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Japan: Ally Against Racism, 1919-27

 
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Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Jan 2011 8:51    Onderwerp: Japan: Ally Against Racism, 1919-27 Reageer met quote

Japan: Ally in the Struggle Against Racism, 1919-1927
Reginald Kearney, Kanda University of International Studies in Japan

Contributions in Black Studies - A Journal of African and Afro-American Studies, Volume 12, Number 1 (Special Section)

IN THE SUMMER OF 1919, which John Hope Franklin called "the greatest period of
interracial strife the nation had ever witnessed," prominent and not so prominent
blacks of an international mind prepared to take their appeal for justice to the Paris
Peace Conference; there they hoped to gain Japanese support for an international
solution to America's racial quagmire. A group which included Madame C. J. Walker,
the millionaire cosmetics entrepreneur, A. Philip Randolph, labor leader and co-editor
of the Messenger magazine, acclaimed journalist and anti-lynching activist Ida Wells
Barnett, and Monroe Trotter, editor of the Boston Guardian newspaper, visited the
Japanese delegation at the Waldorf Astoria in New York prior to the convening of the
peace conference. They left with assurances that Japan's delegates were sympathetic to
the plight of blacks in the United States. Members of the East Calvary Methodist
Episcopal Church in Philadelphia subsequently addressed a petition to the Japanese
asking that they work "to remove prejudice and race discrimination in all nations of the
earth."

Lees verder: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=cibs
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13590
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919
Door Naoko Shimazu

Routledge, 2002 - 272 pagina's - This study explores the Japanese motivations in raising the proposal for racial equality at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This is the first comprehensive analysis of an historically significant event which has not been given adequate scholarly attention in the past. The story which unfolds underlines the complexity of politics and diplomacy surrounding the racial equality proposal and analyses the effect of the failure of the proposal on Japan's politics in the 1920s and 1930s.

http://books.google.nl/books?id=4bDJMcNl9CYC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 13590
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jan 2011 20:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

American Missionaries in Korea and U.S.-Japan Relations 1910–1920
Akifumi NAGATA

INTRODUCTION
Korea became the pivotal point of the East Asian regional area in the
late nineteenth century when pressure from Japan, Europe, and the
United States in the 1870s and 80s finally forced the nation’s closed
doors open. Compelled by Japan to enter into diplomatic relations in the
modern sense in 1876, Korea next entered into diplomatic relations with
the United States in 1882. With rivalry over Korea sharpening in the
1880s and 90s between Japan and China on the one hand, and Japan and
Russia on the other, Korea’s reliance on the United States increased,
appeals for help being made repeatedly as Korea struggled to maintain
her independence. These appeals were based on the 1882 Treaty of
Amity and Commerce between the United States of America and Corea
[sic], one article of which stated that “[i]f other Powers deal unjustly or
oppressively with either Government, the other will exert their good
offices, on being informed of the case, thus showing their friendly feelings.”
Nonetheless, the United States government continued to reject the
Korean appeals.
In 1904–5, at the end of the Russo-Japanese war, Theodore Roosevelt’s
administration strongly supported Japanese suzerainty over Korea by
recognizing the so-called “Taft-Katsura Agreement” which related to
American rule over the Philippines, Anglo-American-Japanese triangular
cooperation for peace in the Far East, and Japanese suzerainty over
Korea and the withdrawal of the American Legation in Seoul before that
of the European nations in November 1905.1 Under these circumstances,
society and culture in Korea received a strong impact from American
Christianity. Originally, the Korean Dynasty, with its state religion of
Confucianism, had outlawed Christianity. But King (later Emperor)
Kojong abandoned this traditional policy and in fact made it possible for
American missionaries to preach in Korea, in order to modernize Korea
and to secure American assistance in case of any emergency threatening
Korean independence. For this reason, the number of American missionaries,
especially Presbyterians, not only increased in Korea but they
also came to enjoy the fullest confidence of the Korean Dynasty and also
the people because of their contributions to the modernization of Korea
(for example, their building of missionary schools and hospitals).
In this period, the number of Korean Christians increased as the political
situation in Korea was becoming increasingly strained and people
turned to Christianity in their search for salvation and refuge.2 In August
1910, Japan annexed Korea with the conclusion of the Treaty of Annexation
between the two nations, unopposed by the United States. But
U.S.-Japan relations were growing strained after the Russo-Japanese
War, because of the Manchurian problem, the problem of Japanese immigration
to the U.S. West Coast, and the problem of a build-up of naval
power on both sides. So Japan began to take a cautious attitude toward
the United States in regards to the Korean problem after the annexation
of Korea. Under these circumstances, American missionaries living and
preaching in Korea became unwillingly involved in the tensions of the
political situation brought about by the Korean Independence Movement.
The reactions of the Japanese authorities and the conditions under
which American missionaries lived in Korea had a considerable impact
on U.S.-Japan relations. I would like to make clear the issues the
American missionaries in Korea had to face.

Lees verder op http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/jaas/periodicals/JJAS/PDF/2005/No.16-159.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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