusserrand came to ask me, in the name of her husband to go with a party on a special train given by the French government, to visit the devastated area. We left at 11 P.M. Saturday night (Apr. 26) and came back at 10 P.M. last night. I send you herewith everything that they gave us to illustrate the trip. It was interesting to note how grudgingly the French members of the party admitted that all of the destruction at Lens was done by the British Army, which also did a good deal of damage elsewhere.

We are going to have a session of the Peace Conference (Plenary Session) at 3 P.M. today. I hope that we may then have at least a partial "show-down" of the Japanese position.

http://www.ctevans.net/Versailles/Archives/Bliss_42819.html

Tasker Bliss

Tasker Howard Bliss (1853-1930) served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff during World War One and represented the U.S. on the Allied Supreme War Council at Versailles.

Graduating from West Point Bliss received a commission into the artillery prior to a return to West Point where he taught modern languages, subsequently graduating from the Artillery School.

For three years from 1885 Bliss taught at the Naval War College before becoming aide to Major General John Schofield, the army's commanding general.

Posted to Spain as an attaché Bliss was recalled to the U.S. in 1898 upon the outbreak of the U.S.-Spanish War, serving with the 1st Division in Puerto Rico.

For three years from 1899 Bliss served as Collector of Customs in Havana before receiving a promotion to Brigadier General and an appointment as inaugural President of the Army War College in 1903, a position he filled again following a spell of service in Asia in 1909.

In 1915 Bliss was made Major General and was Assistant Chief of Staff from February that year. From May 1917 he was appointed acting U.S. Army Chief of Staff, and in September that year he replaced General Scott as Chief of Staff. In this position Bliss played a key role in mobilising U.S. forces for war in Europe and was a trusted advisor of Secretary of War Newton Baker.

Accompanying President Woodrow Wilson's advisor Colonel House to London in 1917 Bliss was appointed U.S. representative to the newly formed Allied Supreme War Council in November 1917, a body intended to oversee Allied military strategy.

In May 1918 Bliss resigned as Chief of Staff having reached the mandatory retirement age, but remained in Europe where he was a key supporter of the appointment of Ferdinand Foch as Supreme Allied Commander, although he continued to support AEF commander John Pershing's insistence upon an independent U.S. army command.

With the armistice of November 1918 Bliss lobbied for lenient treatment of beaten Germany and Austria-Hungary, and argued for U.S. involvement in the League of Nations. He represented the U.S. at the Paris Peace Conference which produced the Treaty of Versailles.

He died in 1930

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/bliss.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 11:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ronde der Slagvelden

In 1919 werd éénmalig de Ronde der Slagvelden ingericht. Het ging over een wedstrijd met 6 etappes. De 1° rit was op 28 april en de laatste rit op 11 mei.

Lees verder op http://www.wielerarchieven.be/forum/showthread.php?t=99
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 11:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 April 1920, Written Answers

LEAGUE OF NATIONS.


HC Deb 28 April 1920 vol 128 c1237W 1237W

Mr. W. R. SMITH asked the Prime Minister whether Article 17 of the League of Nations Covenant provides that, in the event of a dispute between a member of the League and a State which is not a member, the latter shall be invited to become a member of the League for the purposes of such dispute; whether Germany has been invited to become a member of the League for the purposes of the dispute now in progress between her and France and the Allies as to the execution of the Peace Treaty; and, if not, whether the Covenant of the League of Nations is now regarded by its signatories as a scrap of paper?

Mr. BONAR LAW The answer to the first part of the question is in the affirmative, to the second, that, taking all the circumstances into account, I do not think the dispute was likely to lead to such serious consequences as to necessitate action under Article 7, and to the third part, the answer is in the negative.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1920/apr/28/league-of-nations
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Second Battle of Ypres: German offensive definitely stopped.

Germans bomb Dunkirk, Pervyse and Nancy; French bomb Friedrichshafen.

Germans storm French position at Les Mesnils.

Eastern Front

Very powerful Austro-German offensive under von Mackensen begins between the Dunajec and Biala Rivers (west Galicia). Russians driven back.

Southern Front

Dardanelles: Allied forces, aided by "Queen Elizabeth", advance on Krithia.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Skirmishes east of the Suez Canal.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Germans defeated at Gibeon (German south-west Africa).

South African Government publishes a Blue Book on the rebellion.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916
Eastern Front

Germans regain all ground lost at Lake Naroch.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Western Front

British thrust east of Vimy and capture Arleux: progress north-east of Gavrelle.

French advance towards Suippe valley (Champagne).

Naval and Overseas Operations

U.S. S.S. "Vacuum" torpedoed; one officer and nine men of U.S. Navy lost.

Political, etc.

U.S.A. Congress passes Army Bill and decides for Conscription.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
the beno



Geregistreerd op: 29-3-2009
Berichten: 2341
Woonplaats: Diksmuide

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Germans again attack at Locre and are repulsed.

Great artillery activity in Luce Valley and south of Lassigny.

Further attacks on Hangard Wood are repulsed.

At Langemarck, Belgians repulse a big enemy raid.

Announced that an American force has entered the line under French command on Northern battle front.

Eastern Front

Polish Government addresses Note to Central Powers.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British forces reach the Ak Su river (Tigris).

Political, etc.

Senhor Sidonio Paes, Provisional President, is elected President of the Portuguese Republic.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/april.htm
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2011 15:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Ludlow Massacre: Socialist writer Upton Sinclair's open letter to Rockefeller - April 28, 1914

I intend to indict you for murder before the people of this country. The charges will be pressed, and I think the verdict will be "Guilty".

I cannot believe that a man who dares to lead a service in a Christian church can be cognizant and therefore guilty of the crimes that have been committed under your authority.

We ask nothing but a friendly talk with you. We ask that in the name of the tens of thousands of men, women and children who are this minute suffering the most dreadful wrongs, directly because of the authority which you personally have given.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/sfeature/sf_8.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2011 15:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wednesday 28th April 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘The Goeben sent over some heavy stuff today in an attempt to hit some of the transports, but was not successful. The enemies field artillery has been less active all day than usual. A welcome sight appeared at about 11am when a few more transports arrived with fresh troops who are badly needed to give us a bit of a let up from entrenching and beating off attacks at the same time, our infantry are more or less worn out in consequence of this continual strain. This afternoon our unit shifted its position to the right flank and we spent a busy time getting dug into reasonably safe dug-outs, a thing we had not had time to do at our old bivouac on the first ridge above the clearing station. One of the mates got a bullet wound in the arm just after we commenced digging in. The ships all along the line from Cape Helles to Suvla Point took part and the din was terrific especially when the Queen Elizabeth let go with a broadside, at each discharge of her 15 inch guns there is a tremendous concussion that can be felt in the air.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/04/28/wednesday-28th-april-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2011 15:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hard Fighting on Gallipoli Peninsula - Allied Army Gains Firm Footing on Turkish Soil
The Guardian, Wednesday 28 April 1915

Press Bureau, Tuesday Night
The War Office and the Secretary of the Admiralty make the following announcement:

After a day's hard fighting in difficult country, the troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula are thoroughly making good their footing, with the effective help of the navy.

The French have taken 500 prisoners.

The following telegram has been officially published in Cairo: -

The Allied forces under Sir Ian Hamilton have effected a landing on both sides of the Dardanelles under excellent conditions. Many prisoners have been taken and our forces are continuing their advance.

Turkish Version of the Army's Landing

Extravagant Claims
.

(Press Association War Special)

Amsterdam, Tuesday

An official telegram from Constantinople regarding the landing of the Allies on the Gallipoli Peninsula says:-

Under the protection of warships the enemy attempted to land troops on Sunday at four points on the west coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula - namely, at the mouth of the Sighindere, in the coast district of Aviburun, to the west of Gaba Tepe, near Tekkeburun, and in the neighbourhood of Kum Kale.

Enemy troops landed at Tekkeburun, but were forced to retreat at the point of the bayonet, and were pushed to the coast. Part of these forces were last night obliged hastily to return to their ships.

The Turkish attacks at all points are progressing successfully to-day.

Simultaneously a fleet approached the Dardanelles in order to force the Straits from the sea, but was obliged to retreat before our fire.

Enemy forces which landed at Kum Kale advanced under the protection of their warships. In spite of a heavy bombardment from all sides our troops successfully attacked and repulsed the enemy to the coast.

The enemy lost 400 dead and 200 prisoners.

Our loses were insignificant. A party of Moslem soldiers which at this point of the coast landed with the French soldiers deserted and joined our troops.

Before Gaba Tepe we captured a number of English Australian soldiers, among them being a captain and a lieutenant.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/1915/apr/28/fromthearchive
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2011 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom

On 28 April 1915, a unique group of women met in an International Congress in The Hague, the Netherlands, to protest against the war then raging in Europe, and to suggest ways to end it and prevent war in the future. The organizers of the Congress were prominent women in the International Suffrage Alliance who saw the connection between their struggle for equal rights and the struggle for peace. They rejected the theory that war was inevitable and defied all obstacles to their plan to meet together in wartime. They assembled more than 1,000 women from belligerent and neutral countries to work out principles on the basis of which they believed the war could be stopped and a permanent peace constructed.

The Congress established an International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace which four years later became the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

http://www.wilpfinternational.org/history/highlights.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Apr 2011 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dardanelles Diary: A Look from Offshore
From The Illustrated London News, June 5th 1915

AFTER three days in the fine natural harbour of this island situate in the Aegean Sea, and where the Allies have made for themselves a naval base to attack the Dardanelles, we left suddenly at noon on Wednesday, 28 April, 1915, for the scene of action.

Lees verder op http://www.worldwar1.com/neareast/dard.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15276
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2011 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Way Back When - Today In History: 1917 - WWI draft approved
Gene Curtis, 4/28/2011

The House voted 313-9 and the Senate voted 81-8 to raise an Army for World War I by conscription. The law's final version set the age of inductees at between 21 and 30, gave a $15 raise to soldiers who made less than $21 per month (most of them) and prohibited the sale of liquor at or near Army training camps and otherwise protected the morals of the soldiers.

http://www.tulsaworld.com/news/article.aspx?subjectid=11&articleid=20110428_11_A2_ULNSnA823659&rss_lnk=12
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Tandorini



Geregistreerd op: 11-6-2007
Berichten: 6922

BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Apr 2011 19:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



Mussolini als soldaat in Wereldoorlog I.

Benito Mussolini wordt samen met zijn vriendin Clara Petacci geëxecuteerd. Dezelfde dag nog werd het paar door een inderhaast opgerichte rechtbank tot de kogel veroordeeld. Het vonnis werd om 16.10u voltrokken. Benito Mussolini stierf zonder waardigheid. Hij stond niet, keek niet naar het peloton maar werd in de rug geschoten terwijl hij schrijlings op een stoel zat.
Nog diezelfde nacht werden de twee lijken in de laadbak van een vrachtwagen naar het Loretoplein in Milaan gebracht. 's morgens vroeg, op 29 april, werden ze op de markt gedumpt. De inwoners van de stad dromden al snel samen om afscheid van de gehate Duce te nemen. Met stokken of blote vuisten ranselden ze op zijn lijk, en trapten, spogen en plasten er zelfs op.
Als laatste vernedering werden hij en Clara Petacci opgeknoopt, met de hoofden omlaag, aan het afdak van een tankstation. Uitgerekend in de stad waar Benito Mussolini aan zijn klim naar de macht begon, hing zijn geschonden lijk nu tot spot en hoon te kijk. Eén van de ooggetuigen vertelde later dat de kreten en de beledigingen die naar de lijken geschreeuwd werden, plots wegstierven.

"Het was alsof we in een paar seconden eensklaps allemaal beseften dat de Duce werkelijk dood was, dat hij zonder vorm van proces vermoord was en dat er een tijd was geweest dat we zijn dode lichaam niet beledigd zouden hebben, maar met eerbewijzen zouden hebben overstelpt."

Sinds 1957 bevindt de graftombe van Benito Mussolini zich op de begraafplaats van Predappio, het dorp waar hij ook is geboren.
Te Mezzegra (Noord-Italië) is er een kruis aan de muur aangebracht waar Mussolini werd geëxecuteerd.
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group