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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2006 7:29    Onderwerp: 2 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 2

1905 Japanese capture Russian naval base at Port Arthur


In a crucial turning point of the Russo-Japanese War, Japan captures Port Arthur, a major Russian naval base on the Liaodong Peninsula in China, on this day in 1905.

When Czar Nicholas II’s Russia declined to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after joining with British, French, Japanese, German and American forces to suppress the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900, Japan became wary of Russia’s territorial ambitions in the Far East. On February 4, 1904, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur, beginning the Russo-Japanese War.

Port Arthur, which was called Lushun by the Chinese, had been an important port in the area as far back as the 6th century. Occupied in 1858 by the British, it was later used by the Chinese as a naval base to guard the entrance to Bao Hai, or the Gulf of Chihli, in the 1880s. Japan attacked and briefly held the city in 1895, but beginning in 1898 it had been leased to the Russians, who heavily fortified the naval base and renamed the city Port Arthur.

In light of the defeat at Port Arthur in January 1905, as well as the bitter and violent rebellion he faced within his own country, Czar Nicholas accepted the offer of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to broker a peace between Russia and Japan. Under the terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth—signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in August 1905—control of Port Arthur and the surrounding region was transferred to the Japanese, who renamed the city Ryojun. Ryojun would serve as an important naval base and the seat of government in the territory as well the main port for Japanese-controlled Manchuria until the end of World War II, when the area was placed under joint Soviet-Chinese control. Full Chinese sovereignty in Lushun was restored in 1955.

The surprising triumph in 1905 of upstart Japan over formidable Russia upset the traditional balance of power in Europe, exposing Russia’s growing vulnerability and foreshadowing the even greater upheaval that was to come.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Jan 2006 7:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

1915
Französische Angriffe in den Argonnen abgeschlagen
Deutschland und die Türkei
Die Übergabe von Duala
Besetzung der Walfischbai
Der letzte Kampf der "Emden"

1916
Neuer Erfolg am Hartmannsweilerkopf
Schwere russische Verluste an der beßarabischen Front

1917
Vormarsch auf Focsani und Fundeni
Die Russen auf Macin zurückgeworfen
Die deutsche Antwort auf die nordischen Noten
Lucoviza von den Bulgaren besetzt

1918


http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Advertisement in the Halifax Morning Chronicle, 2 January 1914.



http://www.alts.net/ns1625/teleph10.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad, 02-01-1915

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1915/0102
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WarChron - January 1915 - Russian Order of Battle

On 2 January, in Poland, the Russian 1st Army, with four corps, commanded by General A.I. Litvinov, was holding the Bzura River line west of Warsaw. They were supported by the 2nd and 5th Armies. There was heavy fighting near Gorlitse.

The Russian 2nd Army, with three corps, led by General V.V. Smirnov (who took over command on 3 December 1914), HQ at Kvyetsinski, was holding the line south of the 1st Army on the Vistula River.

The Russian 5th Army, with three corps, headed by General P.A. Pleve, HQ at Mogilnitsa, was holding the line south of the 2nd Army to the Pilitsa on the Ravka River.

On 2 January, the Russian 4th Army, led by General A.E. Evert, was holding the line on the Pilitsa River on the Southwest Front.

The Russian 9th Army, with three corps, headed by General P.A. Lechitskiy, with HQ at Sandomir, was holding the line on Nida River front south of the 4th Army.

The Russian 3rd Army, commanded by General R.D. Radko-Dmitriev, was holding the line on the Dunajec River on the Southwest Front.

On the Southwest Front, the Russian 8th Army, led by General A.A. Brusilov, was making progress near the Uzsok and Rostoka Passes in the Carpathians.

In Poland, the Germans carried a key position at Borimov, only 60 km from Warsaw.

On the Caucasian Front, heavy fighting continued at the Battle of Sarikamish. The British received an urgent Russian request from Caucasian Front Chief of Staff General Yudenich for Allied action against the Turks, specifically a British naval threat at the Dardanelles.

In the Black Sea, a Turkish torpedo boat was disabled on a Russian mine after leaving the Bosporus.

The French Foreign Office received a telegram from British Ambassador Buchanan in Petrograd stating that the Russian government desired the Allies to make a demonstration somewhere. On the 3rd, Buchanan was authorized “to assure the Tsar's government that such a demonstration would be carried out against the Turks. This decision would lead to the disastrous Allied campaign at Gallipoli in an attempt to force the Dardanelles.

German commander in chief von Falkenhayn telegraphed his Austrian counterpart, Conrad von Hoetzendorff, at Teschen that German troops could not presently be transferred from the Western Front to the east.

http://warchron.com/russianOrderofBattle.htm
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The Ethics of War, by The Honorable Bertrand Russell, F.C.S.
International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 25 No. 2 (January, 1915). 127–142.

The question whether war is ever justified, and if so under what circumstances, is one which has been forcing itself upon the attention of all thoughtful men. On this question I find myself in the somewhat painful position of holding that no single one of the combatants is justified in the present war, while not taking the extreme Tolstoyan view that war is under all circumstances a crime. Opinions on such a subject as war are the outcome of feeling rather than of thought: given a man's emotional temperament, his convictions, both on war in general, and on any particular war which may occur during his lifetime, can be predicted with tolerable certainty. The arguments used will be mere reinforcements to convictions otherwise reached. The fundamental facts in this as in all ethical questions are feelings; all that thought can do is to clarify and systematize the expression of those feelings, and it is such clarifying and systematizing of my own feelings that I wish to attempt in the present article.

I.

The question of rights and wrongs of a particular war is generally considered from a juridical or quasi-juridical standpoint: so and so broke such and such a treaty, crossed such and such a frontier, committed such and such technically unfriendly acts, and therefore by the rules it is permissible to kill as many of his nation as modern armaments render possible. There is a certain unreality, a certain lack of imaginative grasp about this way of viewing matters. It has the advantage, always dearly prized by lazy men, of substituting a formula, at once ambiguous and easily applied, for the vital realization of the consequences of acts. The juridical point of view is in fact an illegitimate transference, to the relations of States, of principles properly applicable to the relation of individuals within a State. Within a State, private war is forbidden, and the disputes of private citizens are settled, not by their own force, but by the force of the police, which, being overwhelming, very seldom needs to be explicitly displayed. It is necessary that there should be rules according to which the police decide who is to be considered in the right in a private dispute. These rules constitute law. The chief gain derived from the law and the police is the abolition of private wars, and this gain is independent of the question whether the law as it stands is the best possible. It is therefore in the public interest that the man who goes against the law should be considered in the wrong, not because of the excellence of the law, but because of the importance of avoiding the resort to force as between individuals within the State.

In the interrelation of States nothing of the same sort exists. There is, it is true, a body of conventions called ““international law,”” and there are innumerable treaties between High Contracting Powers. But the conventions and the treaties differ from anything that could properly be called law by the absence of sanction: there is no police force able or willing to enforce their observance. It follows from this that every nation concludes multitudes of divergent and incompatible treaties, and that, in spite of the high language one sometimes hears, the main purpose of the treaties is in actual fact to afford the sort of pretext which is considered respectable for engaging in war with another Power. A Power is considered unscrupulous when it goes to war without previously providing itself with such a pretext--unless indeed its opponent is a small country, in which case it is only to be blamed if that small country happens to be under the protection of some other Great Power. England and Russia may partition Persia immediately after guaranteeing its integrity and independence, because no other Great Power has a recognized interest in Persia, and Persia is one of those small States in regard to which treaty obligations are not considered binding. France and Spain, under a similar guarantee as to Morocco, must not partition it without first compensating Germany, because it is recognized thta, until such compensation has been offered and accepted, Germany, though not Morocco, has a legitimate interest in the preservation of that country. All Great Powers having guaranteed the neutrality of Belgium, England has a recognized right to resent its violation--a right which is exercised when it is believed to be to England's interest, and waived when England's interest is not thought to be involved. A treaty is therefore not to be regarded as a contract having the same kind of binding force as belongs to private contracts; it is to be regarded merely as a means of giving notice to rival powers that certain acts may, if the national interest so demand, form one of those reasons for war which are recognized as legitimate. If the faithful observance of treaties were a frequent occurrence, like the observance of contracts, the breach of a treaty might be a real and not merely a formal ground for war, since it would tend to weaken the practice of deciding disputes by agreement rather than by armed force. In the absence of such a practice, however, appeal to treaties is only to be regarded as part of the diplomatic machinery. A nation whose diplomacy has been skilfully conducted will always, when it belies that its interests demand war, be able to find some treaty or agreement bringing its intervention within the rules of the diplomatic game. It is obvious, however, that, so long as treaties are only observed when it is convenient to do so, the rules of the diplomatic game have nothing to do with the question whether embarking or participating in a war will or will not be for the good of mankind, and it is this question which has to be decided in considering whether a war is justified or not.

II.

It is necessary, in regard to any war, to consider, not its paper justification in past agreements, but its real justification in the balance of good which it is to bring to mankind. At the beginning of a war each nation, under the influence of what is called patriotism, believes that its own victory is both certain and of great importance to mankind. The praiseworthiness of this belief has become an accepted maxim of common sense: even when war is actually in progress it is held to be natural and right that a citizen of an enemy country should regard the victory of his side as assured and highly desirable. By concentrating attention upon the supposed advantages of the victory of our own side, we become more or less blind to the evils inseparable from war and equally certain whichever side may ultimately prove victorious. Yet so long as these are not fully realized, it is impossible to judge justly whether a war is or is not likely to be beneficial to the human race. Although the theme is trite, it is necessary therefore briefly to remind ourselves what the evils of war really are.

To begin with the most obvious evil: large numbers of young men, the most courageous and the most physically fit in their respective nations, are killed, bringing great sorrow to their friends, loss to the community, and gain only to themselves. Many others are maimed for life, some go mad, and others become nervous wrecks, mere useless and helpless derelicts. Of those who survive many will be brutalized and morally degraded by the fierce business of killing, which, however much it may be the soldier's duty, must shock and often destroy the more humane instincts. As every truthful record of war shows, fear and hate let loose the wild beast in a not inconsiderable proportion of combatants, leading to strange cruelties, which must be faced, but not dwelt upon if sanity is to be preserved.

Of the evils of war to the non-combatant population in the regions where fighting occurs, the recent misfortunes of Belgium have afforded an example upon which it is not necessary to enlarge. It is necessary, however, to point out that the misfortunes of Belgium do not, as is commonly believed in England, afford a reason in favor of war. Hatred, by a tragic delusion, perpetuates the very evils from which it springs. The sufferings of Belgium are attributed to the Germans and not to war; and thus the very horrors of war are used to stimulate the desire to increase their area and intensity. Even assuming the utmost humanity compatible with the conduct of military operations, it cannot be doubted that, if the troops of the Allies penetrate into the industrial regions of Germany, the German population will have to suffer a great part of the misfortunes which Germany has inflicted upon Belgium. To men under the influence of hate this thought is a cause of rejoicing, but to men in whom humane feeling is not extinct it shows that our sympathy with Belgium should make us hate war rather than Germany.

The evils which war produces outside the area of military operations are perhaps even more serious, for though less intense they are far more widespread. Passing by the anxiety and sorrow of those whose sons or husbands or brothers are at the front, the extent and consequences of the economic injury inflicted by war are much greater than is usually realized. It is common to speak of economic evils as merely material, and of desire for economic progress as grovelling and uninspired. This view is perhaps natural in well-to-do people, to whom economic progress means setting up a motor car or taking holidays in Scotland instead of at the seaside. But with regard to the poorer classes of society, economic progress is the first condition of many spiritual goods and even often of life itself. An overcrowded family, living in a slum in conditions of filth and immorality, where half the children die from ignorance of hygiene and bad sanitation, and the remainder grow up stunted and ignorant--such a family can hardly make progress mentally or spiritually, except through an improvement in its economic condition. And without going to the very bottom of the social scale, economic progress is essential to the possibility of good education, of a tolerable existence for women, and of that breadth and freedom of outlook upon which any solid and national advance must be based. It is not the most oppressed or the most ill-used who make an effective plea for social justice, for some reorganization of society which shall give less to the idler and more to the common man. Throughout the Napoleonic wars, while the landowners of England continually increased their rent-rolls, the mass of the wage-earning population sank into greater and greater destitution. It was only afterwards, during the long peace, that a less unjust distribution began to be possible. It cannot be doubted that the desire on the part of the rich to distract men's minds from the claims of social justice has been more or less unconsciously one of the motives leading to war in modern Europe. Everywhere the well-to-do and the political parties which represent their interests have been the chief agents i nstirring up international hatred and in persuading the working man that his real enemy is the foreigner. Thus war, and the fear of war, has a double effect in retarding social progress: it diminishes the resources available for improving the condition of the wage-earning classes, and it distracts men's minds from the need and possibility of general improvement by persuading them that the way to better themselves is to injure their comrades in some other country. It is as a protest against this delusion that international socialism has arisen, and whatever may be thought of socialism as an economic doctrine, its internationalism makes it the sanest force in modern politics, and the only body which has preserved some degree of judgment and humanity in the present chaos.

Of all the evils of war the greatest, in my opinion, is the purely spiritual evil: the hatred, the injustice, the repudiation of truth, the artificial conflict, where, if once the blindness of atavistic instincts and the sinister influence of anti-social interests, such as those of armaments with their subservient press, could be overcome, it would be seen that there is a real consonance of interest and essential identity of human nature, and every reason to replace hatred by love. Mr. Norman Angell has well shown how unreal, as applied to the conflicts of civilized States, is the whole vocabulary of international conflict, how illusory are the gains supposed to be obtained by victory, and how fallacious are the injuries to which nations, in times of peace, are supposed to inflict upon each other in economic competition. The importance of this thesis lies, not so much in its direct economic application, as in the hope which it affords for the liberation of better spiritual impulses in the relations of different communities. To love our enemies, however desirable, is not easy; and therefore it is well to realize that the enmity springs only from blindness, not from any inexorable physical necessity.

III.

Are there any wars which achieve so much for the good of mankind as to outweigh all the evils we have been considering? I think there have been such wars in the past, but they are not wars of the sort with which our diplomatists are concerned, for which our armies and navies have been prepared, and which are exemplified by the present conflict. For the purposes of classification we may roughly distinguish four kinds of wars, though of course in any given case a war is not likely to be quite clearly of any one of the four kinds. With this proviso we may distinguish: (1) Wars of Colonization; (2) Wars of Principle; (3) Wars of Self-defence; (4) Wars of Prestige. Of these four kinds I should say that the first and second are fairly often justified; the third seldom, except against an adversary of inferior civilization, and the fourth, which is the sort to which the present war belongs, never. Let us consider these four kinds of war in succession.

By a ““war of colonization”” I mean a war whose purpose is to drive out the whole population of some territory and replace it by an invading population of a different race. Ancient wars were very largely of this kind, of which we have a good example in the Book of Joshua. In modern times the conflicts of Europeans with American-Indians, Maories, and other aborigines in temperate regions, have been of this kind. Such wars are totally devoid of technical justification, and are apt to be mor ruthless than any other war. Nevertheless, if we are to judge by results, we cannot regret that such wars have taken place. They have the merit, often quite fallaciously claimed for all wars, of leading in the main to the survival of the fittest, and it is chiefly through such wars that the civilized portion of the world has been extended from the neighborhood of the Mediterranean to the greater part of the earth's sufrace. The eighteenth century, which liked to praise the virtues of the savage and contrast them with the gilded corruption of courts, nevertheless had no scruple in thrusting the noble savage out from his North American hunting grounds. And we cannot at this date bring ourselves to condemn the process by which the American continent has been acquired for European civilization. In order that such wars may be justified, it is necessary that there should be a very great and undeniable difference between the civilization of the colonizers and that of the dispossessed natives. It is necessary also that the climate should be one in which the invading race can flourish. When these conditions are satisfied the conquest becomes justified, though the actual fighting against the dispossessed inhabitants ought, of course, to be avoided as far as is compatible with colonizing. Many humane people will object in theory to the justification of this form of robbery, but I do not think that any practical or effective objection is likely to be made.

Such wars, however, belong now to the past. The regions where the white men can live are all allotted, either to white races or to yellow races to whom the white man is not clearly superior, and whom, in any case, he is not strong enough to expel. Apart from small punitive expeditions, wars of colonization, in the true sense, are no longer possible. What are nowadays called colonial wars do not aim at the complete occupation of a country by a conquering race; they aim only at securing certain governmental and trading advantages. They belong, in fact, rather with what I call wars of prestige, than with wars of colonization in the old sense. There are, it is true, a few rare exceptions. The Greeks in the second Balkan war conducted a war of colonization against the Bulgarians; throughout a certain territory which they intended to occupy, they killed all the men, and carried off all the women. But in such cases, the only possible justification fails, since there is no evidence of superior civilization on the side of the conquerors.

In spite, however, of the fact that wars of colonization belong to the past, men's feelings and beliefs about war are still those appropriate to the extinct conditions which rendered such wars possible. When the present war began, many people in England imagined that if the Allies were victorious Germany would cease to exist; Germany was to be ““destroyed”” or ““smashed,”” and since these phrases sounded vigorous and cheering, people failed to see that they were totally devoid of meaning. There are some seventy million Germans; with great good fortune, we might, in a successful war, succeed in killing two millions of them. There would then still be sixty-eight million Germans, and in a few years the loss of population due to the war would be made good. Germany is not merely a State, but a nation, bound together by a common language, common traditions, and common ideals. Whatever the outcome of the war, this nation will still exist at the end of it, and its strength cannot be permanently impaired. But the imagination in what pertains to war is still dominated by Homer and the Old Testament; men who cannot see that circumstances have changed since those works were composed are called ““practical”” men and are said to be free from illusions. Those, on the other hand, who have some understanding of the modern world, and some capacity for freeing their minds from the influence of phrases, are called dreamy idealists, Utopians, traitors, and friends of every country but their own. If the facts were understood, wars amongst civilized nations would case, owing to their inherent absurdity. Men's passions always lag behind their political organizations, and facts which leave no outlet for passions are not readily admitted. In order that hatred, pride, and violence may find an outlet, men unconsciously blind themselves to the plainest facts of politics and economics, and modern war continues to be waged with the phrases and theories invented by simpler men in a simpler age.

IV.

The second type of war which may sometimes be justified is what may be called ““the war of principle.”” To this kind belong the wars of Protestant and Catholic, and the English and American civil wars. In such cases, each side, or at least one side, is honestly convinced that the progress of mankind depends upon the adoption of certain beliefs--beliefs which, through blindness or natural depravity, mankind will not regard as reasonable, except when presented at the point of the bayonet. Such wars may be justified: for example, a nation practising religious toleration may be justified in resisting a persecuting nation holding a different creed. On this ground we might justify the resistance of the Dutch to the England and French combined in the time of Charles II. But wars of principle are much less often justified than is believed by those in whose age they occur. It is very rarely that a principle of genuine value to mankind can only be propagated by military force: as a rule, it is the bad part of men's principles, not the good part, which makes it necessary to fight for their defence. And for this reason the bad part rather than the good rises to prominence during the progress of a war of principle. A nation undertaking a war in defence of religious toleration would be almost certain to persecute those of its citizens who did not believe in religious toleration. A war on behalf of democracy, if it is long and fierce, is sure to end in the exclusion from all share of power of those who do not support the war. Mr. George Trevelyan in an eloquent passage describes the defeat which, as the ultimate outcome of our civil war, overtook alike the ideals of the Roundheads and the ideals of the Cavaliers. ““And this was the curse of the victors, not to die, but to live, and almost to lose their awful faith in God, when they saw the Restoration, not of the old gaiety that was too gay for them and the old loyalty that was too loyal for them, but of corruption and selfishness that had neither country nor king. The sound of the Roundhead cannon has long ago died away, but still the silence of the garden is heavy with unalterable fate, brooding over besiegers and besieged, in such haste to destroy each other and permit only the vile to survive.”” This common doom of opposite ideals is the usual, though not the invariable, penalty of supporting ideals by force. While it may therefore be conceded that such wars are not invariably to be condemned, we must nevertheless scrutinize very skeptically the claim of any particular war to be justified on the ground of the victory which it brings to some important principle.

There are some who maintain that the present war is a war in defence of democracy. I do not know whether this view is adopted by the Tsar, and for the sake of the stability of the Alliance I sincerely hope that it is not. I do not, however, desire to dispute the proposition that democracy in the western nations would suffer from the victory of Germany. What I do wish to dispute is the belief not infrequently entertained in England that if the Allies are victorious democracy can be forced upon a reluctant Germany as part of the conditions of peace. Men who think thus have lost sight of the spirit of democracy in worship of the letter. The Germans have the form of government which they desire, and therefore any other form, imposed by alien victors, would be less in harmony with the spirit of democracy, however much it might conform to the letter. Men do right to desire strongly the victory of ideals which they believe to be important, but it is almost always a sign of yielding to undue impatience when men believe that what is valuable in their ideals can be furthered by the substitution of force for peaceful persuasion. To advocate democracy by war is only to repeat, on a vaster scale and with far more tragic results, the error of those who have sought it hitherto by the assassin's knife and the bomb of the anarchist.

V.

The next kind of war to be considered is the war of self-defence. This kind of war is almost universally admitted to be justifiable, and is condemned only by Christ and Tolstoy. The justification of wars of self-defence is very convenient, since so far as I know there has never yet been a war which was not one of self-defence. Every strategist assures us that the true defence is offence; every great nation believes that its own overwhelming strength is the only possible guarantee of the world's peace and can only be secured by the defeat of other nations. In the present war, Servia is defending itself against the brutal aggression of Austria-Hungary; Austria-Hungary is defending itself against the disruptive revolutionary agitation which Servia is believed to have fomented; Russia is defending Slavdom against the menace of Teutonic aggression; Germany is defending Teutonic civilization against the encroachments of the Slav; France is defending itself against a repetition of 1870; and England, which sought only the preservation of the status quo, is defending itself against a prospective menace to its maritime supremacy. The claim of each side to be fighting in self-defence appears to the other side mere wanton hypocrisy, because in each case the other side believes that self-defence is only to be achieved by conquest. So long as the principle of self-defence is recognized as affording always a sufficient justification for war, this tragic conflict of irresistible claims remains unavoidable. In certain cases, where there is a clash of differing civilizations, a war of self-defence may be justified on the same grounds as a war of principle. I think, however, that, even as a matter of practical politics, the principle of non-resistance contains an immense measure of wisdom if only men would have the courage to carry it out. The evils suffered during a hostile invasion are suffered because resistance is offered: the Duchy of Luxemburg, which was not in a position to offer resistance, has escaped the fate of the other regions occupied by hostile troops. What one civilized nation can achieve against another by means of conquest is very much less than is commonly supposed. It is said, both here and in Germany, that each side is fighting for its existence; but when this phrase is scrutinized, it is found to cover a great deal of confusion of thought induced by unreasoning panic. We cannot destroy Germany even by a complete military victory, nor conversely, could Germany destroy England even if our Navy were sunk and London occupied by the Prussians. English civilization, the English language, English manufactures would still exist, and as a matter of practical politics it would be totally impossible for Germany to establish a tyranny in this country. If the Germans, instead of being resisted by force of arms, had been passively permitted to establish themselves wherever they pleased, the halo of glory and courage surrounding the brutality of military success would have been absent, and public opinion in Germany itself would have rendered any oppression impossible. The history of our own dealings with our colonies affords abundant examples to show that under such circumstances the refusal of self-government is not possible. In a word, it is the means of repelling hostile aggression which make hostile aggression disastrous and which generate the fear by which hostile nations come to think aggression justified. As between civilized nations, therefore, non-resistance would seem not only a distant religious ideal, but the course of practical wisdom. Only pride and fear stand in the way of its adoption. But the pride of military glory might be overcome by a nobler pride, and the fear might be overcome by a clearer realization of the solidity and indestructibility of a modern civilized nation.

VI.

The last kind of war we have to consider is what I have called ““the war of prestige.”” Prestige is seldom more than one element in the causes of a war, but it is often a very important element. In the present war, until the war had actually broken out, it was almost the only thing involved, although as soon as the war began other and much more important matters came to be at stake. The initial question between Austria and Russia was almost wholly one of prestige. The lives of Balkan peasants could not have been much affected for good or evil by the participation or non-participation of Austrian officials in the trial of supposed Servian accomplices in the Sarajevo murders. This important question, which is the one on which the war is being fought, concerns what is called the hegemony of the Balkans, and this is entirely a question of prestige. Men desire the sense of triumph, and fear the sense of humiliation which they would have in yielding to the demands of another nation. Rather than forego the triumph, rather than endure the humiliation, they are willing to inflict upon the world all those disasters which it is now suffering and all that exhaustion and impoverishment which it must long continue to suffer. The willingness to inflict and endure such evils is almost universally praised; it is called high-spirited, worthy of a great nation, showing fidelity to ancestral traditions. The slightest sign of reasonableness is attributed to fear, and received with shame on the one side and with derision on the other. In private life exactly the same state of opinion existed so long as duelling was practised, and exists still in those countries in which this custom still survives. It is now recognized, at any rate in the Anglo-Saxon world, that the so called ““honor”” which made duelling appear inevitable was a folly and a delusion. It is perhaps not too much to hope that the day may come when the honor of nations, like that of individuals, will be longer measured by their willingness to inflict slaughter. It can hardly be hoped, however, that such a change will be brought about while the affairs of nations are left in the keeping of diplomatists whose status is bound up with the diplomatic or military triumph of the countries from which they come, and whose manner of life renders them unusually ignorant of all the political and economic facts of real importance and of all the changes of opinions and organization which make the present world different from that of the eighteenth century. If any real progress is to be made in introducing sanity into international relations, it is vital that these relations should be in the hands of men less aloof and less aristocratic, more in touch with common life, and more emancipated from the prejudices of a bygone age. It is necessary also that popular education, instead of inflaming the hatred of foreigners and representing even the tiniest triumph as worthy of even the greatest sacrifices, should aim rather at producing some sense of the solidarity of mankind and of the paltriness of those objects to which diplomatists, often secretly, think fit to pledge the manhood and heroism of nations.

The objects for which men have fought in the past, whether just or unjust, are no longer to be achieved by wars amongst civilized nations. A great weight of tradition, of financial interests, of political insincerity, is bound up with the anachronism of international hostility. It is, however, perhaps not chimerical to hope that the present war, which has shocked the conscience of mankind more than any war in previous history, may produce a revulsion against antiquated methods, and may lead the exhausted nations to insist upon the brotherhood and co-operation which their rulers have hitherto denied them. There is no reason whatever against the settlement of all disputes by a Council of Powers deliberating in public. Nothing stands in its way except the pride of rulers who wish to remain uncontrolled by anything higher than their own will. When this great tragedy has worked itself out to its disastrous conclusion, when the passions of hate and self-assertion have given place to compassion with the universal misery, the nations will perhaps realize that they have fought in blindness and delusion, and that the way of mercy is the way of happiness for all.

Bertrand Russell.
Trinity College, Cambridge.

http://fair-use.org/international-journal-of-ethics/1915/01/the-ethics-of-war
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

2 januari 1915 - Het kroniekschrijven wordt lastig als er niets gebeurt en ik voorzie de pen te moeten neerleggen bij gebrek aan grondstof. Over mijn gevoelens, gewaarwordingen heb ik al te lang uitgeweid; en ten andere: ‘c'est là ce qu'il y a de moins fort au monde, parler de soi!’ zegt Flaubert en hij heeft volop gelijk.

Hadden de Bondgenoten nu eens een grote aanval gewaagd, gelijk het aangekondigd was, welke schone gelegenheid om met de aanvang van het jaar, een nieuw hoofdstuk en onderwerpen van andere aard te behandelen? Het mocht helaas niet zijn, het ware te schoon geweest! Maar wat wordt het achterna vervelend dat onophoudend schieten en altijd datzelfde veldgrijs en die pinhelmen, zonder dat men enige vordering gewaar wordt of een uitwerksel ziet van die bovenmenselijke inspanning, waaraan heel Europa deelneemt.

Ik moet bekennen dat de mensen uit mijn omgeving meer - fantasie hebben en vindingrijker zijn dan ik. - Als er niets gebeurt of niets meer te vertellen valt, zoeken ze het van al de duivels uit en hun voorraad geraakt nooit uitgeput. En ze halen er dan ook bijval genoeg mede; want de toehoorders zijn zenuwachtig en verlangen naar nieuws en, al is het ook onbekookt, toch slikken ze 't met gretigheid, als 't maar voordelig is aan de vervulling van hun begeerten mag de voorspelling ook zelfs van verdacht allooi zijn; al 't andere echter wordt verworpen als bedriegelijke uitstrooisels van de vijand. Ik had vroeger nooit kunnen vermoeden dat de mensen zo licht waren van geloof en zulk een behoefte hadden aan zelfbegoocheling. Het ware inderdaad belangrijk alles van die aard op te tekenen om aan te tonen later, in welke geestestoestand de mensen verkeren in oorlogstijd. Nu, voor 't ogenblik, b.v. is de aftocht van de Duitsers aan de orde. Ze trekken weg aan de IJzer om kalm op hun tweede verdedigingslijn te gaan liggen; - ze wachten niet tot ze er met geweld achteruitgeslegen5 worden ('t geen voor ons allen ver het best is en 't voordeligst, want dan gebeurt het zonder slag of stoot of schade en ongelukken en we mogen stilletjes thuis blijven.) Als we het ons sterk inbeelden en het met volle overtuiging voortvertellen, zal het zeker gebeuren, zo ligt die mening vast doch onbewust in het menselijke brein. Daarom wordt alles aangehaald wat maar enigszins die achteruitwaartse beweging kan doen aannemen. Telkens er treinen met troepen in oostelijke richting oprijden is 't de aftocht; al wie langs de ijzerbaan woont, weet hoeveel treinen er dagelijks voorbijrijden. Het verbod aan de Duitse soldaten om Kerstfeest te vieren, werd er ook al mede in verband gebracht. Er zijn echter veel sterkere voortekenen en bewijzen: er is namelijk van niets minder kwestie dan van een bevel waarbij al de prikdraad aan weiden en afsluitingen moet weggenomen worden... om die aftocht te vergemakkelijken! Ik hoorde dat er te Deerlijk plakbrieven1 uithingen om de bewoners te verwittigen dat ze moeten in hun huizen blijven omdat er een half miljoen soldaten zullen voorbijtrekken... Elke vreemdeling die van ver komt wordt uitgehoord en deze hebben het vertellen gemakkelijk, - hoe onwaarschijnlijker hoe liever. Zo bracht een heer uit Rijsel ons het nieuws: dat onze koning Albert met 20.000 Belgische soldaten vertrokken is naar een onbekende bestemming. De Duitse soldaten die hier de ijzerweg bewaken (het zijn natuurlijk Elzassers) vertellen dat er 300.000 Engelse soldaten in België gedrongen zijn, zonder dat iemand weet waar ze zitten; - op een teken van de luchtvloot, die meewerken moet, zal de overrompeling beginnen. De vliegtuigen spelen ook een gewichtige rol in het verspreiden van sensatie-nieuws. Verleden week dreef er één boven Kortrijk, heeft een fles uitgeworpen, waarin een briefje stak met het bericht: dat al het vlas en andere brandbare stoffen die langs de Leie stonden, moesten geweerd en opgeborgen, omdat er in de eerste zes dagen een aanval zal plaats hebben. Ik hoorde onlangs nog bevestigen dat de aanval zou gebeuren naar aanleiding van de geboorte van een nieuwe Belgische prins die de naam gekregen had van: Philips den IJzeren!

Bij de Vlaming moet er ook altijd een kluchtige kant aan zijn en wees op uw hoede, wilt ge er niet inlopen! Ik hoorde het onlangs hoe iemand afkwam en met een ernstig gezicht zijn gebuur te keer ging en vroeg: Weet ge 't al dat ze begonnen zijn met al de oude flessen op te kopen?

- En wat wil men daar nu mee aanvangen? vraagt de argeloze buitenmens, die alleen belust is om nieuw te vernemen.

- De Duitsers gaan de IJzer op flessen trekken2, ze kunnen er anders niet over, luidt het kalme antwoord van de spotter. De IJzer bijzonderlijk, is nu vermaard en de vertelsels die ermede in betrek gebracht worden, zijn ontelbaar; - het lijkt waarachtig alsof Uilenspiegel verrezen ware. Zo wonder en onbegrijpelijk is die nood aan kluchtigheid en de behoefte aan spotternij zelfs als de mensen 't verdriet tot in de keel staat en versmoren in de ellende1.

Te Harelbeke en te Zwevegem zit het weer vol soldaten. Daar een fatale beschikking tot hiertoe de gebeurtenissen altijd op een zaterdag deden voorvallen, is er de bijgelovigheid reeds zover mede gemoeid, dat er hier onvermijdelijk troepen moeten aankomen vandaag. We zijn nu echter reeds ver in de avond en ik werd tenminste, nog niets gewaar.

Nu en dan nog ondervind ik dat er, sedert de laatste inkwartiering en mijn terugkomst uit Holland, een en ander ontbreekt, zoek geraakt of verdwenen is van mijn huisraad; dat ik mijn cognac, rhum en Hulstkamp niet meer terugvind, is nog al te begrijpen, maar wat wil men in godsnaam aanvangen met mijn bretels, een thermometer, een veegborstel, een koolschup2, een trektang en dergelijk heterogeen gereedschap dat 't medevoeren niet waard is - en men zoveel ander dingen van meerder waarde en nut, onaangeroerd laat? Dat zijn de raadsels van de oorlogs-psychologie... 't Geen echter nog minder te verklaren schijnt, 't is dat ik, in plaats, en als vergoeding zeker voor 't geen verdwenen is? - overal doodvreemde voorwerpen liggen vind, die hier in 't geheel niet thuis horen. Zo ontwaarde ik reeds onder andere dingen meer: een roskam, één laars, een onderbroek, poetssmeer, een toiletspiegel en foto's van... Duitse schonen!

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Friday 1st January 1915

(Land of hope and glory, Mother of the free,
How shall we extol thee, we who are born of thee.
Wider yet and wider shall thy bounds be set,
God who made thee mighty make thee mightier yet).

Attended Watch Night Service at Petre St. Father and Mr Saul delivered addresses. Pater’s subject condensed to “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth”. Wished many happy new years. Hope victorious. All hoped would be no war next new year. Went home. Thought saw lad hiding. Was Eunice disguised. Saw new house Burngreave Rd. Very tired. Bed 12.45am. Got up 11am. Afternoon saw footer match Wednes v Newcastle, 2-1. Muddy ground, players wet through.

Mother came home, met her at G C Station. Percy paid a visit, having returned from Red Cross at Boulogne. Had fine time, looks well, attended lot of wounded. Said didn’t think much of French. Went with him in evening to Cinema to see Cinderella.

Saturday 2nd January 1915

Bed 12.15am. Stopped up for girls who had gone to Mosbrough. They arrived when in bed. Arose 10.45am. Learned “Formidable” sunk in Channel. We are pretty even in naval losses but their % more than twice ours.

Wednes v United, fine hard game, sludgy, 1-1, Wednes better team.

Evening went to Albert Hall to see “Traffic in Souls”. Fine picture, though rather too suggestive. Wouldn’t like to take girl.

Bought paint brush to paint needsfoot [neatsfoot] oil on boots. Am gradually getting little things I need.

Had hot bath. Must have hair cut. Last night at home before end of 6 days leave.

Bed 11.15pm.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915: Urmia, Salmas and Hakkiari : Statement by Mr. Paul Shimmon
Published in the Armenian Journal "Ararat," of London, November, 1915

(...) On the 2nd January, 1915, it was suddenly known that the Russian army, consulate and all, were leaving Urmi---and not that alone, but it was found later that they were withdrawing from all northern Persia. It came like a thunderbolt, for it had been positively stated all along to the Christian population that the Russian army would under no circumstances withdraw from Urmi. Here, then, in the heart of winter, some 45,000 Christians, from nine to ten days' journey from the nearest railway station to the Russian border, found themselves in a very precarious position. No conveyances, horses, &c., &c., could be had for love or money. Roughly speaking, one-third of the people who happened to know of this withdrawal, through whose villages the army was to pass, left for Russia. The great majority simply left their homes and walked out. Some only heard of the withdrawal during the night, and so could hardly make any provision for the journey. A good number of people from Tergawar and Mergawar, and outlying districts, who were already refugees in Urmi---having been plundered on two or three occasions previously---left with the army. So there was a concourse of over 10,000 people, mostly women and children, walking in the bitter cold, scantily provided, sore-footed, wearied, that had to make their way to the Russian frontier over mountains and along miserable roads and through swamps. Their cries and shrieks as they walked were heart-rending. (...)

http://www.atour.com/~history/1900/20000718n.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War in Broken Hill - The Battle

Barrier Miner, 2nd January, 1915

"The general operations were under the direction of Inspector Miller and Lieutenant Resch. The attacking party spread out on the adjoining hills, and there was a hot fire poured into the enemy's position, the Turks returning the fire with spirit but without effect, which is rather surprising, as the range was short, and the attacking parties in some cases exposed themselves rather rashly in their efforts to get a shot. "

"In the battle there was a desperate determination to leave no work for the hangman, or to run the risk of the murderers of peaceful citizens being allowed to escape. It was not a long battle. The attacking party was being constantly reinforced by eager men, who arrived in any vehicles they could obtain or on foot. At just about one o'clock a rush took place to the Turks stronghold, and they were found lying on the ground behind their shelter. Both had many wounds, One was dead, the other expired at the Hospital later. They were in the dress of their people, with turbans on their heads. The police took charge of the bodies."

http://hosting.collectionsaustralia.net/stories/turks/battle.html
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=3075
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1915

2nd January 1915. PETROGRAD - A Russian whom I met at the French Embassy was very complimentary me telling me that the Russians looked upon to me as a sincere friend, and that the Emperor talked much about me.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bolton Chronicle 2nd January 1915

"A very interesting letter has been sent by Mr J A Farrell, a Bolton Post Office employee. The letter is sent to the Post Office and reads: '...In the afternoon there was a football match played beyond the trenches, right in full view of the enemy'..."

http://www.christmastruce.co.uk/football.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli: AD 1915

Early in 1915 a dramatic new strategy is under discussion among the Allies. There are two reasons. Many British and French strategists feel that the trench warfare on the western front is settling into a gridlock which cannot be resolved by continuous frontal attacks, and that therefore a bold alternative is required. And on 2 January 1915 a request is received from Moscow for an attack on Turkey, to relieve pressure on the Russian armies fighting on three fronts.

The result is the gradual formation of a plan to try and force a passage through the Dardanelles (the heavily defended straits leading into the Sea of Marmara), in order to reach and capture Istanbul.

If this could be achieved, there would be numerous advantages. Turkey would be crippled. An easy supply route from the west to Russia would be opened up. An attack could be launched up the Danube against Austria-Hungary. Relief could be brought to beleagured Serbia. And this demonstration of power might well persuade Greece, Bulgaria and Romania - all at this stage still neutral - either to stand aside from the conflict or to join the Allies.

The plan of a purely naval attack on the Dardanelles is strongly supported by Winston Churchill in his role as first lord of the admiralty, the cabinet member responsible for the navy.

http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=qec
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CSM John Reid Keith, Saturday, January 02, 1915

We have been in France about a couple of weeks, but have not yet gone into the firing line. On 30th December two officers and two sergeants were sent up to see how the reliefs, etc., were carried out. I was one of the sergeants chosen and therefore we four were the only representatives of Colonial corps at the front in 1914. It was, as you know, my first experience of active service. I rather enjoyed it, but the wet and cold were pretty tough. The regiment may go into action any day. I will let you know from time to time how things are going with us. We have quite a few Commerce men in our Battalion.

http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/transcripts/transcriptDisplay.asp?Type=L&transNo=217
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 15:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Essex County Standard, 2 January, 1915

ESSEX COUNTY FRATERNIZE WITH FRITZ:

Private H. Scrutton Essex Regiment writes to relatives at Wood Green, N.:- “As I have told you before, our trenches are only 30 or 40 yards away from the Germans. This led to an exciting incident the other day. Our fellows have been in the habit of shouting across to the enemy, and we used to get answers from them. We were to to get into conversation with them, and this is what happened:-
From our trenches, “Good morning, Fritz,” (no answer), “Good Morning, Fritz,” (and still no answer). “GOOD MORNING, FRITZ,” From the German Trenches: “Good morning.”
From our trench: “How are you?”
“All right.”
“Come over here, Fritz.”
“No, if I come, I get shot.”
“No, you won’t, come on.”
“No fear”
“Come and get some fags, Fritz.”
“No, you come half-way, and I meet you.”
“All right.”
One of our fellows thereupon filled his pocket with fags and got over the trench, The German got over his trench; and right enough, they met half-way, and shook hands, Fritz taking the fags and giving chocolate in exchange. t was good to see the Germans standing on top of their trenches and the English, also with caps waving in the air, all cheering. About 18 of our men went half-way and met about the same number of Germans, This lasted about half-an-hour, when each side returned to their trenches to shoot at each other again.”

http://www.christmastruce.co.uk/essex.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 16:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

2 January 1916 - Private J Robins, 5th Battalion, Wiltshire Regiment, was shot at dawn on the beach at Helles for ‘Wilfully disobeying an order given by a superior officer in the execution of his duty’.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html

"Shot at Dawn", (Barnsley 1996), J. Putkowski & J. Sykes, p. 61-62

[...] Sergeant John Robins, was a regular soldier who landed at Gallipoli as a corporal at the end of June 1915. In the early hours of 10 August his battalion - 5 Wiltshires - suffered a disaster when, without warning, they were overrun by the Turks while the men were sleeping in their bivouacs. In the ensuing panic, those men who managed to flee left without their equipment, a situation that compounded their predicament when they found themselves trapped in a gully with no means of defense. Nearly four months later, and after his promotion to sergeant, Robins found himself on trial for his life.
The fatal incident had occurred when the NCO had been ordered to accompany an officer on a patrol. Robins maintained that he was unwell and had refused to go. In consequence the sergeant had been ordered to report to the medical officer. After examining the soldier, the doctor prescribed some medicine and returned him to duty. However Sergeant Robins maintained that he was still unwell, and he refused to accompany the officer on the patrol. On 8 December Sergeant Robins was tried on a charge of 'Willfully disobeying an order given by a superior officer in the execution of his duty'. The NCO still maintained however that he had been unfit for duty, and he related to the court that since serving in India he had suffered from fits which were aggravated by wet weather. Whatever the cause of the sergeant's debility, his battalion's diary showed that during the month of December, 25% of the battalion's strength. was on the sick list adding weight to the likelihood that Robins was also unwell. At the court martial hearing the doctor who had examined Robins did not give evidence, instead he submitted a written statement. The outcome of this fiasco was, that notwithstanding that the witness could not be cross-examined, this written deposition was improperly admitted as evidence. In this unfortunate case, both medical and legal considerations are shown to be inadequate and illegal, particularly when the desperate soldier sought medical help, only to have the doctor turn prosecution witness. Then the Judge-Advocate General's department failed to quash the irregular proceedings. Sentence of death was promulgated on Sergeant Robins on New Year's day 1916, and at 8 am the following morning the execution took place on the beach at Cape Helles. *

* Sergeant Robins was executed, not at Cape Helles but 400 yards north of the Gully Ravine mouth



http://www.gallipoli.com.tr/pages/memorials_cemeteries/helles/twelve_tree_copse.htm
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C. P. Scott, letter to Arthur Balfour about the threaten introduction of military conscription (2nd January, 1916)

You know that I was honestly willing to accept compulsory military service, provided that the voluntary system had first been tried out, and had failed to supply the men needed and who could still be spared from industry, and were numerically worth troubling about. Those, I think, are not unreasonable conditions, and I thought that in the conversation I had with you last September you agreed with them. I cannot feel that they had been fulfilled, and I do feel very strongly that compulsion is now being forced upon us without proof shown of its necessity, and I resent this the more deeply because it seems to me in the nature of a breach of faith with those who, like myself - there are plenty of them - were prepared to make great sacrifices of feeling and conviction in order to maintain the national unity and secure every condition needed for winning the war.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWconscription.htm
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Arthur Wilmot Rickman

Telegram sent from Alexandria by AWR to his fiancee, 2nd January 1916.



http://www.pals.org.uk/awrickman.htm
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Garrett War Diary - JANUARY 1916

01/01/1916
Only a short trek today. Eight miles, KATATBAR. This place is the junction of a line of light railway, 2' 6"gauge with the main line.
This line goes out to out destination. Our transport came on by rail and are camped here. A.S. and I went into the village and brought bread, tomatoes, eggs for the crowd, foraged for wood. Niggers with blind eyes.
Right on the extreme edge of the desert, better than stinking dust of the Nile villages.
Woke up with an awful fright during the night - about 98 horses stampeded into our lines.

02/01/1916
Travelled through pebbly desert today, 12 miles along the railway line. No sign of life barring an occasional small bird or small deer. The only vegetation is a patch of stunted weed wherever the desert turns to sand. The desert is practically lifeless.
Arrived at a siding called VICTORIA TANK. Here there is a windmill pumping from a well to a big iron tank. There were three trucks of water waiting here for our horses.
Was on left flank today with Leiut. BARNETT . Yesterday, same flank guard with Lt. OBORN .

http://www.grantsmilitaria.com/garrett/html/jan1916.htm
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Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Bernard James Glynn

Tuesday, January 2, 1917 - 10:30 In bed writing this. Dropped a note to Mary Throat very sore wrote Mr. Moore 10PM Awfully lonely tonight. Getting my mind a little more settled. Letter from John Fry at Willison Hotel. Three of the boys who tried exams with me were killed. Burt Doran very seriously injured flying first solo at Gosport. Feeling some better.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/glynn/jan1917
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Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 2 Januari 1917.

Valkenswaard. Vrijdagavond j.l. brak er brand uit in de boerderij van den heer Van Otterdijk, bewoond door een zekere Meurkens. In een oogenblik stond stal en schuur in lichte laaie; zoodat van het vee het paard in de vlammen omkwam, terwijl het overige gered was. Door het kranig optreden bleef het woonhuis gespaard. Ook kwam nog een zekere F. B. die aldaar circa 24 vijmen haver, evie en koren benevens eene nieuwe dorschmachine had geborgen er ongelukkiger af. Van hem was n.l. niets verzekerd, terwijl van eerstgenoemde alles verzekerd was. Oorzaak onbekend.

Valkenswaard. Heden is aan den electrischen draad nabij Achel met smokkelen den jongeling W. v. Asten alhier dood gebleven. Zijn lijk is door de Duitschers van den draad verwijderd en in een huisje gelegd.

Borkel en Schaft. Zondag vergaderde alhier de leden van de eiervereeniging "St. Servatius", onder-afd. van de V. P. N., waarbij verslag werd uitgebracht van de werking der vereeniging sedert haar tien maandelijksch bestaan. Van 21 Februari tot 31 December werden aan de Roermondsche mijn geleverd 168.860 eieren, waarvoor aan de leden gemiddeld werd uitbetaald f 7,24 per 100 stuks, of ruim f 1,27 per KG. Als men weet dat het totale bedrag der opbrengst de f 12.000 nog ver te boven gaat, dan moet men zeggen dat er een heel aardig spaarpotje uit de legmand te halen is, doch om nog beter resultaten te kunnen verkrijgen, zal door den heer van der Heiden alhier een cursus worden gegeven over de pluimveehouderij.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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1917: Moordaanslag fa. Groeneveld - Amersfoortsch Dagblad, 2 januari 1917

De heer H.J. de Vries, procuratiehouder der firma Groeneveld te Winschoten, die bij den moordaanslag dier firma, door een revolverkogel in de borst werd getroffen, is zoo goed als hersteld uit het academisch ziekenhuis te Groningen teruggekeerd. Tal van ingezetenen gaven door het zenden van bloemstukken bewijs van sympathie.

http://genealogiewinschoten.nl/index.php/oud-nieuws-uit-winschoten/88-1917-moordaanslag-fa-groeneveld-
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Private John Flynn



In Grave 24, Row C, Plot I is Private John Flynn, age 42, a clerk of Woolloomooloo, Sydney who joined up in mid–1915. Flynn, a Gallipoli veteran, was killed on 2 January 1917 and in July 1917 Flynn’s father received a package from the authorities supposedly containing his son’s wallet:

… the wallet received was not the one belonging to my son … and also what has become of his watch, diary, shaving kit, knife and various other comforts he had with him … not that I place any monetary value on them but would like to have them as mementoes in memory of our dear son …
- Letter, John Flynn to Officer in Charge, Base Records, 31 July 1917, AIF Dossier, John Flynn, http://naa12.naa.gov.au/scripts/ItemDetail.asp?M=0&B=3912233

There is nothing in John Flynn’s records to suggest his wallet ever turned up.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/flers/les-cavees.html
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German Albatros DV, Souilly, France, 2 January 1918



http://www.fotosearch.com/IST520/1528185/
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GCSE History essay answering the question:
For over three years, from the end of 1914 to early 1918 there has been very little movement on the western front. Then, in 1918, there was considerable movement as first the Germans advanced, and then the allies counter attacked. Why did these changes happen so quickly?

Towards the end of the First World War there were some significant movements on the western front. These changes were affected by issues at home, internationally and on the western front itself. Some matters hold little significance on an overall scale, but each factor contributed to the changes that took place on the Western Front, such as broken stalemate must be taken into consideration. Within this essay I am going to explore the reasons for broken stalemate and Germany’s Armistice, due to emanate matters and events which took place in 1918 and the lead up to this date.

Stalemate occurred on the western front following the failure of the German’s Schlieffen plan (A scheme to invade Western Europe, and getting through the French border without being intercepted by the French army). This plot did not go to plan however, whilst going through Belgium to get to the French border they were held up by the Belgium troops giving the French waiting for them time to regroup. Furthermore stale mate occurred from late 1914 to early 1918, due to the technology, numbers and strategies of both sides on the western front. Both armies had approximately the same amount of troops and the same kind of technology and strategies. Each side kept trying to come up with different technology that would give them an advantage over the other, but nothing did that. Stalemate happened because both sides were in the same position in a never ending battle that would only change is an army took charge and tried new tactics or gained advantage.


Events within 1918 are not the only exploratory factors to bear in mind but the past proceedings which let up the measures and actions taken within 1918 also need to be considered. A great reason for the Germans to break stale mate was the advantages gained within 1918:

On the 2nd of January 1918 the Russian Bolsheviks threatened resuming war unless German troops quit Russian territory. With the Bolsheviks growing and planning to take over Russia, the Russian state was not in a key position to fight with Germany. However, Germany would not benefit from fighting a war on two fronts as she previously had been.

http://socyberty.com/history/for-over-three-years-there-was-stalemate-then-in-1918-there-was-considerable-movement-why-did-these-changes-happen-so-quickly/
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1918 Photograph of Royal Army Medical Corps England Football Team

"My great grandfather served in WW1 and was one of the lucky ones to come back home safely. I have in my possession a photograph to commemorate an international charity football match which was played between England (RAMC) and Scotland (RAMC). The match was played on 2nd January 1918 and the result was 1-1. The photograph is mounted on card and lists all the players. They were Monaghan, Bates, Moulson, Edge, Kinsella, Grice, Joseph Henry Southern, Ralphs, Lieutenant Stimson (Captain), Moorcroft and Eccleston. Others shown on the photo were their trainer (no name given), R. Rawcliff Esq, R. G. Barlow Esq and J. J. Lewis Esq. (Referee) - the photo was taken by a Blackpool photographer."





http://www.rootschat.com/forum/index.php?PHPSESSID=p8mlo41qg36k244klqq8n6s714&topic=340824.0
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Johannes Lohs, Oberleutnant zur See



Successes
76 ships sunk for a total of 147,110 GRT
1 warship sunk for a total of 1,200 tons
16 ships damaged for a total of 89,369 GRT

He entered the Kaiserliche Marine on 1 April, 1909. Had several commands as Fahnrich zur See and served from 1 October 1912 on the cruiser Strasburg on which he saw half of the world.

Saw action for the very first time on 28 August 1914 and was promoted Lt.z.S. in the autumn of 1915. Moved to the U-Bootschule and got his first U-Boat command on UC 75 of the Flandern Flottille on 17 March 1917. He took that boat on 9 patrols off the British coast.

On 2 January 1918 he became CO of the UB 57, taking over the command from another legendary U-Boat commander; Otto Steinbrinck. Lohs had also some very good ideas on U-boat warfare and new tactics and in April 1918 he received the Pour le Mérite.

On 3 August he sailed from Zeebrugge for the last time. The last contact he made with base was on the evening of the 14th, as UB 57 was homeward bound roughly in the area of the Sandiette Bank, east of the Straits of Dover. Nothing more was heard. UB 57 is believed to have hit a mine. Ships sunk on this last patrol were the Clan Mac Vey (5815 BRT), Glenlee (4915 BRT) and City of Brisbane (7094 BRT). In total, Lohs sank approximately 165.000 tons of shipping. Lohs' body washed up on shore a week later. He is buried in the military cemetery at Vlissingen.

http://www.uboat.net/wwi/men/commanders/182.html
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WACO DAILY TIMES HERALD - JANUARY 2, 1918

MAUSETH, PETER
Peter Mauseth, aged 24 years, died in the base hospital at Camp MacArthur yesterday afternoon at 4:45 o'clock as a result of pneumonia. His homeis in Frankfurt, Mich., and his mother, Mrs. Mary Mauseth, has been notified. He was a private in company F. 337th infantry. This organization is in Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Mich. and he had come to Camp MacArthur to be transferred here. He was taken off the train ill.

http://www.usgennet.org/usa/tx/county/mclennan/obits/jan1918.htm
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The New York Times, January 2, 1918

Queen Mary congratulates Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, former president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), on the suffrage win in New York.

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9E03E2DB163AE532A25751C0A9679C946996D6CF
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Distinguished Service Cross (U.S.)



The U.S. Distinguished Service Cross medal was established on 2 January 1918 by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson (and supported by AEF Commander-in-Chief John Pershing) as a means of recognising particular individual acts of heroism within the U.S. Army while under enemy fire during World War I (and which did not in itself merit the higher Medal of Honor). It was stipulated that the act of heroism involved be necessarily one deemed more than usually life threatening.

The U.S. Congress formally instituted the medal on 9 July 1918. Two designs of the medal were issued (the photograph above is of the second), produced by the U.S. Mint at Philadelphia. The first issue - comprising just 100 medals - was subsequently modified and improved in attractiveness, although the initial medals were nonetheless awarded given the pressing need for the medal among the AEF (with replacements later issued once available).

The medal was two inches in height and 1 13/16 inches in width. An eagle featured on the centre of the medal's cross, with the text 'For Valor' written underneath. The reverse of the medal bore a circular wreath and the name of the recipient.

Recipients of the DSC (as it was known) who subsequently performed additional remarkable deeds of courage could be awarded an oak leaf cluster to be worn on the medal's ribbon.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/dsc_us.htm
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SY Aurora - Ships of the Polar Explorers

On a trip from Newcastle, NSW in 1917 to Iquique Chile with a cargo of coal, the Aurora disappeared with all hands and without trace. She was posted missing at Lloyd's of London on the 2nd of January 1918, a suspected casualty of the First World War.

http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/antarctic_ships/aurora.htm
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Private R J Matthews

One of the first headstones that Jim & I photographed was for Private R J Matthews of the 13th Battalion Australian Infantry, who died on 2nd January 1918. It was a CWGC headstone but stood alongside the graves of family members in the churchyard of St Lawrence, Alvechurch, Worcestershire. He was obviously a local lad so what was he doing serving in the Australian Infantry? There were a number of explanations we could think of but none we could prove at that time; we moved on, not only to the next name on our list but a few years down the line with the project.

A few weeks ago Private Matthews entered our consciousness again. We read in one of our family history magazines that The National Archives of Australia has digitised the service records of 376,000 Australian men and women who served in the First World War and made them available online free of charge as a gift to the nation (and thereby to the world).

The Australian Imperial Force Attestation Paper for Roland John Matthews on 11th July 1916 told us that he was a carpenter by trade: presumably no coincidence then that under Distinguishing Marks it stated ‘top of left thumb missing’! But to answer our question of a few years earlier, he had most probably emigrated to Australia with his brother Frederick, or to join him there, as on enlistment he gave his brother’s address in Temora, NSW.

There followed pages of Private Matthews’ service record until he was recorded wounded in Belgium on 20th October 1917 and subsequently shipped to England, where he died in hospital at Whitstable, Kent.

But the page that surprised and interested us was the one headed ‘Burial Report Regarding Funeral of Late’. It gave everything from whether the burial was in consecrated ground, who was taking the service, undertaker’s name, condition and class of coffin (Good Polished Elm), names and addresses of those present at the funeral and the time of the event, 3.00pm.

The poignant paragraph was the Remarks of Interest to Next of Kin.

The deceased soldier was interred privately at Alvechurch Parish Churchyard, the funeral starting from the house of the Father of deceased. The remains were followed to the Church by relatives in mourning coaches. A service was conducted in the Church and at the graveside by Archdeacon Peile. A few wreaths from relatives were placed on the grave.
An oak cross will be erected by the A.I.F. London.
Administrative Headquarters, A.I.F. London, were represented at the funeral.
Dated 9th January 1918


It does not take much imagination to visualise that sad little procession on a January afternoon, ninety years ago.

All in all there were 36 pages relating to Private Matthews, only a few duplicated. We haven’t dared look at any other of the records as we haven’t time to get side-tracked again but you can check out this invaluable site at: www.naa.gov.au/whats-on/online/feature-exhibits/gift.aspx

Mooie PDF... http://www.wargravesheritage.org.uk/files/twgppnewsMay08.pdf
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News item from Jan. 2, 1918



Lees verder op http://www.shorpy.com/node/7944
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AIF: 22nd Corps Cavalry Routine Order 537, 2 January 1918



Apart from the War Diary which presents a reflected view of Regimental history, one of the best sources of understanding the immediate challenges facing a regiment is to be found in the Routine Orders. They are a wealth of detail.

In this case, the 22nd Corps Cavalry Routine Orders for 1918 have been highlighted to illustrate the tempo of this formation from the beginning of the year towards the end of the war. The aim is to illustrate the tumultuous year that followed ending in the defeat of Germany. Too little is known of the role regarding the Light Horse in the drama on the Western Front. This should address some shortfalls of information.

http://alh-research.tripod.com/Light_Horse/index.blog/1832538/22nd-corps-cavalry-routine-order-537-2-january-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EYES OF THE ARMY: The Life and Letters of World War I Aerial Observer Lt. Mortimer M. Lawrence

January 2, 1918 Western Union Telegram



Received at Beaver Dam, Wis.
2 AU HK29 NL
HT New York NY Jan 2
Mrs T D Lawrence
310 N Center
Beaver Dam, Wisc.
Your wire Monday received thank you please explain when you write all our plans upset disregard letter of Sunday bought watch today it is a dandy love to all.
Mortimer.
830 AM Jan 3rd

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/january-2-1918-western-union-telegram
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Freud to Ludwig Binswanger, January 2, 1919

Prof. Dr. Freud

Dear Dr. Binswanger,
Although I gained much satisfaction from your last two letters with their news that you are well, that your family is thriving and that your great work is making progress, I failed to reply to them. The catastrophe with its attendant tensions and worries, the general upheaval, and the anxiety about one of my sons who was missing - we have finally heard that he is a prisoner-of-war in a hospital in the Abruzzi - caused me to lose all interest in letter-writing. The New Year gives me the chance to make good this neglect. The old year will not easily be surpassed in horror. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.050.0143a
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Star - Christchurch - January 1919 - War News

Thursday 2 January 1919

Personal
LANGRIDGE - Captain J.W. who is mentioned in the latest list of returning soldiers ----- was married while on furlough towards the end of 1917

Casualty List
JONES - William Frederick, corporal (Mrs C.A.Jones, Edenvale road, Mount Eden) Auckland Infantry, now repatriated
TODD-STRACHAN - Douglas David (Hon.A.Strachan, Cardiff, Wales) Wellington Infantry, died of sickness.
COPPEN - Kerman, corporal (- Coppen, England) Entrenching Battalion
DOBSON - W.James (Mrs C.J.Dobson, Sutherland Cres, Melrose)
JENSEN - Godfrey (C.Jensen, Kilbirnie )
PAYNTER - Leslie Howard, (M.M.) corporal (C.H.Paynter, Takapau)
PRICE - Frederick Arthur (mrs T.Price, Manchester st, Christchurch)
CLARK - Charles W. (Mrs C.W.Clark, care Mrs J.Wright, Hazelhurst, S.Dunedin) repatriated
EVERETT - Earle Howard (J.T.Everett, Waireka Junction )
HORSBURGH - William (W.Horsburgh, Scotland)
JARVIS - Edward Ferguson, sergeant (Mrs M.E.Jarvis care -- Seacliff)

http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~ashleigh/War%20Snippets/1919.Jan.Star.Christchurch.War.News.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 31 Dec 2010 19:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bedfordshire Regiment in the Great War

1919 War Diary

2 Jan 1919 2/Lt. R. Humphreys [Reginald Charles HUMPHRIES] proceeded to U.K. on leave.

http://www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/4thbn/4thbtn1919diary.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 12:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Imperial Bank of Canada - Counterfeit $100 - Jan. 2, 1917





http://currency.ha.com/common/view_item.php?Sale_No=310032&Lot_No=32089
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 12:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Aloha (SP-317)


A halftone reproduction of a 1919 painting of USS Aloha at sea during World War I.

USS Aloha (SP-317) was a United States Navy patrol vessel in commission from 1917 to 1919.

(...) On the morning of 1 January 1918, while Aloha lay moored at the Norfolk Navy Yard at Portsmouth, Virginia, a fire broke out in downtown Norfolk, Virginia, which quickly spread to engulf almost two city blocks. The city's civil authorities soon requested help from the Navy, which dispatched men from Norfolk Naval Base and ships nearby. Aloha contributed 12 men under a Chief Boatswain's Mate Whalton to the efforts that ultimately succeeded in bringing the stubborn blaze under control, although not before it did $2,000,000 (USD) in damage. The civil government, fearing "incendiaries," or German agents, suggested that naval guards were required as well. Aloha sent a detachment of 15 sailors under an Ensign Hall, USNRF, on the morning of 2 January 1918 as the Navy placed Norfolk briefly under martial law in the wake of the blaze. They remained ashore only a short time before returning to their ship shortly before noon on 2 January.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Aloha_(SP-317)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RAF

The Royal Air Force can trace its beginnings to the summer of 1917, when German bombers mounted a series of air raids over London. As a result, General Jan Smuts, a distinguished South African soldier and statesman, was invited to examine the air defence of Great Britain.

An Air Council came into being on 2 January 1918 and the foundation of the RAF took effect on 1 April 1918 when the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service were absorbed into its structure. Thus, the RAF became the first truly independent air force of any major power free to fully develop all the applications of aerial warfare.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/history/perardua.cfm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 12:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EXTRACTS FROM A PRESS INTERVIEW BY TROTSKY ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, 2 January 1918

As to the principal negotiations on peace held at Brest-Litovsk, there has been a ten-day break, ending 30 December [5 January]. It is unlikely, however, that negotiations will be resumed at Brest-Litovsk. In many respects we consider it most appropriate, at the stage which the negotiations have now reached, to continue them in a neutral country.

Apart from the declarations of principles, ours and the Austro-German, and the reply of our delegation, we now also have for our consideration a more or less concrete draft of the Austro-German terms of peace with Russia. This is not a draft of a separate peace, but of those relations which, in the opinion of the Austro-German Governments, should be established between Russia on the one hand and Austria and Germany on the other, and in the event of a general peace we shall publish this document, which is only a first draft put forward by the other side, on the same day. The unacceptability of the Austro-German terms of peace is, in the opinion of the People’s Commissar, clearly evident. The point at issue is the principle of the self-determination of nations and its interpretation. The Central Powers recognized this principle in their declaration, but, in its application to Poland, Lithuania, and Courland, and parts of Livonia and Estonia, Germany and Austria-Hungary think they can give the principle of national self-determination a wholly fictitious content. Just as yesterday we recognized the independent Finnish Republic, without any compulsion, we are ready to recognize the independence of the Republics of Poland and Lithuania, the independence of Courland, or the union of these countries with other countries, on condition that any such change in frontiers or the formation of any new States is accomplished solely by the will of the peoples concerned. But the German draft peace terms in their application to Russia distort the national plebiscite into a kind of ritual, deprived of all practical content. If the diplomats on the other side think that we regard the principle enunciated in our declaration as a hollow formality, they are profoundly mistaken. We do not for a moment doubt where the sympathies of the propertied classes of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland lie. But for us the real will of these countries is expressed not by the votes of their landlords, capitalists, and bankers not, that is, by those sections of the nation which oppress the entire working people. We wish, and we demand that the question of Poland’s fate shall be decided by the Polish workers and peasants and, moreover, throughout the whole of Poland.

Our workers have more than once shed their blood together with the workers of former Tsarist Poland in the struggle against Tsarism. And if now we reject the Austro-German draft terms of peace, it is not because we want to keep Poland for Russia, but because we want the Polish people themselves to say what their political destiny is to be. In this they should be free to express their will without any compulsion or coercion. We do not for a moment doubt that this way of putting the question will win the vigorous and warm support of the workers and peasants of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland, as well as of Germany and Austria-Hungary. After this cruel and senseless slaughter, prolonged for three and a half years, slaughter in which the people have learnt so much, it is the most senseless, militaristic, and bureaucratic of Utopias to think of forcing on the Poles, Lithuanians, or Latvians, disguised as self-determination, the open or concealed dictatorship of an alien ‘conqueror’.

How ill-founded this policy is may be seen from the fact that the German press has not informed the German people of that part of our delegation’s reply in which we give our interpretation of the principle of self-determination. It is obvious that on this question German diplomacy considers it inexpedient to meet German democratic opinion face to face, since the most important details of the peace negotiations are concealed. But we do not doubt that in one way or another the truth will reach the German people and the peoples of Austria-Hungary, and that the principle of national self-determination, which we apply most scrupulously to the peoples of Russia, will find wide enough support within the frontiers of the Central Empires and make it impossible for the Governments of these States to apply the wholly intolerable interpretation to be found in the draft Austro-German terms of peace with Russia ...

In French ruling circles, as far as we are informed, they think it necessary to ‘suffer’ still another military encounter with Germany and Austria-Hungary, to repel their offensive, and then to open negotiations. It is quite clear that in the conditions in which the war is being fought on the western front a new offensive may well be a repetition, with a few changes, of all previous offensives. The front will be moved a few kilometres in one direction or the other, but the relative strength of the two sides will be little changed. The world will simply be poorer by some hundreds of thousands of Frenchmen and Germans. After this the ‘psychological’ conditions for peace negotiations should have become more favourable. This superstition of the French ruling circles is a highly typical trait. What it amounts to in the end is putting off as long as possible the terrible day of reckoning.

Our task is clear; we shall continue the negotiations on the basis of the principles proclaimed by the Russian revolution. We shall do all we can to bring the results of these negotiations to the notice of the popular masses of all European countries, despite the truly humiliating censorship which the European Governments have imposed on military and diplomatic communications. We do not doubt that the negotiations themselves will make us stronger, and the imperialist Governments of all countries weaker.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/commissar/gov.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 12:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

History of Lithuania

Ideas of Baltic national autonomy and independence had been voiced during the 1905 Russian revolution, but it was not until 1918 that the restoration of the Independent State of Lithuania was declared. During WWI Lithuania was occupied by Germany and it was while still under German occupation on 16 February 1918 that a Lithuanian national council, the Taryba, declared independence in Vilnius in the House of Signatories, open to visitors today. In November Germany surrendered to the Western Allies, and the same day a Lithuanian republican government was set up.

With the re-emergence of an independent Poland eager to see Lithuania reunited with it or cede it the Vilnius area, which had a heavily Polish and/or Polonised population, things turned nasty. On 31 December 1918 the Lithuanian government fled to Kaunas, and days later the Red Army installed a communist government in Vilnius. Polish troops drove the Red Army out on 2 January 1919, only for the Red Army to recapture it three days later. The Poles hit back on 19 April, but were again thwarted. Following the Peace Conference of Paris on 1 June 1919, Lithuanian independence was recognised, and on 15 May 1920 the first parliament met in Kaunas at the State Theatre Palace (today the Kaunas Musical Theatre). But on 9 October 1920 the Poles occupied Vilnius for a third time and on 10 October 1920 annexed the city once and for all.

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/lithuania/history
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

La Vanguardia, 02 enero 1919

http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.es/edition.html?bd=02&bm=01&by=1919&ed=&em=&ey=
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beveridge and the Inter-Allied Commission on Relief of German Austria

William Beveridge’s “Diary of visit to Vienna, Prag and Buda Pesth, December, 1918-January, 1919″ (Beveridge/11/1) has been digitised and is now available for downloading as a pdf (18MB): http://lib-161.lse.ac.uk/archives/beveridge/11_1.pdf . The diary relates to his involvement as a British delegate of the Inter-Allied Commission on Relief of German Austria.

Since December 1916, William Beveridge had been a civil servant at the Ministry of Food, working on food control within the UK. This diary commences on Friday 20 December 1918, when Beveridge agreed to be one of the British delegates of the Inter-Allied Commission. He started his travels the following day.

The diary includes personal details, such as Beveridge’s travel arrangements, accommodation, meals, etc. – he seems particularly interested in the dice game, “craps”.

However, the document also gives an insight into the Commission itself. At times it appears rather chaotic, although that is not surprising since it is working within just a few months of the end of the First World War. One of the main problems related to the fact that there wasn’t a common language which all the delegates could speak (the Mission consisted of delegates from the UK, America, Italy and France).

The diary contains details about Beveridge’s fellow delegates and the people he met. He also provides outline details of some of the meetings themselves. His first meeting with the Austrian representatives (”the enemy”) occurred in Berne on Christmas Eve 1918:

“Introduction was an odd business in which we partly bowed and partly shook hands”. They were, “Altogether as sad men as ever I have seen… I am ashamed before them as ever I used to be at going to interview beggars at the door at Toynbee [Hall]” (pp 4-5).

The Commission arrived in Vienna on 2 January 1919 and, following a few days of meetings, the group viewed some markets in the city:

“We went first to the meat market where there was a certain quantity of unpleasant meat hanging about and a fair crowd of people buying. Many of the stalls were quite empty. At others there were fairly long queues (these were for pig’s eye-pieces, offals, and other unrationed kinds of meat)” (p.19).

The Commission also visited Prague and Budapest to find out if food supplies could be obtained from Czechoslovakia or Hungary. However, it seems the situation was poor in those countries too. One of the people Beveridge met in Hungary was the President, [Mihaly] Karolyi. He wanted to discuss political matters, wheras the Commission was authorised to deal only with food.

“Karolyi found it difficult to understand the statement that the war was not yet ended, except as a piece of pedantry. Hungary had disbanded her Army and clearly could not fight again. I found myself explaining to him and others as tactfully as possible that I did not think that the Entente had any particular dislike for Hungary or any deliberate intention to harm in leaving them so long unnoticed: the Entente Governments had many more important things to think about than the fate of 10,000,000 people in Hungary, and Hungary must wait her turn for political attention. Meanwhile our sole business was food.” (9 January 1919, pp.32-33).

The diary is a good introduction to the workings of the Commission, but other sources need to be used for details. In all, there are seven boxes of material in the Beveridge collection relating to Austria and central Europe, 1918-21 (Beveridge/11/1-19). These haven’t yet been listed in detail, but include Beveridge’s report on the Commission, other official memoranda, correspondence, notes and photographs. It also contains Beveridge’s pamphlet, “Peace in Austria: a study of social and industrial conditions with a programme for re-construction based on a personal visit to Austria” (Fight the Famine Council, 1920).

http://lib-1.lse.ac.uk/archivesblog/?cat=14
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World Aviation in 1919

2 January - Major General C.T. Menoher is appointed the United States Director of Air Service

http://www.century-of-flight.net/Aviation%20history/aviation%20timeline/1919.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 15 december 1916
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

De Armeniërs

LONDON, 1 Januari. (Reuter.) De Times bevat het verslag van de getuigenis van twee Muzelmannen, die van den moord op de Armeniërs getuige zijn geweest.

In Juni 1915, zoo verklaart een van hen, heb ik in de voorsteden van Moesj tallooze lijken van Armeniërs gezien, zoowel van mannen als vrouwen. Sommige waren doodgeschoten, anderen doorstoken en bijna allen waren op afschuwelijke wijze verminkt. Vrouwen waren van alle kleeren ontdaan. Ik heb 500 vrouwen en kinderen gezien in een kamp bij Bitlis. De gendarmes, die hen bewaakten, zeiden dat de gevangenen gedeporteerd moesten worden, maar dat zij bevel hadden, hen onderweg door benden Koerden te laten vermoorden.

Bij Zaart zag ik ongeveer 15,000 lijken in twee ravijnen liggen.

De Armenische bisschop van Zaart was op zijn verzoek in een naburigen kelder doodgeschoten. Bij Moesj zag ik, hoe gendarmes brandende toortsen wierpen in een stal, waar 500 Armeniërs opgesloten waren. Allen zijn levend verbrand. Te moesj werd iedere Armeniër, die zich op straat vertoonde, omgebracht. Niemand werd gespaard, zelfs geen ouden van dagen of gebrekkigen.

Tusschen Hinis en Sjerkiskend waren twee kuilen vol lijken. Een andere kuil was vol met kinderlijken. Te Karasjoeban dreven ontelbare lijken op de rivier de Moerad.

Te Erzindzjan werden duizenden Armeniërs in den Euphraat geworpen. Velen wierpen zich erin, om aan een vreeselijker dood te ontkomen.

Een fetwa van den Sjeich ul Islam, die vergezeld was van een iradé, verklaarde dat de Armeniërs het bloed van de Muzelmannen vergoten hadden en het dus gewettigd was, hen te dooden. Vrouwen en kinderen werden aangevallen en geschonden en vermoord door georganiseerde benden.

Te Trebizonde werden kinderen, die onder bescherming van den Amerikaanschen consul stonden, weggevoerd en in booten geworpen. Zij werden vermoord of in zakken gestopt, die in zee geworpen werden.

Te Kamasj dwong een bende Koerden de bewakers van een konvooi Armeniërs om heen te gaan en daarna werden alle Armeniërs vermoord en hun lijken in den Euphraat geworpen.

Te Trebizonde werden alle Muzelmannen verwittigd dat zij des doods schuldig waren, als zij aan de Armeniërs onderkomen verschaften. De Turksche ambtenaren zochten de mooiste vrouwen uit, schonden haar en vermoordden haar daarna.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-2-1-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Normandy in Surrey - Normandy in the Press

1915 January 2nd - Surrey Advertiser
Wyke and Normandy School concert - Headmaster retirement


Enjoyable concerts were given last week by the children of Wyke School. The programme included songs, recitations and sketches, and although everything was exceeding good, the performance of the infants and the singing of the senior children deserve special mention. The Headmaster (Mr Blaber) Announced that the proceeds amounted to £3 1s 6d, which would be handed over to the Belgian Fund. Mr Blaber also stated that this would be his last school concert, as after serving for sixteen years in Wyke he would in a few months be leaving the profession.
At the conclusion of Mr Blaber's remarks, three hearty cheers were called for him by Sgt G Bonham of the Queens, an old Wyke Schoolboy, who spoke of the regret that would be felt in the village, at the news of Mr Blaber's departure, and expressed a wish that a new master would be found as good as the old one. The cheers were very heartily given, and Mr Blaber having thanked the audience, the National Anthem brought the proceedings to a close.

http://normandyhistorians.co.uk/press5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dear Bess: Love Letters from the President


January 1915, Page 1

These letters highlight the personal relationship between Harry and Bess Truman as illustrated in almost 50 years of handwritten personal letters. This online exhibition includes scans of original letters from the Library's collections. The letters not only show the personal loving relationship between Harry and Bess, but the President's efforts to use his wife as a sounding board for the issues of state.

Lees verder op http://www.trumanlibrary.org/bessltr.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Jan 2011 13:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Turkey in the First World War - Chronology

1915

2 January: Lieutenant Colonel Süleyman Askeri Bey assumes the Iraq Area Command and the Governorship of Baghdad.

2 January: Russians launch a counter-offensive against the Turkish Third Army in the Caucasus.

http://www.turkeyswar.com/chronology/chronology.htm
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