Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

9 December

 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Dec 2005 6:56    Onderwerp: 9 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 9

1917 Jerusalem surrenders to British troops


On the morning of this day in 1917, after Turkish troops move out of the region after only a single day’s fighting, officials of the Holy City of Jerusalem offer the keys to the city to encroaching British troops.

The British, led by General Edmund Allenby, who had arrived from the Western Front the previous June to take over the command in Egypt, entered the Holy City two days later under strict instructions from London on how not to appear disrespectful to the city, its people, or its traditions. Allenby entered Jerusalem on foot—in deliberate contrast to Kaiser Wilhelm’s more flamboyant entrance on horseback in 1898—and no Allied flags were flown over the city, while Muslim troops from India were dispatched to guard the religious landmark the Dome of the Rock.

In a proclamation declaring martial law that was read aloud to the city’s people in English, French, Arabic, Hebrew, Russian and Greek, Allenby assured them that the occupying power would not inflict further harm on Jerusalem, its inhabitants, or its holy places. “Since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people, I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or customary place of prayer…will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred.”

Church bells in Rome and London rang to celebrate the peaceful British arrival in Jerusalem. Allenby’s success, after so much discouragement on the Western Front, elated and inspired Allied supporters everywhere.

http://www.historychannel.com/
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Von Kluck



Geregistreerd op: 24-9-2005
Berichten: 119

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Dec 2005 13:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:



Neuer Kampf mit den Russen an der Miazga
Großes Hauptquartier, 9. Dezember, vormittags.
Westlich Reims mußte die Pêcherie-Ferme, obgleich auf ihr die Genfer Flagge wehte, von unseren Truppen in Brand geschossen werden, weil dort durch Fliegerphotographie einwandfrei festgestellt war, daß sich dicht hinter der Ferme eine französische schwere Batterie verbarg.
Französische Angriffe in der Gegend von Souain und gegen die Orte Varennes und Vauquois am östlichen Argonnenrande wurden unter Verlusten für den Gegner zurückgeworfen. Im Argonnenwalde selbst wurde an verschiedenen Stellen Boden gewonnen; dabei machten wir eine Anzahl Gefangene.
Bei den gestern gemeldeten Kämpfen nördlich Nancy hatten die Franzosen starke Verluste. Unsere Verluste sind verhältnismäßig gering.
Aus Ostpreußen liegen keine neueren Nachrichten vor.
In Nordpolen stehen unsere Truppen in enger Fühlung mit den Russen, die in einer stark befestigten Stellung westlich der Miazga Halt gemacht haben. Um Lowicz wird weiter gekämpft.
In Südpolen haben österreichisch-ungarische und unsere Truppen Schulter an Schulter erneut erfolgreich angegriffen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)

Verder 1914: http://www.stahlgewitter.com/14_12_09.htm

1915: http://www.stahlgewitter.com/15_12_09.htm

1916: http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_12_09.htm

1917: http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_12_09.htm

Alle Duitse, Oosterrijkse en soms ook Engelse Legerberichten:

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/site_map.htm
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Hauptmann



Geregistreerd op: 17-2-2005
Berichten: 11547

BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Dec 2005 21:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 december 1914
Servië

Servische soldaten heroveren Lazarevac en Uzice. Generaal Potiorek kondigt een algehele terugtrekking af.

Bron: The Almanac of World War I
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 11:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H.M.S. Kent

KIND, WALTER JAMES. Private, PO/15049.
Royal Marine Light Infantry.
Died Wednesday 9 December 1914.
Born Leicester, Leicestershire.
Son of James and Mary A. Kind (née Makin).
Buried Stanley Cemetery, Falkland Islands. Grave Ref: I. 783.
Walter was one of the ships six inch gun's crew in A.3 casemate. He was very
seriously burnt about the head, face, trunk and limbs. He was put to bed in the
sick bay. Picric acid dressings were applied and morphia administered, but he
died of shock at 1500 hours on Wednesday 9 December.

DUCKETT, GEORGE ALFRED. Officer's Steward 1st Class, L/2428.
Royal Navy.
Died Wednesday 9 December 1914. Aged 21.
Born Brixton, London 22 October 1893.
Son of Alfred and Isabel E. Duckett of 4, Tasman Road, Stockwell, London.
Buried Stanley Cemetery, Falkland Islands. Grave Ref: I. 783.
George was working as one of the ambulance party in A.3 casemate. He was
very severely burnt about the head, face, trunk and limbs. He was conveyed to
the Sick Bay. Picric acid dressings were applied and morphia administered. He
died from shock at 2155 hours on Wednesday 9 December.

http://www.kentfallen.com/PDF%20REPORTS/CANTERBURY%20HMS%20KENT%201914.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 11:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth APPLETON O.B.E. R.R.C. - Early letters - 1914 and 1915

9 December 1914 - This letter is sent from No 10 Stationary Hospital which was based at St Omer from October 1914 until May 1918.

No. 10 Stationary Hospital.
9th December 1914.

My dearest Mother,
I have just received a letter from you dated November 19th but it was
addressed to No. 14 General – so has taken longer to come. You have made
lovely things for the Tommies, I thought perhaps you gave them first hand,
but as you don't would you like to send them to me? I could always give
them to very deserving cases and toll you about them – if you like. In fact it
would be lovely often to give the men before they leave here – we don't get
nearly as much Red Cross stuff here as we did at Boulogne. We had two
very sad cases in three days ago, two mechanics of the Flying Corps came
in with carbon poisoning, they were billeted the night before in a place
where there was a charcoal stove, had made up a good fire, and slept with
no door or window open. An Officer passing next morning hoard groans
and found them, one died last night, and the other is still in a heavy sleep.
It seems rather pathetic, I suppose they thought they would have a
thoroughly warm night – went to sleep and never woke. I did receive the
Keatings from Hilda which I and my Orderlies were all very glad of. She
has since them sent me some books and warm underclothing. She is a kind
old thing. I was very grateful for all of them. A new order came from Head
Quarters the other day that we were all to provide ourselves with winter
kit, which is a grey dress terribly thick, long grey coat, and grey felt hat. I
ordered mine yesterday. Our only hope is, they will be decently made; my
last uniform was horribly badly done. This is me sitting in my little duty
room writing to you, and by the way, I am re-writing. I had written a whole
both-sides sheet but on reading it I had said things the Censor might not
have allowed, so as it would mean much cutting out I have torn it up. Work
is quiet again for the moment, I have been told. Scholbred, the M. O. has
just been round. He says they have been drinking the Kaiser's health
because they hear he has pneumonia and a nervous breakdown and that
three cruisers have been sunk in the Pacific, so one way and another there
seems to be plenty to drink his health for. The Chaplain has re-opened the
Chapel, it is joined to the College, just opens out of the passage like an
ordinary room, it is a pretty little place with beautiful stained windows. He
wants me to work some of the cloths for him, which I will with pleasure, if I
have time. We have been having a lot of rain, we just squelch here in gum
boots at night. Thank you very much for ordering the things from
Newbery. They came last night. Thank you for ordering soap. I had no idea
what a luxury it was before. It is sad that the Bordon men have been cut up
so badly; it seems most regiments have, they all tell the same tale. I expect
I shall finish this in the morning, as I have a job or two to do now. Most of
our conversation to-night has been what we should do if we had five days
leave, only of course, we shan't have it, but some of the men are getting it.
14th Dec. Somehow this never did get finished and to-night I have received
another letter and parcel from you. Thank you very much indeed for the
pretty card and handkerchief and those gloves are just – – the – – thing.
Thank you very much indeed for them, won't they look nice with my new
coat. If you are still with Amy will you give her my love, and thank her
very much for her letter and Olive for hers and Olive and Dorothy for the
handkerchiefs which will be most useful in the wards. I know I shan't have
time to write any more letters, so will you very kindly thank dear old Lil
very much indeed for the big picture paper she sent me, and tell her it is
not done with yet by the men, and if you are writing to Fred please thank
him very much for the little book which I shall find useful and for the
poem, a very sweet one I passed on to the other Sisters to read and will
give to some of the men. Poor old Bud, I am afraid the rough life is trying a
great many who are not used to it. Thanking you for all things again the
same thought seems to have struck us both about mufflers etc. they would
go to deserving cases, I promise you.
Your loving daughter,
Edie.
P.S. I went to church last night at the Garrison Church and had a most
delightful service, the place was over-full of Officers and men and just three
of the nurses. Singing was splendid and they sang God save the King, after
the last hymn. One of the regular chaplains took the service and preached
a very sound sermon. It was the first English service I had been to since
Boulogne.
E.
I made myself a laughing-stock last night. Coming home from Church I said
I supposed the Chaplain was the Flying Corps Chaplain because he had F. C.
on his stoles. They said they supposed in a way it was a Flying Corps but
the F. C. meant chaplain of the Forces.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/EarlyLetters/Letter19141209_transcript.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Illustrated War News of 9 December 1914

HMS Audacious - the 13.5in guns



http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_HMS_Audacious.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diamond Mine Accident - December 9, 1914 - Scranton, Pennsylvania
Jeffrey L. Thomas

(...) One of the worst disasters in Scranton's long mining history occurred on December 9th, 1914 in the D. L. & W.'s Diamond mine. In that accident, thirteen men died when the cage or carriage carrying the men to the bottom of the shaft broke apart. Thirteen of the fourteen men in the cage fell several hundred feet to their deaths, some of the bodies being so badly mangled that identification proved difficult. There was one survivor who managed to cling to the side of the carriage until rescued. (...)

Les verder op http://www.thomasgenweb.com/diamond_mine_1914_accident.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Teachers

On 9th December, 1914, the war minister, Lord Kitchener, instructed headteachers not to let teachers join up if this would impair the work of their schools.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWmalloryG.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Sándor Ferenczi to Sigmund Freud, December 9, 1914

Pápa, December 9, 1914

Dear Professor,

The external reason for the—internally determined—long silence was this time a rather serious cold, which I contracted during night maneuvers—which I participated in without being asked. Now I am again very well. The work relating to my transfer won't make any speedier progress than that of the Germans in the Argonne;1 mines have still been laid, although some have exploded without effect. (A year ago this military mode of expression would have been nonsensical. I fear that the entire intellectual life of Europe will be dominated by the war for years—even if peace is made earlier.) (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.026.0034a
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French armoured Baby Holt experiment at Sauain, 9 December 1915



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_armoured_Baby_Holt_experiment_at_Sauain_9_December_1915.jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

9 December 1915 - By this date the Anzac garrison had been reduced to 36,000 men. Between 9 and 18 December a gradual evacuation, mainly at night, of a further 16,000 troops and equipment from Anzac took place.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/december-1915.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS G-3 (Submarine # 31, later SS-31)



Hauled out of the water at the Lake Torpedo Boat Company shipyard, Bridgeport, Connecticut, 9 December 1915.

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-g/ss31.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

9 december 1915 - De onderwijzer van de vluchtelingenkinderen, Isidorus Claes, zou TBC hebben en kon niet afreizen naar het consulaat in Tilburg. Hij werd in de schoolklas vervangen door zijn zus Virginie. Mejuffrouw Virginie Claes gaf in Baarle-Hertog gemeentelijk onderwijs aan veertig vluchtelingen-kinderen. Zij verdiende daarmee 60 frank per maand. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188%3A06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90%3Aoorlog&Itemid=118
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A History Of Chemical Warfare

On 9 December 1915, with the winds again in their favor, the Germans launched another gas attack on the Allied lines, this time against the British at Ypres in Belgium. The Germans used chlorine and a new gas, "phosgene". It was said to have the smell of "new-mown hay".

Phosgene was another industrial chemical by-product that Fritz Haber and his institute had evaluated as a poison gas. Phosgene had a specific destructive interaction with lung tissue, turning to hydrochloric acid when it came into contact with water, and its lethal concentration was only an eighteenth that of chlorine. Its action was subtle and deadly. A soldier who inhaled a lethal dose of phosgene would feel some irritation at first, and then feel fine for a day or two. In many cases, men would simply shrug off the gas attack as inconsequential, or hardly notice they had been gassed. Then the linings of their lungs would break down, and as with chlorine gas they would drown in their own lung fluids, coughing up a watery stream until they could choked and drowned. There is a story of a German prisoner who had been gassed with phosgene and mocked his captors for the ineffectiveness of their gases. He was dead within 24 hours.

Fortunately, the British had realized the summer before that phosgene might be used as a poison gas and were prepared for it. They had developed the improved "P Helmet", with better impregnation and a rubber exhaust tube. Nine million P Helmets had been issued by December, and managed to limit Allied casualties.

The British were quick to adopt phosgene themselves. In June 1916, during the battle of the Somme, they poured out a huge cloud of phosgene and chlorine gas along a 27 kilometer (17 mile) front. The cloud penetrated up to 19 kilometers (12 miles) behind German lines, killing everything unprotected. The British became particularly fond of phosgene.

http://www.vectorsite.net/twgas_1.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 17:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leighton, Roland, Letter, 9 December 1915



Lees verder op http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/leighton-roland-letter-9-december-1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alabama Staats-Zeitung, 9 December 1916



http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/ww1/lesson1/doc03p1.html via http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/ww1/lesson1/index.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In Memoriam - The Last Anzacs
(Text of eulogy quoted with ermission of the ress Office, Governor General of Australia, December, 1997.)

Albert Edward Matthews. Born 11 November 1896, landed on Gallioli 25 Aril 1915, served there until 19 December 1915; Died 9 December 1997.

The Governor-General of Australia, Sir William Deane delivered this tribute at the State funeral of Ted Matthews, the last of the Australians to land at Gallioli on Aril 25, 1915.

Ted Matthews was the last surviving Australian of the aroximately 16,000 men of the Australian and New Zealand Armed Cors who landed at what is now Anzac Cove on that fateful day more than 82 years ago.

This is truly a time for reflection about our country's first Anzacs and about what the loss of the last of them means to us all.

The national significance of that loss is difficult to articulate. That is because it's imossible to adequately exress all that we mean and feel when we invoke or commemorate the events of that day when the first ANZACs landed at Gallioli.

It is, as Manning Clark wrote, "something too dee for words". It stretches out to encomass not only the sacrifice of those first Anzacs but of all who have fought in our forces - in the following days and months at Gallioli or on other battle fields of the First World War, in the Second World War, in Korea, in Vietnam and in other laces.

It is about the sirit, the deth, the meaning, the very essence of our nation. And it is about sadness and grief for young lives cut short and dreams left unfulfilled. And horror at the carnage of war.

Throughout his life, Ted Matthews was to say that the main urose of Anzac Day was to remind us of the evils of war. And in saying that he would recall that he had almost been one of the first casualties: only a thick ocket-book which his mother had given him saved him when he was struck in the chest by a iece of shranel.

Ted Matthews would also say that he was not one of the real heroes. He was a signaller and the infantry, he said, had the worst of it.

Yet he was there at Gallioli, without resite, for the whole duration of the stalemate: through the heat, and the flies, and the stench of death, and disease, and attack, and counter-attack, and the cold as winter drew on. And the bonds which transcended and transcend individual mortality were forged between those men and the soul of our nation.

For Anzac is also about courage, and endurance, and duty, and mateshi, and good humour, and the survival of a sense of self-worth: the sum of those human and national values which our ioneers found in the raw bush of a new world and tested in the old world for the first time at Gallioli.

They were not found wanting, not even in the face of overwhelming odds and the final realisation of the inevitability of failure. The significance of Anzac to our nation was aarent at the time. The official war historian, Charles Bean, observed that for eight months the "most intense feelings" of all Australians and New Zealanders were "tied to those few acres of Turkish hillside".

Indeed, when the first Anzac Day commemoration was held in 1916 - a day of rofound solemnity and national sorrow - the news journals wrote that "the rice of nationhood must be aid in blood and tears". And so it has been.

But not all was failure. One triumh of initiative and daring of the Gallioli camaign was the manner in which it ended: 80,000 men were evacuated from Anzac Cove, as later were the British troos from Cae Helles, with a mere handful of casualties. Before the Turkish Army was even aware of it, the forces had gone.

Yet leaving was for many of the Anzacs the greatest tragedy of all since it meant leaving their dead mates buried in an alien land so far from home. One of the dearting diggers exressed it well:

Not only muffled is our tread
To cheat the foe,
We fear to rouse our honoured dead
To heal us go.
Slee sound, old friends - the keenest smart
Which, more than failure, wounds the heart,
Is thus to leave you - thus to art.

Obviously, that young-soldier oet could not have foreseen that, more than 80 years on, thousands of Australians, many of them young Australians carrying backacks, would each year return to visit with those "honoured dead" and to watch another dawn break over Anzac Cove.

Ted Matthews had been among the last of the Australians to go, leaving on the night of December 19, 1915. He was therefore at Gallioli from the beginning until the very end, and his assing marks a final break in a living thread that united us Australians with the comlete Anzac eic.

But, the legacies of valour and of national identity and sentiment left by him and his comanions outlive them and will outlive all of us.

With Ted's death, the first Anzacs have now all gone. Yet "their sirit walks abroad". To insire and sustain our nation for so long as it exists and listens to the whisers of those things "too dee for words" that are heard by all who have true love of our country and its eole in their hearts.

Truly, he was the quintessential Australian. May he rest with God.


http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/In_Memoriam_-_The_Last_Anzacs
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Man Playing Santa by Norman Rockwell



December 9, 1916 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post

This was Rockwell's sixth Post cover. It was also his first Post cover with a Christmas theme, specifically Santa Claus. (...)

Surely, this painting reminded the children to be on their best behavior for at least three more weeks. Being nice instead of naughty for three weeks was possible for most children. Christmas was almost there!

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-saturday-evening-post-cover-12-9-1916-christmas.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Airco D.H.5

(...) After these early tests the prototype was armed with a single Vickers gun on an unusual mounting. Normally it was synchronized to fire through the propeller, but it could also be moved up by 60 degrees to fire at targets above the aircraft. The modified aircraft began tests at the Central Flying School on 9 December 1916, and was judged to be a success, with good controls and stability. The only flaw mentioned was a poor rear view. (...)

Rickard, J (1 April 2009), Airco D.H.5 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_airco_DH5.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Cabinet Papers 1915-1978

In December 1916 the new British prime minister, David Lloyd George, sought to overcome the problems of waging the First World War through an unwieldy Cabinet by establishing a smaller, streamlined mechanism, the War Cabinet. He also set up a secretariat, the cabinet office, which would be overseen by the cabinet secretary, Maurice Hankey, and his deputy, Tom Jones. On 9 December 1916 Jones took the notes for the first ever Cabinet minutes.(1) Thereafter, there would be typed (and later printed) agendas, minutes of meetings and memoranda for discussion at each Cabinet. Despite the resistance of other parts of Whitehall, and Sir Warren Fisher’s treasury in particular, the Cabinet Office survived the fall of Lloyd George from power in 1922 and continues to this day.

Lees verder op http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/828#t1
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'The War Illustrated', 9th December, 1916



'Creme de Menthe' - one of the first British tanks in action

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Tanks/Cruising_01.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 December 1917: General Allenby Captures Jerusalem



http://tofindtheprinciples.blogspot.com/2009/12/9-december-1917-general-allenby.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home



Letter dated December 9, 1917

Dear Mother -:

I have moved again and am I am glad to say now in a more comfortable place. I was transferred to the battalion staff and am now learning all about communications to and from artillery of every known form. It is a good job tho I imagine one that every one in the regiment finds fault with and has the added advantage of being if anything safer than being with the batteries themselves.

The army regulations, however, require that every officer make out a will so if you receive any notification of same don’t think that I am in any new danger or beginning to think I am. It is simply a rule. I made Carroll the beneficiary since all it is for is the personal effects I have with me at the time and six months pay.

I think the packages you have sent me must have arrived in France as I have had two notifications from Morgan Harjes of packages and have told them to forward them. It was great of you to send me the things and I can’t thank you enough for it must have been a fearful bother getting them off let alone that of getting the things together. Thank you all ever so much again and again. I only hope I get them for Christmas for the army I have discovered is like in one respect the mills of the gods; as to its fineness I haven’t yet determined but I am hoping for the best.

There is something funny I have never remembered to tell you. You don’t of course remember Reggie Windham. Well, I knew him years ago when we were at Swampscott. Then I knew him again at Manlius. Then he was at St. Paul’s with me tho a couple of classes above. Then he came to Auburn for a house party of Elizabeth’s. Well, the first person I met in Paris in the ambulance was Reg. He went out tho with another section and I lost him for six months. Then I met him again when we were taking our exams for the artillery. When finally I was assigned to a regiment, who is the first person I meet again but Reg, big as life and twice as natural, and now to cap the climax when I am transferred here who turns up directly after me but Reg. Isn’t that the strangest string of coincidence you ever heard of.

I received some cigarettes two days ago from Carolyn and have written her it was great of her to send them and to make it better they were perfectly wonderful cigarettes. I don’t exactly see why she sent them to me except that you had had her to dinner and made a wonderful hit (she couldn’t pay you enough compliments) But nevertheless it was wonderful of her and I give you a great deal of the credit. This is a rotten letter for I can’t seem to concentrate and write at all tonight but I will try to do better the next chance I get which will be soon for my new job is one of the gentleman’s type with short hours and late rising. This is all now. Goodbye with love, Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/06/letter-dated-december-9-1917.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 08 Dec 2010 18:36, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sir Edmund Allenby on the Fall of Jerusalem, 9 December 1917



The date for the attack on Jerusalem was fixed as December 8th.

Welsh troops, with a cavalry regiment attached, had advanced from their positions north of Beersheba up the Hebron-Jerusalem road on the 4th. No opposition was met, and by the evening of the 6th the head of this column was ten miles north of Hebron.

The infantry were directed to reach the Bethlehem-Befit Jala area by the 7th, and the line Surbahir-Sherafat (about three miles south of Jerusalem) by dawn on the 8th, and no troops were to enter Jerusalem during this operation.

It was recognized that the troops on the extreme right might be delayed on the 7th and fail to reach the positions assigned to them by dawn on the 8th. Arrangements were therefore made to protect the right flank west of Jerusalem, in case such delay occurred.

On the 7th the weather broke, and for three days rain was almost continuous. The hills were covered with mist at frequent intervals, rendering observation from the air and visual signalling impossible.

A more serious effect of the rain was to jeopardize the supply arrangements by rendering the roads almost impassable - quite impassable, indeed, for mechanical transport and camels in many places.

The troops moved into positions of assembly by night, and, assaulting at dawn on the 8th, soon carried their first objectives. They then pressed steadily forward. T he mere physical difficulty of climbing the steep and rocky hillsides and crossing the deep valleys would have sufficed to render progress slow, and the opposition encountered was considerable.

Artillery support was soon difficult, owing to the length of the advance and the difficulty of moving guns forward. But by about noon London troops had already advanced over two miles, and were swinging northeast to gain the Nablus-Jerusalem road, while the yeomanry had captured the Beit Iksa spur, and were preparing for a further advance.

As the right column had been delayed and was still some distance south of Jerusalem, it was necessary for the London troops to throw back their right and form a defensive flank facing east toward Jerusalem, from the western outskirts of which considerable rifle and artillery fire was being experienced.

This delayed the advance, and early in the afternoon it was decided to consolidate the line gained and resume the advance next day, when the right column would be in a position to exert its pressure.

By nightfall our line ran from Neby Samwil to the east of Beit Iksa, through Lifta to point about one and a half miles west of Jerusalem, whence it was thrown back facing east. All the enemy's prepared defences west and northwest of Jerusalem had been captured, and our troops were within a short distance of the Nablus-Jerusalem road.

The London troops and yeomanry had displayed great endurance in difficult conditions. The London troops especially, after a night march in heavy rain to reach their positions of deployment, had made an advance of three to four miles in difficult hills in the face of stubborn opposition.

During the day about 300 prisoners were taken and many Turks killed. Our own casualties were light.

Next morning the advance was resumed. The Turks had withdrawn during the night, and the London troops and yeomanry, driving back rearguards, occupied a line across the Nablus-Jerusalem road four miles north of Jerusalem, while Welsh troops occupied a position east of Jerusalem across the Jericho road.

These operations isolated Jerusalem, and at about noon the enemy sent out a parlementaire and surrendered the city.

In the operations from October 31st to December 9th over 12,000 prisoners were taken. The total captures of material have not yet been fully counted, owing to the large area covered by these operations; but are known to include about 100 guns of various calibres, many machine guns, more than 20,000,000 rounds of rifle ammunition, and 250,000 rounds of gun ammunition.

More than twenty airplanes were destroyed by our airmen or burned by the enemy to avoid capture.

I entered the city officially at noon, December 11th, with a few of my staff, the commanders of the French and Italian detachments, the heads of the political missions, and the Military Attaches of France, Italy, and America.

The procession was all afoot, and at Jaffa gate I was received by the guards representing England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, India, France, and Italy. The population received me well.

Guards have been placed over the holy places. My Military Governor is in contact with the acting custodians and the Latin and Greek representatives. The Governor has detailed an officer to supervise the holy places.

The Mosque of Omar and the area around it have been placed under Mostlem control, and a military cordon of Mohammedan officers and soldiers has been established around the mosque.

Orders have been issued that no non-Muslim is to pass within the cordon without permission of the Military Governor and the Muslim in charge.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.isracast.com/article.aspx?id=763
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE TRUCE OF FOCSANI, BETWEEN ROUMANIA AND THE CENTRAL POWERS. SIGNED AT FOCSANI, 9 DECEMBER, 1917.

This truce is referred to in the preamble of the preliminary treaty of peace of 5 March, 1918, as having been denounced on 2 March, 1918, and as having expired at noon on 5 March, 1918. The text is not available, though it seems to have been published in the Romania, 12 December, 1917. It dated from 10:30 p. m. of 9 December, and was terminable on 72 hours' notice. It was said to have been necessitated by the suspension of hostilities on the Russian front. The continuance of the truce was probably conditioned upon the situation on the Russian front in some way, though it is not possible to state the terms of the condition from the confused accounts which were published at the time. The negotiations seem to have been conducted by the German, Austro-Hungarian, Roumanian and Russian military commands. Gen. Stcherbotcheff, who represented the Roumanians, seems to have made an effort to exact an agreement that the forces opposing the Roumanians would not be transported to any other front during the continuance of the truce, and numerous statements have been made that such an agreement was concluded. The line of front covered by the truce seems to have extended from the Dniester to the mouth of the Danube.1

1. See New York Times, 11 December, 1917; London Times, 13 December, 1917.

http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/focsani.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Austro-German Report on the Fall of Jerusalem, 9 December 1917

Reproduced below is an excerpt from the official German/Austro-Hungarian report into the British capture of Jerusalem overseen by Sir Edmund Allenby on 9 December 1917. Bodart summarised the events leading to Allenby's capture of the historic city and correctly noted that "the moral significance of this event was even greater than its military importance".

In taking Jerusalem Allenby had exceeded British Prime Minister David Lloyd George's instructions to ensure the city's fall by Christmas. The capture of Jerusalem proved a notable morale booster to the Entente Powers in rounding off what was generally regarded as a difficult year.

Official Report by Gaston Bodart (for Germany and Austria-Hungary), on the Fall of Jerusalem, 9 December 1917

English diplomacy and English gold probably succeeded in burdening the Porte with another adversary.

The Grand Sherif of Mecca, the highest ecclesiastical dignitary of the holy city, received from England the title of "King of Arabia," because, as an inveterate enemy of the Young Turks, he had denied to the Caliphate in Constantinople the right of declaring a "Holy War" against the Entente and had proclaimed Arabia as a state independent of the Porte.

The Arab tribes now unfurled the "Green Flag of the Prophet" to fight against, not for, Constantinople. This dangerous flanking movement, which now threatened from the East, induced Djemal Pasha to refrain from a second invasion of Egypt.

After the completion of a field railroad on the Syrian Caravan road, already used by Napoleon in 1799, General Murray, the new British commander-in-chief, in December, 1916, began his advance to the Egyptian-Turkish border. The army which he commanded was excellently equipped and constantly remained in touch with a squadron of war and merchant ships.

The British operations began with the occupation of El Arish and the capture of Rafa. By March, 1917, the English had reached Gaza without any serious struggle.

An attempt on the part of General Dobell to take Gaza by a coup-de-main failed, the English suffering heavy losses. An attack made by the Turks on the following day against the English position (first battle of Gaza, March 27th and 28th, 1917) likewise met with no success.

In a second battle for the historically celebrated place (April 17th), the British, although not successful in breaking through, secured to themselves positions from which the trench war against the powerful Turkish line Gaza-Beersheba could be conducted with greater hope of success.

After the opponents had remained for seven months in these positions, the new commander-in-chief, General Allenby, began the operations on October 31st, 1917, by capturing the strategically highly important point, Beersheba, the former chief halting-place of the Turks on their advance to Egypt, and now the chief station for the protection of Palestine.

The position at Gaza, in consequence of this victory, now became untenable. An immediate attack with his left wing and centre brought Allenby in possession of the entire Turkish line extending from the coast to Beersheba by way of Gaza.

The latter city was entered by the British on November 7th. The energetic pursuit which followed soon led to the capture of Ascalon, on the coast and to a nearer approach to the railroad between Jaffa and Jerusalem.

The British general finally succeeded in surrounding Jerusalem, and on December 9th, 1917, the city was captured with the cooperation of French and Italian contingents. The moral significance of this event was even greater than its military importance.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/jerusalem_bodart.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3229 Austin Pardy - Royal Newfoundland Regiment



Son of Andrew and Mary Ann Pardy
Table Bay, Labrador

Enlisted: 11 November 1916
Age 23 Years, 4 Months
Embarked on Florizel 31 Jan 1917
Embarked for BEF 11 June 1917
Joined unit in field 2 July 1917
Wounded in right leg 9 December 1917
Taken Prisoner of War 9 December 1917
Released 20 December 1918
Posted to Nfld. demobilization 24 Jan 1919
Arrived Nfld. 17 March 1919
Discharged 15 July 1919

Austin Pardy had the distinction of being the only one of the Labrador soldiers in WWI to have been taken Prisoner of War, and also the only one to bring home a war bride.



Veel foto's en documenten! http://www.themdays.com/memorial/persons1/Pardy_Austin.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1 Letters Johnston, William 1918 12 9



http://military.brucemuseum.ca/v/worldwar1/letters/William+Johnston+Letters/1918+12+9/A995_023_013+-+Dec+9+1918+pg+1_tiff.jpg.html?g2_imageViewsIndex=1
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Billings Gazette, Monday December 9, 1918: "Vick’s VapoRub"



http://www.familyoralhistory.us/articles/view/letters_from_the_attic_1918_flu_epidemic_edition/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: Speech To The Third Workers’ Co-Operative Congress[1]
December 9, 1918 - Brief Newspaper Report

(Stormy ovation.) Comrades, the workers’ co-operatives are today faced with extremely important economic and political tasks. Both the one and the other are now part and parcel of the economic and political struggle. In respect of the immediate tasks I want to underline the meaning of “conciliation with the co-operatives”. This conciliation, mentioned so frequently of late in the papers, radically differs from the conciliation with the bourgeoisie, which is nothing short of treachery. This conciliation we are talking about now is conciliation of a very special kind. There is a world of difference between the Soviet Government’s conciliation with Germany which produced some results, and the conciliation-which would be harmful and even fatal to the country of the working class with the bourgeoisie. What that pretext of conciliation amounts to is the complete betrayal both of the class struggle and the fundamentals of socialism. Socialists who are well aware that their chief task is to fight the bourgeoisie and capital appreciate this distinction.

All of us very well realise that there can only be one alternative in our class struggle: recognition either of the rule of capital or of the working class. We know that all the attempts by the petty-bourgeois parties to form and pursue their policy in the country are doomed to failure before they even start.. We have clearly seen and experienced several attempts by various petty-bourgeois parties and groups to push through their policy, and we see that all attempts by intermediate forces are bound to end in failure. By virtue of the very definite conditions there are only two central forces, standing at opposite ends of the pole, that can have a hold on Russia, can decide her fate one way or the other. I will go even further and say that the whole world is being formed and directed by one or the other of these central forces. As far as Russia is concerned I can say quite definitely that, because of the specific economic conditions, only one of these forces can take control. The rest, the intermediate forces, may be numerous but they can never count for much.

Right now, the Soviet authorities must face the question of conciliation with the co-operatives. In April we departed from our vowed intention and made concessions. Naturally enough, there should be no class co-operatives in a country where all classes are being eliminated, but, I repeat, the conditions of the time demanded a certain delay and we put it off for a few months. Nevertheless, we all realise that the Soviet government will never abandon the position it now occupies. We had to make those concessions since at that time we were alone in the whole world. Our concessions were due to the difficulties we had in our work. Because of the economic tasks which the proletariat had taken on, we had to reconcile ourselves to and preserve certain petty-bourgeois habits. The point here is that in one way or another we must ensure the guidance and co-ordination of the activity of the whole mass of working and exploited people. We must all the while bear in mind what the proletariat requires of us. A popular government must remember that the various sections of the petty bourgeoisie will more and more come over to the governing working class when they eventually see there is no choice, that all their hopes of a middle way of running the country are finally ruined. All the wonderful slogans about popular will, the Constituent Assembly and the like, which were a screen for all the half-measures, were immediately swept away the moment genuine popular will asserted itself. You can see for yourselves what happened and how all these slogans, the half-measure slogans, were scattered to the winds. At the given moment, we can see this happening throughout the whole world in revolution as well as in Russia.

I want to show you the difference between the conciliation which produced such an appalling disgust throughout the working class, and the conciliation which we are now calling for, agreement with all the small peasants, all the petty bourgeoisie. At the time of the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty, when we accepted the harsh terms of the treaty, it was said there was no hope of a world revolution, nor could there be. We were quite alone in the world. We know that at that time many parties were repelled from us because of the treaty and joined the bourgeoisie. At that time we had to endure all sorts of terrible experiences. A few months later we saw there was and could be no choice, no middle way.

When the German revolution came, everyone realised that revolution was sweeping the whole world, that Britain, France and America were also going the same way-along our path! When our petty-bourgeois democrats followed their patrons, they did not realise where they were being led, they did not realise they were being led along the capitalist road. Now we see by the example of the German revolution that these representatives and patrons of democracy, these Wilsons and Co., are imposing worse treaties on a defeated nation than the Brest-Litovsk Treaty which was forced on us. It is quite clear to us that international demagogy is now bankrupt because of the events in the West and the new situation. Now the physiognomy of every nation is as clear as can be. Now, the masks have been torn off and all the illusions have been dispelled by the battering-ram of history.

It is natural that the Soviet government should have to use all its influence and weight with such waverers who are always around during a transition, so as to carry out tasks which we are now setting, tasks which back our policy begun in April. We then had to put off our vowed intentions for a while; then we consciously and openly made several concessions.

Someone asked about exactly where we stand on this road. Now the whole of Europe clearly sees that our revolution is no longer in the experimental stage; the attitude of the civilised nations to us has now changed. They now appreciate that in this respect we are doing something new and tremendous, that we have had so much trouble because for almost all the time we stood utterly alone and completely forsaken by the entire international proletariat. In this respect we have been guilty of many serious mistakes which we do not in any way hide. We should, of course, have endeavoured to unite the whole population and not to divide them. We may not have done it up to now and we must get down to the job sometime. We have already joined up with many organisations. Now, the workers’ co-operatives and Soviet bodies should be merged. Since this April we have been organising on the basis of experience and we have been employing the store of social and political forces that we have at our disposal. We have been organising the supply and distribution of goods among the whole population. We have checked every step we took because this organisation has been particularly difficult to carry out in our economically backward country. Agreements with the co-operatives were first made in April and the decree issued on the complete merger and organisation of supply and distribution pursues the same aim.

The previous speaker mentioned friction in a reference to Petrograd; we know there is friction almost everywhere. We also know that this friction is quite inevitable because the time has come when two utterly different types of apparatus are meeting and merging. We know too, however, that we have to pass through it because it is inevitable. In just the same way you must realise that the long resistance put up by the workers’ co-operatives has finally resulted in distrust from the Soviet government, a distrust that is perfectly natural.

You say you want independence. It is quite natural that anyone who puts forward this demand should induce distrust. If you complain of friction and want to avoid it, then you must first give up the idea of independence since anyone who insists on that is an enemy of the Soviet government at a time when we are all striving for a closer union. Once the workers’ co-operatives unite in a perfectly clearcut, honest and open way with the Soviet government, this friction will begin to disappear. I know only too well that when two groups merge the work does not proceed smoothly at first. Nevertheless, with a little time, when the one group earns the trust of the other, all the friction gradually fades away. However, constant inter-departmental friction is likely if the two groups stay apart. I don’t understand what independence has got to do with it. After all we all agree that the whole of society should be one big co-operative as far as supply and distribution are concerned. All of us agree that the co-operatives are a socialist gain. There lies the immense difficulty of socialist gains. There lie the difficulty and aim of victory. Capitalism deliberately splits the population. This split must disappear once and for all, and the whole of society must become a single workers’ co-operative. There can and must be no question of any kind of independence for individual groups.

To establish this type of co-operative I was speaking about just now is the condition for the victory of socialism. That is why we say that no matter what difference of opinion we may have over private matters, we shall never come to terms with capitalism or take any step away from the principles of our struggle. The agreement we are now going to make with sections of social classes is an agreement not with the bourgeoisie or capital, but with individual groups of workers and democrats. There is nothing to be afraid of in this agreement because the whole difference between these sections will disappear without. a trace in the fire of revolution. Now all we need is a single will to enter with an open heart that single world co-operative. What the Soviet government and the co-operatives have done up to now must be merged. That is the substance of the latest decree passed by the Soviet government. That has been the approach by Soviet representatives in many places in the absence of our decree. The tremendous good accomplished by the co-operatives must be merged with the tremendous good accomplished by the Soviet government. All sections of the population fighting for their freedom must be merged in a single strong organisation. We know we have made a lot of mistakes, especially in the first months after the October Revolution. But from now onwards, after a passage of time, we shall endeavour to attain a complete union and complete agreement among the population. To do so, everything must come under the Soviet government and all illusions about some sort of “independence", whether for individual groups or the workers’ co-operatives, must be dispelled as quickly as possible. Hopes for “independence” can only be held out where there can still be hopes for some sort of return to the past.

The Western nations once regarded us and all our revolutionary movement as a curiosity. They used to say: “Let the people have their fling; we shall wait and see how it all works out .... Queer people, those Russians!” Now the “queer Russians” have shown the world what their “fling” means. (Applause.)

Now that the German revolution has broken out, a foreign consul said to Zinoviev: “It’s hard to say at this point who has made better use of the Brest-Litovsk Peace, you or we.”

He said this because everyone was saying it. Everyone saw that this was just the beginning of the great world revolution. And this great revolution was started by the backward and “queer” Russian people .... History certainly has strange ways: that a backward country should have the honour of leading a great world movement, which is seen and understood by the bourgeoisie of the whole world. This conflagration has swept Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Holland.

This movement is spreading from day to day, the revolutionary Soviet Government is daily gaining in strength. That is why the bourgeoisie have now taken an entirely different attitude to matters. Now that the axe is about to fall on world capitalism, there can be no question at all of any independence for individual parties. America provides the most glaring example. America is one of the most democratic countries, it is a great democratic social republic. Where else, if not in that country-which has all the electoral rights and all the rights of a free state-could we expect a correct solution to all legal questions? Yet we know what has happened to a clergyman there, in that democratic republic: he was tarred and whipped until his blood flowed in the dust. This took place in a free country, in a democratic republic. This was allowed to happen by the “humane", “philanthropic” Tiger Wilsons and Co. What are these Wilsons now doing with Germany, a defeated country? The pictures of world relations are displayed before us in full view! We see the substance of what the Wilsons offer their friends from these pictures, which carry such overwhelming conviction. The Wilsons would have instantly proved our point. These gentlemen-the free multimillionaires, the “most humane” people in the world-would have instantly broken their friends’ habit of talking, even of dreaming, of “independence” in any form. They would have squarely put before you the alternative: either you stand for the capitalist system or you stand for the Soviets. They would have said: do this, because we say so, we, your friends, the British, the Amnericans-the Wilsons, and the French Clemenceau’s friends.

That is why it is quite hopeless to expect any vestige of independence to remain. This cannot be, and it is no use dreaming of it. There can be no middle course once it is a question of protecting property on the one hand, and once the proletariat has found its way on the other. The branches of the tree of life must either be closely intertwined with capital, or even more closely with the Soviet Republic. It is absolutely clear to everyone that socialism has entered the period of its realisation. It is quite clear to everyone that it is absolutely impossible to maintain or retain petty-bourgeois positions through universal suffrage. The Wilsons may nurture such illusions, rather, they do not nurture such illusions but try to embellish their own aims by fostering such illusions, but you won’t find many people nowadays who believe these fairy-tales. If such people do exist, they are a historical rarity or a museum piece. (Applause.)

The differences you have had from the outset about preserving the “independence” of the co-operative movement are nothing but vain efforts which must peter out without any hope of a positive solution. This struggle is not serious and it clashes with the principles of democracy. Although this is not surprising because the Wilsons are also “democrats”. They say that it remains for them to establish one final union because they have so many dollars they can buy up the whole of Russia, and the whole of India, and the whole world. Wilson presides over their company, their pockets are bulging with dollars and that is why they talk about buying up Russia and India and everything else. But they forget that basic international issues are settled in an entirely different manner, that only some people, in a definite environment, may be impressed by their statements. They forget that the resolutions daily adopted by the strongest class in the world-the kind our own Congress is sure to adopt unanimously-greet only the dictatorship of the proletariat all over the world. By adopting such a resolution our Congress takes the road which does not and cannot lead to the kind of “independence” being discussed here today. You are aware that Karl Liebknecht has shown some opposition not only to the petty-bourgeois peasants, but also to the cooperative movement. You know that just for this Scheidemann and company consider him a dreamer and fanatic, yet you addressed a message of greetings to him, just as you sent greetings to Maclean. By voicing solidarity on these matters with the great world leaders you have burnt your boats. You must keep a firm stand because at the moment you are standing up not only for yourselves, not only for your own rights, but also for the rights of Liebknecht and Maclean. I have often heard the Russian Mensheviks condemn conciliation, and inveigh against those who came to terms with the Kaiser’s lackeys. Nor were the Mensheviks alone in erring that way. The whole world pointed at us, hurling this stern charge: “Conciliators.” Now that the world revolution has started, and they have to deal with Haase and Kautsky, we have the right to describe our position in the words of the good Russian proverb: “Let’s stand back, and see how well we are placed.”

We know our shortcomings, and they are easily pointed out. But to the onlooker everything appears to be quite different from what it actually is. At one time, you know, everyone in the other parties condemned our behaviour and our policy, and now whole parties are siding with us.[2] The wheel of the world revolutionary movement has now turned to such an extent that we need not fear any kind of conciliation whatsoever. And I am sure that our Congress will find the right way out of the situation. There is only one way out: a merger of the co-operative movement with the Soviet government. You know that Britain, France, America and Spain regarded our actions as experiments; they have now changed their tune: they now have to look to their own affairs at home. Of course, physically, materially and financially they are considerably stronger than we are, but in spite of their outward polish we know they are rotten inside; they are stronger than we are at present with the strength that was Germany’s when the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty was concluded. But what do we see now? Everyone recoiled from us then. Now, every month we spend in strengthening the Soviet Republic we spend in defending not only ourselves, but also the cause started by Liebknecht and Maclean, and we already see that Britain, France, America and Spain have been infected with the same disease and are fired with the same flame as Germany, the flame of the universal and world-wide struggle of the working class against imperialism. (Prolonged applause.)

Endnotes
[1] The Congress was held in Moscow on December 6-11, 1918. It was attended by 208 voting delegates and 98 non-voting delegates. 121 of the voting delegates were Communists and their sympathisers and the other 87 delegates were supporters of “independent” co-operatives, i.e., Mensheviks and Bight Socialist-Revolutionaries who advocated the independence of the co-operatives from the Soviet state. Lenin spoke about the tasks of workers’ co-operatives at the evening session on December 9. Among other speakers were V. P. Nogie and V. P. Milyutin. The Congress censured the anti-Soviet demands for “independence” for the co-operatives and decided to get the worker!’ co-operatives to organise food supplies jointly with state food organs. The Congress elected the All-Russia Council of Workers’ Co-operatives of 15 members, 10 of whom were Communists (V. P. Nogin, V. P. Milyutin, I. I. Skvortsov-Stepanov and others.
[2] This refers to the Narodnik Communists and Revolutionary Communists who had split away from the Left Socialist-Revolutionary Party (see Note 128).

http://marxists.anu.edu.au/archive/lenin/works/1918/dec/09.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

9 December 1919 → Commons Sitting

HELICOPTER FLYING MACHINES.


HC Deb 09 December 1919 vol 122 c1105 1105

Lieut.-Commander KENWORTHY asked the Secretary of State for War whether he is aware that the French Government have recently granted a sum of about £4,000 to aid inventors in carrying put experiments with the Helicopter type of flying machine.; whether the Air Ministry are alive to the very great importance of such experiments; whether all encouragement is being given to British inventors who may wish to experiment with this system; and whether any sums of money have been granted for such experiments?

Mr. CHURCHILL The answer to the first and second parts of this question is in the affirmative. The answer to the third and fourth parts is that any proposals for a Helicopter type flying machine brought to the notice of the Air Ministry are sympathetically considered and such financial assistance as appears proper is given. Adequate financial provision has already been made for the purpose. Since June, 1916, this line of research has been continually explored, and I am personally familiar with the details of the progress made with these experiments, in which, while Minister of Munitions, I took a great interest.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/dec/09/helicopter-flying-machines
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter by General Peter Wrangel that was sent to General Anton Denikin on 9th December, 1919.

The continual advance has reduced the Army's effective force. The rear has become too vast. Disorganization is all the greater because of the re-equipment system which Supreme Headquarters have adopted; they have turned over this duty to the troops and take no share in it themselves.

The war is becoming to some a means of growing rich; re-equipment has degenerated into pillage and peculation. Each unit strives to secure as much as possible for itself, and seizes everything that comes to hand. What cannot be used on the spot is sent back to the interior and sold at a profit. The rolling-stock belonging to the troops has taken on enormous dimensions - some regiments have two hundred carriages in their wake. A considerable number of troops have retreated to the interior, and many officers are away on prolonged missions, busy selling and exchanging loot.

The Army is absolutely demoralized, and is fast becoming a collection of tradesmen and profiteers. All those employed on re-equipment work - that is to say, nearly all the officers - have enormous sums of money in their possession; as a result, there has been an outbreak of debauchery, gambling and wild orgies.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSdenikin.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 23:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Demobilisation Papers of Private Richard Griffiths



http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4168?CISOBOX=1&REC=7
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 23:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Pte. Albert A. Madden (M.M. and Bar) to his parents in Preston, published in the Leader 9 December, 1916

Albert Madden was awarded a Military Cross and Bar and his letters appeared with some regularity in the Leader. He later became a prominent official with the Preston Football Club and was awarded a Life Membership. The Jack Deacon referred to was also a long-serving member of the club and father of 1947 Brownlow Medallist Bert Deacon. The letter referred to the second of his Miltary Crosses.

"We came from the Somme front to Belgium two weeks ago and are now camped in huts and tents only a few miles from the firing line at Ypres. We can buy all sorts of goods her – grapes, 1/6d per pound, tomatoes, 10d. per pound. we have a big cnteen and a Y.M.C.A. tent for holding concerts in ...

The red, white and blue ribbon for the medal I am to get later was presented to me at or 13th Brigade church parade last Sunday by General Birdwood, who made a speech and shook hands with me and a few more of the boys ....

I am now keeping in real good health and in a month or six weeks expect to go to England. "Treacle” MacFarlane went on his leave yesterday ... I met Jack Deacon the day before I went to the firing line; also Vic Yann and Jack Sutton. They are dressing down in the First Division. I also met Charlie Forrester at our dressing station on the firing line and I met him in town again last night and we had tea together in a cafe”.

http://www.northernbullants.com.au/media/Archives/OurTown/1914LettersTheSomme.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15293
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2010 23:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kirk Douglas

Issur Danielovitch (Amsterdam (New York), 9 december 1916) is een Amerikaans acteur, die bekend is geworden onder zijn artiestennaam Kirk Douglas.



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirk_Douglas
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Pagina 1 van 1

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group